阿鮭的夢‧想

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2017 / 11月

文‧陳亮君 圖‧雪霸國家公園管理處


源於2015年新竹市三民國中表演藝術科教師黎煥鵬於雪霸國家公園管理處的偶戲課程,開啟了解說教育課課員卓孝娟與志工伙伴們一場場的偶戲發想與展演,不僅激發民眾對櫻花鉤吻鮭的愛護,也喚起了整個生態環境的保育意識。

 


驟時風雨聲起,仿藏鏡人出場的龍王三太子敖丙從左側竄出。「哇哈哈哈哈!天大地大誰人比我大?風大雨大還是我最大!我乃風邪斯巴……」

阿鮭偶戲開鑼囉!

「東海龍王三太子敖丙,使出了他的絕技神龍探爪,一時之間只見那烏雲密布,風狂雨驟、飛沙走石……」在精采絕倫的旁白下,象徵颱風的戲偶敖丙,將櫻花鉤吻鮭夫婦阿鮭與鮭嫂,沖得四散分離。「啊!郎君,我可憐的郎君啊!」鮭嫂無助地哭喊著。緊接著,象徵櫻花鉤吻鮭會遇到的天敵黃魚鴞、影響棲地環境的防砂壩、農藥、濫墾……等等災厄一個個登場,最終在阿鮭夫妻歷經重重磨難與受到各方協助下圓滿落幕。

撰寫阿鮭劇本的苗栗高中退休教師林鳳吟,憶起當時發想的情形說道:「要寫生態戲劇最困難的是要有趣、有故事性外,還要有生態的教育意義在裡面。」原來,這齣戲最初的雛型,竟然是由防砂壩倒塌的靈感,所形成孟姜女推倒長城的情節。可是當時的導演,崇右影藝科技大學助理教授李佐文認為,尚需加入衝突與對立的元素才夠吸引人,而且布袋戲最大的亮點則在於打鬥。

因此,林鳳吟重新思索要如何製造偶戲中劇情的衝突與張力,才有了後來的颱風、農藥、棲地破壞……等等劇情的出現。在錄製旁白時,導演李佐文也會適時加入一些吸引觀眾的有趣元素。「什麼感冒藥!(台語)我是風邪你去死吧,颱風瑪娜娜!」誰說環境教育就一定是枯燥乏味的制式課程呢,參與演出者之一,新竹市三民國中退休教師李金柱提到:「演出結束後進行有獎徵答,看到小朋友爭相回答劇中內容,可見偶戲跟環境議題結合的效果是很好的。」

雪霸國家公園的偶戲展演,拓展了環境教育的大眾推廣面向。雪霸國家公園解說教育課課員卓孝娟說:「有一次工研院的研發人員來這裡上課,在看完偶戲後,他們跟我們說,很驚訝公部門裡還有這樣有創意的課程,透過戲劇他們加深了對櫻花鉤吻鮭的認識與印象。」的確,偶戲帶領民眾入門,而雪霸國家公園一路以來的保育歷程才是重頭戲。

櫻花鉤吻鮭保育甘苦談

櫻花鉤吻鮭是一種冰河孑遺的生物,牠能在亞熱帶的台灣延續下去本身就是一大奇蹟。水溫不能高過攝氏17度的生存條件,加上近幾年全球氣候異常的大豪雨、颱風季,為了建水庫而築防砂壩的棲地破壞……等,大大影響了櫻花鉤吻鮭的繁殖存活率。

說起櫻花鉤吻鮭的保育歷程,武陵管理站主任廖林彥說:「我1999年來雪霸的時候,大概只剩下五百多隻,一條河流裡面魚剩這麼少,幾乎快宣告滅絕了。」後來在有限的經費及簡陋的設備下,很辛苦的把櫻花鉤吻鮭的完全養殖建立起來。「印象最深刻的是在新繁殖場還沒蓋好的時候,2004年艾利颱風將舊的種源庫大約3,000尾全部沖走。」6年的心血就這樣毀於一旦,廖林彥提到還好當時決定讓所有人員撤離,才沒有造成傷亡。

在櫻花鉤吻鮭的復育研究上,廖林彥提及兩個關鍵的突破點。其一是養殖技術「餌料」的克服,其二則是放流程序、時間與大小的改變。早期累積的資料都認為櫻花鉤吻鮭需要吃活餌才能生存,但是七家灣溪水溫僅12度,餌料生物培養不易。後來嘗試用人工飼料的方式來養殖,經過訓餌的階段,選擇合適的口徑,一天一點,提高頻率後,就可突破。

