穿越歷史的和解

守護古蹟的戴宏基神父
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2019 / 10月

文‧曾蘭淑 圖‧林格立


「使我作祢和平之子,在憎恨之處播下祢的愛。

    在傷痕之處播下祢寬恕,在懷疑之處播下信心。

    使我作祢和平之子,在絕望之處播下祢盼望。

    在幽暗之處播下祢光明,在憂愁之處播下歡愉。」

——聖方濟的祈禱文。


 

初秋的早晨造訪花蓮新城天主堂,入口處高聳直立的鳥居,引領的是一條參拜道路,從寬到窄,由下到上,站在拜殿的廣場,環顧四圍蒼勁挺拔的松樹,可以知道這裡是聖地的中心,仰望聖母亭上的聖母,崇敬而尊榮,心中頓時安靜無所擾。

「這條參拜道路,是引人歸向神的道路,」新城天主堂本堂神父戴宏基說:「過去,這個園區曾是殺戮戰場,現是祈禱之地,我希望聖母能夠保佑台灣平安、世界和平。」清風徐來,微微吹動的松樹枝發出輕微的沙沙聲,似乎也在附和戴神父的祈願。

古蹟是活著的!

1959年起,瑞士聖伯納奧斯定詠禮會(簡稱「聖伯納會」)陸續差派修士來台灣傳教。聖伯納會在1964年買下了新城神社的廢墟,用來興建教堂和神父會館。

原來,日軍1896年征討太魯閣族,遭到為保衛家園的族人頑強抵抗,史稱新城事件。十多年間上百具屍首曝屍於荒野。

1914年日軍發動太魯閣戰役,出發前,在新城神社本殿的位置,向日本神明祈求旗開得勝。戰事成功後,日軍建立了太魯閣弔魂碑,紀念從新城事件到太魯閣戰役戰死的265位日本軍警人員。1937年統治台灣的日本政府興建了新城神社。

台灣光復後,政府急欲「去日本化」,想要一一拆除日治時代建設的遺跡。對當地人來說,這裡曾是血腥的戰場與亂葬崗,依傳統習俗沒有人想靠近。但對瑞士的傳教士而言,遺跡承載了歷史與文化,訴說著未被遺忘的生命記憶。經過戴宏基的堅持,並且向縣政府爭取,才保留了鳥居、石燈籠、玉垣、荒垣及瘞骨碑等歷史的陳跡。

現今從教會的花園中,可見殉難士瘞骨碑的遺跡;教會的祭台即是已被打斷拆掉的太魯閣弔魂碑遺址;殘破傾頹的神社本殿則已重建為聖母亭。新城神社舊址並在2005年申請列入縣定古蹟。

十年來協助戴宏基神父處理文書的東華大學中文系副教授劉慧珍指出,史學家對此段歷史有不同的解讀;戴神父為此一一訪談太魯閣族耆老,並且研究昔日傳教士留下的照片與資料,他也從原住民的角度,建立了個人獨特的史觀。因為鑽研台灣歷史,他還曾為台灣的主體性,投書瑞士《日內瓦時報》,為台灣被國際組織孤立而抱不平。

往昔殘暴的戰場,如今綠意盎然。昔日守護神社的唐獅子,以大理石標記了「聖母園」、「萬福源」;神社旁即是綠藤爬梳的方舟教堂,這處場域不僅融合了神社與天主堂兩種不同宗教信仰與建築,也是東方與西方文化的相遇。

上帝的呼召,廿年後實現

1976年9月來到台灣花蓮的戴宏基,40多年的光陰,也把一位滿頭棕色鬈髮的年輕修士,變成了白髮飄零的神父。然而,來到台灣是天主對他特殊的召喚。

原名René Gabriel Délèze(家人都叫他加俾爾)的他透露,1959年來台灣傳教的傅光業神父,回到瑞士述職時,剛好到他的學校播放在台灣開著吉普車傳教的影片。當時傅神父問在場的同學,有沒有人想到台灣傳教?十歲的加俾爾與許多同學都舉了手,唯獨加俾爾心中有一個清楚的聲音說:「他們不會去,但我會去。」

出生在瑞士與義大利交界的山區Valais Nendaz,從小就培養深切祈禱的習慣,並且總是思考神存在的問題。當他在Fribourg大學就讀神學碩士時,突然有一天,他以Thomas Aquinas的論證法來思考,幡然領悟所有的物質都是有限,必須有無限的神讓它存在,從此他就不再懷疑自己的信仰。

