喜慶時節飲紹興

:::

1981 / 1月

文‧慕江 圖‧曉陽


從古到今,酒一直與人類生活有著密切的關係,無論是喜慶宴飲,或是烹飪調味,都用得到它。尤其是近年來在我國工商發達的社會裡,民生富裕,酬酢場合大增,用到酒、尤其是好酒的機會就更多了。中華民國台灣省菸酒公賣局為了提高酒類的生產水準,滿足消費者的需求,三十多年來,不斷研究發展,不但經常推出新的產品,並且產量與品質都在逐年提高之中。其中屬於高級酒的紹興酒,更是喜慶宴會中消費最多的酒類。


國產美酒揚名於世

民國六十七年,公賣局曾應邀選送荔枝酒、烏梅酒、玫瑰露酒、竹葉青酒、茅台酒及大麴酒等六種酒類,參加在日內瓦舉辦的第十六屆世界酒類評選會。另外選送瓶裝及罐裝臺灣啤酒參加在日內瓦舉辦的第十七屆啤酒及無酒精飲料評選會。評選結果,產品全部獲獎,荔枝酒、竹葉青酒及瓶裝臺灣啤酒榮獲金質獎章及獎狀,烏梅酒、玫瑰露酒、茅台酒、大麴酒及罐裝台灣啤酒榮獲銀質獎章及獎狀。顯示我國生產酒類的品質,已達到國際水準。

目前,公賣局生產的酒類很多,啤酒類有:台灣啤酒、生啤酒;米酒類有:米酒、紅露酒、八年紅老酒、嘉賓酒、長春酒、龍鳳酒;紹興酒類有:紹興酒、陳年紹興酒、花雕酒、黃酒;高粱酒類有:高粱酒、大麴酒、茅台酒、竹葉青酒、玫瑰露酒、雙鹿五加皮酒、參茸酒、虎骨酒、烏雞酒、百歲酒;水果酒有:白蘭地酒、白葡萄酒、荔枝酒、烏梅酒、鳳梨酒、蘭姆酒等。在這些酒類中,以啤酒、米酒、紹興酒銷路最佳。其中啤酒佔總銷售量的百分之五十八,是夏季最受歡迎的飲料;米酒佔百分之廿八,多半在烹調時應用;紹興酒佔百分之五,多在婚禮、壽誕等喜慶場合飲用。

營養又好喝的紹興酒

紹興酒原是浙江紹興府的特產,酒性香醇、風味甘醪,酒精含量適中,沒有烈酒的辛辣勁猛,而且採用米麥釀製,營養價值頗高,包括:蛋白質、氨基酸和糖類等養分,是酒中的佳品。一般人飲用紹興酒之前,喜歡先把瓶內的酒燙溫,再加上酸梅或檸檬飲用,風味更佳。

公賣局曾花費了相當的人力、心力,才在國內把紹興酒研製成功,其中有兩位幕後英雄功不可沒。他們是目前住在南投縣埔里鎮的周炳文、周景山兄弟,周氏兄弟皆年近八十,已從公賣局的埔里酒廠退休多年。

周氏兄弟原籍浙江黃崖縣,黃崖舊屬紹興府,他們的老家世代以釀製紹興酒為業,擁有十幾家酒坊、酒鋪。周氏兄弟因家學淵源,從小就和紹興酒結下不解之緣,自然學得釀製紹興酒的方法。

周氏兄弟進入公賣局服務,是件很偶然的事。大陸淪陷後,周氏兄弟避難來臺,民國四十年有一天,他們到一位老鄉、也就是當時的台灣省民政廳副廳長項昌權的家中做客,剛好那天當時的公賣局長范澤山也在座。

在閒談中,范局長提到那時公賣局生產的酒類以紅露酒、清酒、太白酒和米酒為主,公賣局有意生產高級酒類,想以試釀紹興酒為第一目標,當時已有板橋酒廠和台北第一酒廠正在試釀當中,只可惜尚未找到高明的師傅,所以一直沒有成功。項副廳長聽到范局長這麼一說,立即哈哈大笑,指著周氏兄弟說:「他們就是現成的好師傅啊!」