此外,原本廖林彥參照日本、美國鮭魚的養殖,10月繁殖到隔年3月,大概長到5公分大時就放流,但在台灣,發現放流的櫻花鉤吻鮭不太會移動,經觀察大約只有兩成的魚會往上游,其餘八成等到6、7月颱風一來,全部都被沖走。因此,現在放流時間改在10月颱風季後,除了比較大隻較能存活外,也採取多點放流的方式。「比如我操作一公里,可能每間隔200公尺放一袋,雖然辛苦但成功機率會比較大。」廖林彥說。

刻不容緩的保育進程

「我們每年都會發起志工全河段來數櫻花鉤吻鮭的數量,七家灣溪最高達到5,000尾,平均維持在3,000到5,000尾。」雪霸國家公園管理處處長鍾銘山說。數魚時要穿防寒潛水衣,分河段從底下開始數,也有委託一些專家學者,還有志工,共十幾個數魚隊來完成這項任務。

而3,000到5,000尾也是溪流的一個乘載量,透過各種資源跟人力投入,在主溪流七家灣溪就地復育,「從2006年開始就能夠自我繁殖,不用再做人工放流。」鍾銘山提及目前的保育成果。然而保育的任務仍然嚴峻,全球極端氣候的影響,颱風、洪水等天災都會對櫻花鉤吻鮭造成毀滅性的影響。因此,積極尋找七家灣溪以外的兩到三條支流是接下來所要面臨的挑戰,「繼羅葉尾溪之後,今年會繼續在合歡溪等櫻花鉤吻鮭曾經存在的歷史溪流進行放流工作。」鍾銘山說。

復育溪流的選擇也有其侷限,海拔1,411公尺的德基水庫,讓櫻花鉤吻鮭無法向下游擴展,另低於海拔900公尺也無法生存。廖林彥提及:「水庫以上海拔約1,800公尺的棲地,也因為種植高麗菜而被破壞,每次下雨過後,水都很混濁,也活不了。」所以未來三年要跟太魯閣國家公園合作海拔2,800-3,200公尺的合歡溪放流作業,這也是牠歷史上曾經存在的溪流。

「大家可能會想說為什麼要花這麼多的人力與物力,去保護一個物種?」鍾銘山提到這看似只是保育櫻花鉤吻鮭,其實是在保護整條溪流與周遭的生態環境。民國60、70年代當時整個武陵農場是種植高麗菜、水蜜桃等高山作物,對應現在美輪美奐、花木扶疏的賞櫻勝地,這些改變都要歸功於櫻花鉤吻鮭。「因為牠在七家灣溪,而武陵農場就在溪畔這裡,有了保育意識後,促使農場在經營策略上去轉型。」也因為櫻花鉤吻鮭的生存條件非常嚴苛,所以說有牠在的地方,就可作為一個保育的指標。

櫻花鉤吻鮭的保育,除了使農場轉型,讓台中集水區受到保護外,更讓國外嘖嘖稱奇的是,七家灣溪陸續拆除了5座防砂壩,包括高山溪1到4號壩,七家灣溪1號壩,因為築防砂壩不但阻斷了櫻花鉤吻鮭的去路,也改變了牠的棲息環境,使得牠在暴雨等颱風季時無處躲藏。「日本北海道立水產孵化場的專家,覺得很不可思議我們怎麼有辦法把壩拆掉,因為要跟水利單位折衝是一件很困難的事情。」廖林彥說。

環境教育推廣

「國家公園的保育、育樂與研究是一體的,而環境教育從被動到主動則是很重要的轉變歷程。」鍾銘山提及,2011年《環境教育法》實施以後,雪霸國家公園管理處於2013年正式成為該法所認證的環境教育設施場所。除了靜態遊客中心的宣導外,現在正積極走進校園與社區。其中有一個攀樹活動,因為雪霸管理處有做一個樹冠層的研究,於是將研究結合周邊學校的畢業典禮活動,到樹頂上去頒發畢業證書。從寓教於樂的活動中,讓學生感受樹冠層的生態。自2011年起,雪霸管理處至學校辦理攀樹活動共計達到23場次、310人次。

暑假在武陵、觀霧等遊憩區,每年也會舉辦Youth Camp活動,從高中到大專,共3個梯次,1個梯次大概30-40人左右,活動內容包含紮營、登山、攀樹……等等,報名非常踴躍。而現在汶水遊客中心裡的環境教室,每周也都會推出阿鮭的故事、山椒魚的保育……等節目,藉由生動且多樣化的活動,來吸引遊客前來觀賞。