他祈禱天主指引他未來的路,並且決定到聖伯納修會修道,成為修士,幾年後他第一個傳教的地點就是台灣。

劉慧珍解釋,聖伯納修會11世紀在瑞士的阿爾卑斯山建立修會,經常帶著聖伯納犬,協助當地人與朝聖者在冬天時過山、救難,以及在山中靈修,在宇宙中尋找自己,與神和好。

戴宏基是聖伯納修會最後一位來台灣的神父,他與雷振華、傅若望等神父,基於聖伯納修會協助人過山、在山裡靈修的精神,集結由瑞士勸募的善款,在花蓮原住民山區的部落,至少協助興建了十幾個教堂,包括遠至中橫舊山里部落的竹村教堂,即是戴宏基親自設計興建的,他也曾在西寶教會內闢設小學。

拯救性剝削少女,籌建教會

戴宏基從小就有不服輸的個性,讀書、滑雪都是第一。他說,這種個性很不好,來到台灣遭遇許多挫折與磨難,就是他學習謙卑最好的機會。然而,戴宏基說:「雖然沒有一天沒有困難,但生命本來就是這樣!我本來就是計劃來台灣分享生命與人生,而且我在這裡學得更多。」

母語是法文的他,從頭學中文,他笑著說,為了學中文發音,還先學了三個星期的英文,來理解耶魯大學拼音法與韋德拼音法,但最後還是從ㄅ、ㄆ、ㄇ學起。現在他天天讀花蓮當地的中文報紙,並且以中文講道、主持彌撒,依秀林、新城、三棧和富世等不同教堂教友的需要,講不同的道。只不過長年下來,戴神父說的中文,聽是中文的辭彙,但很明顯地帶著太魯閣族的音調,以及法文文法的思考方式。

戴神父1979年開始為青少年舉辦夏令營,早上唱詩歌、聽道、望彌撒,下午就到山裡去健走,40年不輟。

1982年,許多人口販子在山地部落騙誘原住民的父母使其欠債,並被迫拿女兒抵押,人口販子再將她們賣做性剝削少女。神父拿錢贖回一個女孩,但是沒多久,又被父母賣掉。戴宏基對教會的小女孩們說:「萬一有一天,有人要把妳押走,一定要趕快來找我。」

那時剛好他帶著教會的青少年到天祥舉辦夏令營,因為要為一位教友祈禱,特地從天祥回到秀林,發現教堂外面閃著人影。原來堂區一位小女孩小惠(化名)躲在樹叢的後面,她告訴神父,有人要押她走,神父將小惠藏在天祥的夏令營,沒有多久,她還是被人口販子找到賣掉。

無法可施情況下,戴宏基在祈禱的哀傷與憤怒中,想到台灣十分重視國際的聲音,想藉由外國的壓力來改變。1984年9月,他透過友人投稿瑞士的報紙,正值星期天,洛桑時報以頭版報導:「台灣原住民──性的奴婢」。剛好人正在瑞士的聯合報系發行人王效蘭看到,星期二台灣聯合報就刊出這個消息,全台嘩然。大批記者趕到秀林鄉採訪,如星火燎原一般,台灣的基督教會、婦女運動與人權團體如火如荼地展開華西街雛妓救援行動。

當時,外事警察威脅將他驅逐出境,逼他交出資料。戴神父以資料在瑞士為由,聲東擊西,外事警察擔心他回瑞士鬧事,才不再找他麻煩。「雖然當時我很害怕會被趕走,但我就是要為正義、為光明奮鬥,正義光明的價值觀就是要落實在生活中!」

為理念奮鬥,嚴厲、低調

新城、秀林鄉許多三代的教友都由戴宏基神父所施洗。但能讓他施洗的教友都經過嚴格的標準審核。他經常告誡教友,「抽菸、喝酒不是勇敢,而會變成奴隸!」再不聽一直喝酒,就會被他趕出教會。

在秀林天主堂擔任十年會長的朱添福認為,戴神父是一位個性強的怪人。神父生活過得很儉樸,鞋子破了還是一直穿,他不希望帶給教友負擔,且非常討厭不公義的事,是非分明,例如如果是用借錢的方式修繕教會,神父一定不准。「我只想要真理與正義,其他我什麼都不要,」戴宏基總是這樣告訴他的教友。