行家參與,釀造成功

經過項副局長的力薦,周氏兄弟進入公賣局服務,被派往臺北第一酒廠試釀紹興酒。他們以自身豐富的釀酒經驗,經過五個月孜孜不倦的研製,做過九百多次的試驗與品嘗,終於釀造出風味合乎標準的紹興酒。

周氏兄弟指出,在大陸釀造紹興酒,並沒有一定的方程式或配方,全憑釀酒師傅的喜好與經驗,但是基本的成分和製法還是大同小異。周氏兄弟就在化工技師的協助下,把家傳的製酒方法,配合國內的原料、氣候、水質等因素,確定一套方程式。就這樣,他們在國內播下了紹興酒的種子。

紹興酒試釀成功後,公賣局首先選擇埔里酒廠為生產廠,因為埔里地區的氣候溫和穩定、水質優良,是國內釀製紹興酒的最佳所在。就這樣,周氏兄弟又被分派到埔里酒廠工作。他們為了尋找最好的水源,曾經跑遍整個埔里鎮,甚至連附近的蘆山、日月潭的水都一一嘗過,最後發現埔里鎮鐵山裡的泉水比重高,含有多種礦物質,有助於酒類發酵,最適合用來釀造紹興酒。因此,埔里酒廠就在此處設置了一個釀酒專用井,把井水用水管輸送到酒廠,做為紹興酒的釀造水。

目前,公賣局生產紹興酒的酒廠除了埔里酒廠外,還有板橋、台中、花蓮、台北、屏東五個酒廠,但仍以埔里酒廠的歷史最久、規模最大、產量最多,同時它也是唯一生產品質最好的陳年紹興酒,以及將紹興酒外銷的酒廠。

埔里酒廠專釀紹興酒

一進到埔里酒廠,就聞到瀰漫在空氣中的酒香。

埔里酒廠郭城廠長指出,埔里酒廠是日據時期成立的老酒廠,剛開始釀製紹興酒時,酒廠的設備還十分簡陋。紹興酒必須低溫醱酵,而酒廠當時還沒有冷凍設備﹐遇到天氣太熱時﹐只好購買大量的冰塊﹐擺在醱酵室中,以降低室溫。不過幸好埔里的氣溫相當溫和穩定,這種情況並不多見。

再以醱酵的容器來說吧,一開始是用陶甕,一個陶甕的容量只有一.八公石。後來因為紹與酒的銷路不錯﹐大家就研究如何改良土法﹐增加產量。經過研究實驗的結果﹐醱酵池容器由小陶甕改為琺瑯醱酵池,每個醱酵池容量由一.八公石增加到廿公石,後來又改為不鏽鋼醱酵桶,每個醱酵桶的容量增加到六十公石。

如今廠內各項機器設備已完全改觀了,釀造過程亦步上機械化的一貫作業。副廠長張光燦指出,釀製紹興酒的主要原料是糯米、蓬萊米和小麥。首先,要用碾米機把糯米和蓬萊米由糙米碾成精來,分別清洗,在水中浸泡十五個小時,然後把水放掉,用蒸飯機蒸三十分鐘,待米粒冷卻後,糯米方面工作告一段落;但是蓬萊米還要加上麴菌,用機器輸送到自動制麴機,製成米麴。小麥則要先壓碎,然後和水蒸煮,再加上麴菌,製成麥麴。

醱酵溫度嚴格講求

糯米飯、米麴、麥麴與用酵母大量培養成的酒母混合後,注入由鐵山裡引來的釀造水,就進入醱酵階段。這是釀酒過程中一個很重要的階段。張副廠長說:「酒類醱酵時四周溫度的變化會影響酒的品質,若溫度過高,酒會變得太酸。目前,酒廠中的冷凍設備能完全控制醱酵室的溫度,使得釀出的酒品質很穩定。」

從熱氣騰騰的蒸飯機走進醱酵室,就好像從炎夏掉入寒冬。醱酵又分為前醱酵和後醱酵,前醱酵室溫度在攝氏七度到八度之間,室內有數十個巨大的不鏽鋼醱酵桶整齊的排列著。由於醱酵桶約有兩個人高,因此在每排醱酵桶間都設有高架走道,方便酒廠人員工作。穿著厚夾克的工作人員必須經常用棍棒把桶內的釀酒混合液攪拌均勻。前醱酵期是十二天。後醱酵和前醱酵略有不同,後醱酵是加蓋密封進行,而且室溫較高,在攝氏十七度到十八度之間,醱酵期是十八天。