此外,三個雪霸遊憩區的周邊部落是進入國家公園的前哨站,雖然不在國家公園範圍內,但是雪霸管理處也運用相關資源,來促進地方保育與經濟的繁榮。鍾銘山說:「從生態旅遊培力計劃開始,第一先訓練解說員,第二我們會幫他們做社區部落的資源調查。」調查後再規劃生態旅遊的遊程,如牽涉到吃住的問題,也會邀請專家幫部落做診斷,試圖建構一個管理制度,讓地方資源結合生態旅遊,改善周邊部落生計,也讓環境能永續下去。

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英文

THE SALMON’S DREAM—

Ivan Chen /photos courtesy of Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters /tr. by Phil Newell

It all goes back to 2015, when Li Huan­peng, a teacher in the performing arts class at San Min Junior High School in Hsin­chu, gave a puppetry course at the Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters. The course inspired park staffer Cho Hsiao­-­chuan and a group of volunteers to do a series of puppet shows on their own. Not only did these help strengthen the public’s desire to protect the Formosan landlocked salmon, they also evoked a general consciousness of ecological and environmental protection.


With sudden sounds of wind and rain, emerging like a man from behind a mirror, the Third Prince Ao Bing, son of the Dragon King, enters stage left. “Wa-ha-ha-ha-ha! Heaven is great and earth is great, but who is greater than me? The wind is strong and the rain is strong, but I am still the strongest!”

The salmon puppet show begins!

“The Third Prince Ao Bing, son of the Dragon King of the Eastern Sea, wields his divine dragon claws with consummate skill. In an instant all you can see are dense black clouds, driving wind and crashing rain, sand blowing and rocks being moved….” With this thrilling background narration, the puppet Ao Bing, representing a typhoon, crashes down on husband and wife Ah Gui and Gui Sao, a pair of Formosan landlocked salmon, separating them from one another. “Ah! My husband, my poor husband!” Gui Sao cannot help but wail. Following close on this, symbols of disaster after disaster for the salmon come on stage—the predatory tawny fish-owl, and threats to the salmon’s habitat from check dams, pesticides, and excessive land clearance for farming. The salmon couple pass through many tribulations but also receive lots of help, and finally their drama comes to a happy ending.

Lin Fen-in, a retired teacher from ­Miaoli Senior High School who wrote the Ah Gui script, says: “The most difficult thing about writing an environmental drama is that besides being entertaining and having a story to tell, it must also have meaning in terms of ecological education.” Recalling how she got the idea for the story, it turns out that the earliest embryo of this play was inspired by the collapse of a check dam, which morphed into a story like the legend of Meng ­Jiang Nü, whose tears broke down a part of the Great Wall of China as she wept for her dead husband. But the director at the time, Assistant Professor Li Tso-wen of ­Chungyu University of Film and Arts, thought that it was necessary to add some elements of conflict and opposition in order to attract audiences, and moreover that the most eye-­catching thing about Taiwanese puppetry is the fighting.

So Lin Fen-in gave new thought to how to bring conflict and tension into the plot, and came up with additional story­lines like the typhoon, pesticides, and habitat ­destruction.

The puppetry performances at Shei-Pa National Park opened up promotion of environmental education to a larger public. Cho Hsiao­-­chuan, a staffer in the park’s Interpretation and Education Section, says: “Once some researchers from the Industrial Technology Research Institute came here to take a class, and after seeing the puppet show, they told us they were very surprised to see there could be this kind of creative class in a government agency, and the play had deepened their understanding of the Formosan landlocked salmon.”

The challenges of salmon protection

Talking about the history of conservation of the Formosan landlocked salmon, Liao Lin-yan, director of the park’s Wu­ling Station, says: “When I came to Shei-Pa in 1999, there were probably only 500 or so of the salmon remaining. With so few fish in the river, it was virtually time to declare them extinct.” Later, with only limited funding and crude equipment, with great difficulty a complete system was built up for breeding and raising Formosan landlocked salmon. “What stands out most in my memory is how in 2004, when the new breeding station was only half built, Typhoon Aere washed away all 3000 fish in the old breeding station.” With six years of hard work destroyed overnight, Liao could only console himself with the fact that they had decided to evacuate all the staff at that time, thereby avoiding any deaths or injuries.

