來自西藏的祝福——金剛舞

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1988 / 7月

文‧趙薏苡 圖‧鐘永和


無論對國人或外國人而言,西藏一直是極富神秘色彩的地方;而密宗,更是極神秘的宗教。


六月中旬,台北出現了一場「西藏密宗金剛舞消災祈福法會」。這是金剛舞第一次出現在國內,不免引來人們的好奇;但對修持密宗的信徒而言,不僅難得,更是一大功德。 到底什麼是金剛舞?它又代表什麼意義?

這場金剛舞法會,是由台灣寧瑪巴白玉佛法中心所主辦的。「寧瑪巴」是藏文「最古老的」意思,也是我們一般所稱的「紅教」。有別於後來由宗喀巴改革後的「黃教」,同修密宗,以所穿服裝的顏色區別。

寧瑪巴白玉佛法中心,遠從印度請來了密宗高僧貝諾法王,他率領十六位喇嘛共同主持法會。

貝諾法王的寶座與僧侶樂團同設在舞台右側。僧侶樂團的樂器包括:鈸、小鼓、大鼓、嗩吶,和一種首次出現國人眼前、藏人稱之為「凍簽」的樂器,形狀大約就像拉長了的嗩吶。

整個法會的過程中,法王手持法器,盤坐其上,隨著樂韻、舞姿誦禱咒語,打出各種消災祈福的手印。據白玉佛法中心的常住喇嘛覺媚堪布指出,這時的貝諾法王也是金剛舞的一部分,他代表著境界中的「蓮花生大士」,他的一切行止,正是大士的儀軌。

誰又是這位「蓮花生大士」?

相隔千年,禪定傳寶

佛教在我國共有十三宗,其中密宗又名真言宗,以持咒、結印為修行法要,在時間上出現最晚。唐代時密宗由印度傳入中土後失傳,至今獨盛於西藏。相傳,就是這位蓮花生大士把密宗帶入西藏的。

西元七四七年,印度蓮花生大士應聘到西藏宣講佛法。後來,當他化入虛空,離開西藏時,他預言密宗的諸法寶藏,將因人心慾望、情緒之毒及戰爭等因素的汙染,而進入末法時期。

為了適應末法時期眾生的環境與根器,大士把諸法寶藏分別藏在土中、海中、岩石上,甚至虛空之中,並且預言將由後世的一位尋寶者尋獲,廣為宣法。

一千多年以後裘望上師是被大士選中的尋寶者。

某日,裘望上師如常日課參禪,進入了極深的禪定。

本尊起舞,宣示諸法

懷著極大的信心和虔誠,裘望上師在禪定中來到了蓮花生大士化入虛空的淨土——銅德山,親自見到了大士,並得大士灌頂。

密宗之傳承,與佛教其他宗派的傳「法」不同,必須親自接受老師「灌頂」。這也是密宗極為重要的儀式。

灌,是灌持,表示諸佛的護念;頂,是頭頂,表示行持的崇高。灌頂即象徵法脈的傳承與諸佛的祝願。裘望上師得蓮花生大士灌頂,就表示他已親受傳承,以後可以授權宣法了。

當然,蓮花生大士早已圓寂。裘望上師所見,並不是大士的肉身,而是大士身形的虹光。這片虹光愈來愈大,愈來愈亮。

在這無量的光中,無數本尊(菩薩)以各種姿態一一展現,隨著樂韻、咒語起舞,宣示諸法。

出定之後,裘望上師將境界中所見所聞詳細記錄下來成為舞譜,代代相傳,以迄於今。這便是我們看到的「金剛舞」了。

對密宗涉獵頗廣的戲劇工作者丁乃竺指出,金剛舞不是人人能跳的,舞者除必須修足種種前行法的預備法,還需念滿足夠的本尊咒語。所謂的「足夠」,通常是七十萬遍。

忿怒之舞,威降邪靈

金剛舞有許多種,通常都在大型法會或灌頂儀式後舉行。至於跳那一支舞,則視法會所修的法及性質而定。

在這次的「祈福消災法會」中,第一支「金色甘露黑帽舞」,是一支獻供的舞蹈。

向誰獻供呢?