雖然儉樸,但戴宏基打造教堂卻用最高的規格。新城天主堂主體雖是質樸的鋼筋水泥,但牆壁下方重新鋪設了花蓮的大理石;鑄鐵的十字架兩旁,是他特地從義大利訂製的聖母與耶穌義父聖若瑟的聖像。秀林與新城天主堂鐘樓上的大鐘,以及新城天主堂上方14片的彩繪玻璃,都是他直接向瑞士訂製,由專業工藝師手工打造,價值不菲,並且由他親手安裝上去。

尤其是每片彩繪玻璃係由瑞士籍的工藝師沙德朗.道明在窯火中燒製四次而成。戴宏基說,如果只是漆上油漆的彩繪玻璃,從外面看是暗的。新城天主堂的彩繪玻璃兩面的顏色都是一樣的,但正面更具立體感。仔細觀看,其中一窗的彩繪玻璃,聖母膝蓋前還有一個台灣形狀的珍珠。

「教堂就像是我的大女兒,當然要將她打扮得漂漂亮亮的啊!」他不自覺露出原住民尾句上揚的音調說。

戴神父經常坐在教堂中祈禱。每當天光透進,在靜謐與光明的氛圍中,坐在教堂中,不由自主地沈靜了心,領悟愛與饒恕可以穿越歷史與時間,將荒場變成聖所,帶來前進的力量。

都是天主的安排

總是拄著一支長長拐杖的戴神父,遠遠地走來好似一位登山客,原因是他動了四次髖關節的手術。2016年他回到瑞士更換髖關節,露出天真笑容的他解釋:「我是O型C-D-E陰性的特殊血型,我的血可以捐給任何血型的人,因此我常常捐血;但別的血型捐給我卻會產生溶血反應。加上我天生高大的骨架,因此才回瑞士開刀。」沒有想到手術並不成功,戴神父忍受著每走一步路好似鐵鎚打在骨頭般的痛苦,隔年再換一個專門開髖關節的瑞士醫師,開完刀,他急著在聖誕節前趕回台灣,飛機上傷口未癒,血水直流。

古蹟所在地內的聖伯納會院,因教區文件的問題尚未解決,無法展開修復。雨天泥濘,會院外崎嶇不平,導致戴神父多次跌倒。最後輾轉到慈濟醫院,好不容易籌到六袋血供開刀之用,醫師為他換了尺寸最大的人工髖關節才解決他疼痛的問題,也讓神父肯定台灣的醫療水準。

歷經這些病痛的磨難,戴宏基堅定地說:「全部都是天主的安排!」在彌撒中,戴神父勉勵信徒:「不要看重世上的勝利、名聲、金錢,這些最後都是一把灰塵。」教友以重唱方式唱出「獻上我的生命」,空靈的歌聲迴響在教堂裡。

「我每天都為你們祈求,努力去面對生活遇到的挑戰,心裡擁有的平安沒有人可以奪去。」戴神父的祈禱,就像他守護著歷史的遺跡,持守著上主的呼召,牧養著部落裡的原住民,安慰著所有尋求慰藉的人。                                                 

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A Priest of Saint Bernard in the Mountains of Taiwan

—Father Gabriel Délèze

Esther Tseng /photos courtesy of Jimmy Lin /tr. by Phil Newell

“Lord, make me an instrument of Your peace; where there is hatred, let me sow love; where there is injury, pardon; where there is doubt, faith; where there is despair, hope; where there is darkness, light; where there is sadness, joy.”

—Prayer of St. Francis

 


We visit the Hsincheng Catholic Church in Xincheng, Hualien County one morning in early autumn. Passing through the tall Japanese gate (torii) and ascending the gradually narrowing path of worship (sandō), we arrive at the small plaza where once stood the hall of worship (haiden) of this former Shinto shrine. Standing here, surrounded by tall and ­vigorous ancient pine trees, you realize that this is the center of the sacred ground. When you gaze at the dignified statue of the Virgin Mary before you, your mind is suddenly at peace and free of worries.

“This path of worship is a path guiding people back to God,” says Father Gabriel Délèze of Hsincheng Catholic Church. “This was once a bloody battlefield, but now it is a place of prayer. I hope the Blessed Virgin can ensure peace in Taiwan and throughout the world.” A fresh wind blows by, rustling the pine branches, as if they were chiming in with the prayer of Father Délèze.