In terms of research into restoration of the Formosan landlocked salmon, Liao points to two critical breakthroughs. The first was overcoming the problem of how to feed the fish while raising them, and the second was adjusting the procedure and timing of the fish’s release into the wild, and their size at release. Early data suggested that Formosan landlocked salmon need to eat live prey to survive, but the water temperature in the Qi­jia­wan River is only 12°C, so it is not easy to raise feed organisms. Later they tried using manmade fish feed, and after giving the fish time to get accustomed to the feed, choosing appropriately sized feed particles, and gradually increasing the frequency of feeding, they achieved success.

Originally Liao followed the salmon breeding methods used in Japan and the US, where the fish are bred in October and released in March, when they are about five centimeters long. But in Taiwan, it was discovered that newly released Formosan landlocked salmon tended not to swim far from their release point. Observations showed that only about 20% of the fish swam upstream, and the other 80% were washed away when typhoon season came in June and July. Therefore the release time was changed to October, when the typhoon season is usually over. By that time the young fish are larger and so are more likely to survive. They also began releasing the salmon at multiple locations.

An urgent process of conservation

“Every year we mobilize volunteers to count the number of Formosan landlocked salmon in the entire stretch of river. The highest number ever recorded in the Qi­jia­wan River was 5000, with the average staying at 3000‡5000,” says park director ­Chung Ming-shan.

The river’s carrying capacity appears to be from 3000 to 5000 fish, and by the commitment of all kinds of resources and manpower, the Formosan landlocked salmon has been restored in the main waterway, the Qi­jia­wan River. But the conservation effort remains precarious, as with extreme weather becoming more frequent on a global scale, events such as typhoons and floods can have a devastating effect on the fish. Therefore, the next challenge was to actively seek out two or three other tributaries of the Da­jia River, beyond the Qi­jia­wan River.

There are limitations in the selection of waterways for restoration of the Formosan landlocked salmon. The Te­chi Reservoir, at an altitude of 1411 meters, makes it impossible for the salmon to spread downstream, and in any case they cannot survive at elevations lower than 900 meters. Liao Lin-yan notes, meanwhile, that “the habitat above the reservoir at 1800 meters elevation has been damaged by cabbage farming, so that every time it rains the water becomes very turbid and the fish can’t survive.” Therefore for the next three years Shei-Pa will work with Ta­roko National Park to release salmon into the He­huan River at a height of 2800‡3200 meters. This is a place where the fish existed historically.

Chung Ming-shan notes that while this may look like conservation of only the Formosan landlocked salmon, in fact they are conserving the ecologies of the whole river and its surroundings. In the 1970s and 80s, all of Wu­ling Farm was planted with high-altitude crops like cabbage and honey peaches. Compare that to the present magnificent scene, luxuriant with plant life and a well-known spot for admiring cherry blossoms; the credit for these changes can all be ascribed to the Formosan landlocked salmon.

The conservation of the Formosan landlocked salmon has driven the conversion of farmland to other uses and greater protection for water catchment areas. But what really amazes foreign visitors is that five check dams have been removed from the river system, including Dams 1 through 4 of the Gao­shan Creek and Dam 1 of the Qi­jia­wan River. This is because check dams not only disrupt the routes for the salmon’s movement, they also change its habitat and leave it no place to hide during the heavy rains of the typhoon season.

Promoting environmental education

In 2013, Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters became formally certified as an “environmental education venue” under the Environmental Education Act, which took effect in 2011. Besides passive distribution of information at the visitor center, they are now actively holding activities for schools and communities. As part of this work, there is a tree-climbing activity in the national park that allows students to experience the ecology of the forest canopy in a fun way. Since 2011, the park has held this tree-climbing activity for schoolchildren on 23 occasions, with 310 participants.

Also, every summer vacation they hold a Youth Camp in the Wu­ling and ­Guanwu recreation areas. There are three sessions from high school to university, with each session hosting 30‡40 people. Activities include camping, mountain hiking and tree-climbing, and the camp is very popular. And now every week in the environmental classroom of the Wen­shui Visitor Center, they put on programs such as the story of Ah Gui and the conservation of the Formosan salamander, using dynamic and diverse activities to attract visitors.

In addition, the Aboriginal communities next to the three recreation areas in Shei-Pa are gateways for access to the park, and the park authorities want to build partnerships with them. ­Chung Ming-shan says: “Starting with an ecotourism training plan, the first thing is to train guides, and next we will help these communities do a survey of their community resources.” After the surveys, the park will draw up ecotourism itineraries. If there are problems regarding food or accommodation, they will invite experts to help the indigenous communities troubleshoot the issues, and attempt to construct a management system. The aim is to link local resources with ecotourism to improve the livelihoods of the people in these nearby communities, while facilitating environ­mental sustainability.

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