佛家無時空對待的觀念,他們相信,即使肉身滅去,靈魂依然存在於虛空中。因此,舞者要向同時存在於無量時空中的十方神祇、靈魂獻供。希望他們經由智慧本尊的加持,覺悟自性,擁護正法,消弭一切災難和障礙,護持參加法會的信眾,帶來平安。

如果本尊的慈悲不能收服頑惡邪靈,為了消除眾生障礙和仇恨,在「金獅降伏大地之忿怒舞」中,本尊現出忿怒相,以威嚴降服邪靈,使彼邪靈生起利益眾生的誓願,世界也同時獲得賜福與加持。

皆是「智慧本尊」

密宗信徒相信,在法會舉行的同時,會出現許多邪惡的力量阻撓修行者。這時,「護法」便要負起降服這些邪惡力量的責任。

密宗護法常以鹿形顯示。「鹿舞」又稱忿怒尊舞,即為保護修行者的護法舞蹈。鹿形護法手持寶劍,腳踏尊者舞步,「凍簽」不時吹出震動心魄的「鹿鳴」。在懾人肅穆的會堂堙A虛空中的邪靈啊,那媮晹釦A容身之處!

這三支金剛舞,分別由二至七位舞者舞出,每位舞者都代表了一位本尊。覺媚堪布喇嘛解釋,本尊代表著根本的智慧,無論他以何種面目、形體出現,其實為一。只是,當本尊以某一種面目顯示時,為了方便稱呼而給予一個名字。事實上,都可以「智慧本尊」名之。

對國內的密宗信徒而言,得以看到金剛舞,不僅機會難得,對於本身的修持和福祉都有助益,也同時成就了一樁大功德。滿座的觀眾中,放眼可見手持念珠,合什默禱的信徒。他們神情肅靜,彷彿在驚心動魄的鈸鼓嗩吶聲中,得著了平安。

法會結束前,貝諾法王以自身的修持,親自為信徒主持加持。得到法王加持的信徒都相信,自己不僅得到法王的祝福,藉由法王的能力,也能增加自己修密的進境。

彷彿神秘,總是慈悲

無論是對國人或外國人而言,西藏一直是極富神秘色彩的地方;而密宗,更是極其神秘的宗教。

神秘是什麼?神秘就是不瞭解。

在法會中所見的信徒、居士、喇嘛、法王,虔敬地參與儀式,合什誦咒。對他們而言,外人視為神秘的一切,是他們的信仰、依靠,甚至生活的全部。

不論信與不信,在那震耳懾人的樂聲,間或傳來沉沉咒誦所營造的肅穆氣氛中,都不難感受凡是宗教所共有的特質——莊嚴、博愛,以及佛教普度眾生的慈悲。

於是,藏密寧瑪巴喇嘛們,為宏法利生、廣種福田,祈求風調雨順、社會安寧而舉辦金剛舞法會的悲願,自然不能因為我們未能瞭解其信仰,而以看新鮮、看熱鬧的心情輕待了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.39

貝諾法王左手持法器、右手打手印、嘴中念咒語,主持整場法會。

P.38

藏密的護法,常以鹿形出現。

P.40

這種樂器,按藏語發音為「凍簽」,在國內首次出現。

P.40

鹿舞是一種驅逐邪靈之舞。

P.41

當本尊無法以慈悲相感動眾生時,便以忿怒相威嚇之。圖為忿怒本尊舞。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

The Tibetan Lama Dance

Chao Yi-yi /photos courtesy of Chung Yung-ho /tr. by Peter Eberly

For most Chinese as well as foreigners, Tibet has always been a place of great mystery. And Lamaism, or Tibetan Buddhism, has been even more mysterious.