Historic sites are alive

Since 1959, the Congregation of Canons Regular of Great St. Bernard has dispatched friars to Taiwan to preach the gospel. In 1964 Father Alphonse Savioz of the Congregation of Great St. Bernard bought the site of the former Xincheng Shinto Shrine in order to construct a church and dormitories for priests.

Taiwan came under Japanese colonial rule in 1895. In 1896, when the Japanese military set out to subdue the Truku indigenous people, they met with strong resistance from tribespeople protecting their homeland, leading to an event known to history as the Xincheng Incident, in which 13 Japanese soldiers were killed. In the nearly 20 years of conflict that followed, close to 100 people died.

In 1914 Japanese forces launched combat operations against the Truku, in a campaign known as the Truku War. After the campaign was successful, the Japanese military erected a memorial to commemorate the 265 Japanese soldiers and police officers killed in the Xincheng Incident and subsequent battles. In 1937, the colonial government built the Xincheng Shinto Shrine.

After Taiwan came under the control of the Republic of China in 1945, the government was anxious to “dejapanize” Taiwan, and wanted to remove all symbols of Japanese rule. But for the local people, this was a bloody battlefield and mass grave site, and based on traditional customs no one wanted to go near it. However, the Swiss missionaries saw the the former Shinto shrine as a historic site that sustains history and culture and relates memories of life. It was only through the persistent efforts of Father Délèze, including his inter­ventions with the county government, that historic structures such as the torii (Japanese gate, the tōrō (stone lanterns), the tamagaki (fence surrounding the main hall), the aragaki (wall around the grounds) and the memor­ial to the 13 Japanese soldiers killed in the Xincheng Incident were preserved.

Today, the memorial to the dead soldiers can be seen from the garden of the church. The church’s altar stands on the site of the stone memorial to the 265 Japanese soldiers and policemen killed during the Truku conflicts, which was torn down. The crumbling main hall (honden) of the Shinto shrine was replaced by a shrine to the Virgin Mary. In 2005, the old site of the Xincheng Shinto Shrine was listed as a county historic site.

A calling from God

Over the last 40 years Father Délèze, who first arrived in Hualien in September of 1976, has transformed from a young friar with curly brown locks into an elderly priest with wispy white hair. He believes that God specially called him to come to Taiwan.

Originally christened René Gabriel (and known to his family as Gabriel), Délèze reveals that when Father François Fournier, who came to Taiwan as a missionary in 1959, returned to Switzerland to report on his work, he happened to go to Délèze’s school, where he showed a movie of himself driving around in a jeep in Taiwan to preach the gospel. Fournier asked the students present whether any of them wanted to go and be a missionary in Taiwan. Like many other students, the then ten-year-old Gabriel raised his hand, but in his heart there was a clear voice that said: “They won’t go, but I will!”

Délèze prayed to God to guide him to his future path, and decided to join the Congregation of Great St. Bernard to become a friar. Several years after that he departed for his first overseas mission, which was to Taiwan.

Liu Hui-chen, an associate professor in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature at National Dong Hwa University, explains that the Congregation of Great St. Bernard was founded in the Swiss Alps in the 11th century. From their hospice at the Great St. Bernard pass, the members of the congregation assisted local people and pilgrims to get through the mountains in winter, and rescued those in danger, later with the help of St. Bernard dogs. They also cultivated their spirituality in the mountains, seeking their place in the universe and their peace with God.

Father Délèze was the last friar from the Con­grega­tion of Great St. Bernard to come to Taiwan. He and fellow congregation members such as Fr. Charles Reichen­bach and Fr. Jean-Claude Fournier, inspired by the order’s missions of helping travelers and cultivating their spirituality in the mountains, used funds raised in Switzerland to help build 15 churches in indigenous mountain communities in Hualien.

Saving children from sexual exploitation

Délèze, whose mother tongue is French, had to learn Chinese from scratch. He recounts with a laugh that in order to learn Chinese pronunciation, he first studied English for three weeks to understand the Yale and Wade‡Giles Romanization systems, but ultimately he learned Chinese using Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (“Bopomofo”). Today he reads local Hualien Chinese-­language newspapers every day, and he preaches and holds mass in Chinese, preaching different sermons according to the needs of different congregations, including those in Xiulin and Xincheng. But although Délèze uses Chinese vocabulary when he speaks Chinese, he has a marked Truku accent, and after all these years he still thinks in terms of French grammar.