This June a Tibetan lama dance was held in Taipei for the first time. Many were attracted out of curiosity, but for believers the ceremony was an important spiritual event.

Just what is the lama dance? And what is its significance?

The lama dance was sponsored by the Nyingmapa Palyul Dharma Center of Taipei. Nyingmapa, which means Ancient Order in Tibetan, is the version of Lamaism popularly known as the Red Sect, in reference to the color of its monks' robes, as opposed to Gelugpa, or the Yellow Sect.

The Nyingmapa Center invited the Lamaist high monk Dhadje Penor Rinpoche to come all the way from India to perform the ritual, and he brought sixteen lamas with him.

The rinpoche's throne and the lamas' orchestra were situated on the right of the stage. The orchestra's instruments consisted of cymbals, drums, Chinese flutes, and a long Tibetan woodwind called a doong-chhen that the audience had never seen before.

Seated in his throne and ringing a sacred bell, the rinpoche recited incantations and performed magical gestures in time to the music and the movements of the dancers. He too was a part of the dance, representing the Lotus-Born Mahasiddha.

There are around thirteen different sects of Buddhism in China, among which Lamaism, or the Esoteric Sect, appeared rather late. It was introduced to China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907), but it soon disappeared from the main part of the country and is prevalent today only in Tibet. It was the Lotus-Born Mahasiddha, or Pasdmasambhava, who is said to have brought the sect to Tibet from India in 747.

Later, before he dematerialized and left Tibet, he predicted that the world was entering the last period of kalpa and the Buddhist laws and treasures would be defiled by wars and the poison of human desire. To protect them in his absence, he hid them in the ground, the ocean, the cliffs, and the air, and predicted that they would be found and propagated by an adept of a later generation.

Over a thousand years later the mahasiddha selected the guru Chowang as the chosen adept.

One day Chowang was performing his daily meditations when he entered a deep trance. Harboring deep faith and piety, he found himself transported to Vajra Mountain in the Pure Land, where he saw the Lotus-Born Mahasiddha and was anointed by him, enabling him to preach the Buddhist Law.

Of course, the mahasiddha had achieved release from the cycles of reincarnation long ago. What Chowang saw was not his actual body but a radiant image which grew ever larger and ever brighter. Inside this ineffable radiance appeared innumerable satyadevatas or gohonzons, dancing and chanting in time to the music, declaring the various sacred laws.

As soon as the vision was over, the superior master recorded what he had seen and heard in detail. His instructions have been passed down over the generations as the choreography of the lama dance.

Ting Nai-chu, an actress who has studied the Esoteric Sect in some depth, points out that the lama dance cannot be performed by just anyone. Besides having mastered various preparatory disciplines, the dancers must have chanted to the gohonzon a sufficient number of times: around 700,000 to be exact.

For believers, being able to see the lama dance was not just a rare opportunity but a positive blessing and aid in their spiritual development. Folded hands, meditation beads, and lips closed in silent prayer could be seen everywhere around the capacity audience. Their expressions were solemn and reverent, as though they had found peace and harmony in the raucous cacophony of cymbals, drums, and flutes.

Whether one is a believer or not, it was not hard to feel, in that reverent atmosphere, the special characteristics provided by every religion--solemnity, universal love, and a sacred compassion for life.

The merciful intentions of the Nyingmapa lamas in holding the lama dance, to propagate their faith and promote social harmony, must not be slighted because of incomprehension or misunderstanding.

[Picture Caption]

Chanting incantations and performing magical gestures, the Dhadje Penor Rinpoche presided over the entire ritual.

Guardians of the dharma in Tibetan Buddhism often appear in the form of deer.

These instruments, called doong-chhen in Tibetan, made their first appearance on Taiwan at the ceremony.

The deer dance is designed to drive off evil spirits.

When the satyadevata is unable to move living things with mercy then it intimidates them with anger.

 

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