In 1979 Father Délèze began holding summer camps for young people. In the morning they sing hymns, listen to sermons, and hear mass, while in the afternoon they go hiking in the mountains. This has continued uninterrupted for 40 years.

In the early 1980s, many human traffickers were going into Aboriginal villages in the mountains and tricking indigenous parents into debt, then forcing them to hand over their daughters as collateral. The human traffickers then sold the girls into underage prostitution. In 1982 Father Délèze paid to buy back one girl, but before long she was sold again by her parents. He later hid the girl in his summer camp at Tianxiang, but soon afterward she was once more found by the human traffickers and was sold again.

At a loss what to do, and filled with sorrow and anger, while praying Father Délèze recalled how much Taiwan cares about its international reputation, and thought to use foreign pressure to change things. In September of 1984 he submitted an article to a Swiss newspaper via a friend, and one Sunday the Lausanne-­based Le Temps published a front-page report entitled: “Taiwan’s Indigen­ous People—Sex Slaves.” Wang Shaw-lan, publisher of Taiwan’s United Daily News group, happened to be in Switzerland at the time, and saw the article. The very next Tuesday the United Daily News published this informa­tion in Taiwan, causing a public outcry. Reporters descended on Xiulin Township en masse, and soon Christian churches, the women’s rights movement, and local human rights organizations sprang into action, taking steps to rescue child prostitutes from locations such as Taipei’s notorious Huaxi Street red light district.

At that time, Taiwan’s foreign affairs police threatened to have Délèze deported, and pressed him to turn over information. “Although at that time I was very much afraid that I would be expelled, I simply wanted to fight for right and justice, because the values of right and justice must be practiced in daily life!”

Fighting for his ideals

Zhu Tianfu, who has served for ten years as deacon of the Church of the Assumption of Our Lady in Xiulin, sees Father Délèze as an eccentric with a strong personality. Délèze lives very frugally, wearing worn-out shoes so as not be a burden on his parishioners. He detests injustice and has a clear sense of right and wrong. For example, he will definitely not approve of borrowing money to fix up the church. As he always tells his parishioners, “I only want truth and justice, I don’t want or need anything else.”

Though he lives very simply, Father Délèze adhered to the highest standards when building churches. While the main structure of Hsincheng Catholic Church is built of reinforced concrete, the lower parts of the walls are faced with Hualien marble. To the two sides of the cast-iron crucifix are two statues that he had made to order in Italy: one of the Virgin Mary and the other of Jesus’ adoptive father, St. Joseph. The bells in the bell towers of the Xiulin and Hsincheng churches, and the 14 stained-glass windows in the upper part of the Hsincheng church, were all specially ordered by Délèze from Switzerland, where professional craftsmen made them by hand. They are very valuable, and Délèze installed them himself.

Look carefully, and you will see that on one of the stained-glass windows, in front of the knee of the Virgin Mary there is a pearl in the shape of Taiwan.

“The church is like my eldest daughter, of course I wanted her to look beautiful!” he says, unconsciously ending his sentence in the rising tone typical of indigen­ous people’s speech.

Father Délèze often sits in the church and prays. When sunlight filters in, amid the bright stillness his heart and mind become quiet, and he realizes that love and forgive­ness can transcend history and time, transforming an abandoned site into a sacred space, and providing a force for progress.

Everything arranged by God

Father Délèze, who always carries a long walking stick, looks from afar like a mountain hiker. The reason he carries the stick is that he has had hip surgery four times.

Because the church and the priests’ dormitory are located within the grounds of the historic site, due to problems with documentation submitted by the dio­cesan administration they have been unable to carry out needed repairs. When it rains the ground turns muddy, which has caused Délèze to fall many times on the uneven ground outside the dormitory. After two unsuccessful hip replacement surgeries back in Switzerland, finally Délèze turned to the Tzu Chi Hospital, where his pain issues were at last resolved after the sugeon replaced his hip with the largest size artificial hip joint available. This procedure also drew praise from Délèze for the high quality of medical care in Taiwan.

After enduring these painful hardships, Délèze says adamantly, “Everything is arranged by God!” In mass, he exhorts believers, “Don’t crave success, fame, or money in this world; in the end, these things are nothing but dust.”

“Each day I pray for you all that you will diligently face up to the challenges in your lives, and that no one can take away the peace in your hearts.” Father Délèze’s prayers are like his efforts to protect historical sites and artifacts: Following God’s call, he acts as shepherd to the people of the indigenous communities in his care, comforting all those in need of solace.                                     

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