經過一個月的醱酵,紹興酒的釀造過程告一段落。接下來是壓濾工作,以自動壓濾機把酒和糟粕分離。張副廠長指著一塊塊土黃色的糟粕說:「別看它外觀不佳﹐還挺有用途的。糟粕的酒精含量很高﹐蒸過後的酒精可當米酒的原料﹐殘渣還可做成飼料。」

需貯存相當的時間

壓濾過的酒經過澄清、高溫殺菌,就開始裝甕貯藏,貯存的容器是陶質酒甕。酒甕經過蒸氣清洗後,將酒注入其中,然後密封,放入儲藏室。儲藏室中擺滿了層層相疊的土黃色酒甕,頗具幾分酒坊古意。一般紹興酒必須貯存二年半以上,陳年紹興酒的貯存時間則長上一倍,必須要在五年以上,因此風味格外香醇,色澤也特別黃澄鮮豔,確是酒中極品。

同一期儲藏的酒開甕後,必須把所有的酒混合調勻,這樣所有產品的風味才能一致。調合過的酒再經過濾、二度殺菌,就開始裝瓶、封蓋,再做第三度殺菌。張副廠長指出,紹興酒內含有多種養分,若殺菌不徹底,一旦孳生細菌,酒就變質了。三度殺菌後,貼上標籤、裝箱,就可以上市了。

目前,公賣局紹興酒的年產量是二百萬打,埔里酒廠的產量約佔二分之一以上。外銷數量方面,去年高達十萬打,外銷到日本、香港、美國和東南亞地區。

提高產品的質與量,充分滿足大眾所需

每天營業額超過新台幣一億四千萬元的公賣局,鑑於煙酒業務不斷激增,已擬定一系列的擴廠、遷廠計畫,並將機器汰舊換新,使煙酒能充分供應市場所需,並使民眾能享受高品質的煙酒。

在紹興酒方面,公賣局將擴充六個酒廠的設備,預定民國七十四年底,將全年生產量由二百萬打增至七百二十三萬打;至民國七十五年底,達到年產量一千萬打的目標。

〔圖片說明〕

P.22、P.23

圖1:紹興酒的釀製成功,是菸酒公賣局人員辛勤研究試驗的成果,周炳文、周景山兄弟更是其中兩位幕後功臣。圖2:紹興酒以米麥釀製而成,酒味甘醪醇厚,為酒中佳品。圖3:埔里酒廠是目前國內生產紹興酒最多的酒廠,釀酒用水全來自圖中的釀酒專用水井,井水取自山泉,水質甘美。圖4:醱酵是釀酒過程中的重要步驟﹐釀制紹興酒分為前醱酵和後醱酵﹐圖中是後醱酵的情形。圖5. 6:紹興酒釀制完成後,盛裝在瓦甕中密封起來儲藏。普通紹興酒需儲藏三十個月以上,陳年紹興酒需儲藏六十個月以上,方能上市。

P.24、P.25

圖1、2、3:紹興酒的釀製過程已全部機械化,並經過嚴格的品質檢驗。圖4:紹興酒是喜慶宴會中飲用最多的酒類。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Shaohsing China's Golden Wines


Since ancient times in China wine has been regarded along with fuel, rice, Oil, salt, sauce, vinegar and tea as one of the necessities of daily life. Today, wine plays a pivotal role in any repast to which guests are invited. Of all the wines made in Taiwan, Shaohsing and Old Shaohsing are the most popular, accounting for about 5 percent of all wine sales.

Shaohsing wine orginated in Shaohsing prefecture of Chekiang Province in southern China. Its moderate alcohol content gives it body, while the rice used to make it gives it nutritional value. It has become traditional to warm the bottle with hot water before serving, as this is said to improve the flavor. Some even add sour plums or lemonade to further enhance the taste.

The successful production of Shaohsing wine in Taiwan can be attributed to two brothers, Chou Ping-wen and Chou Chin-shan, both of whom are in their 80s and live in Puli in Nantou County in central Taiwan. Retired now for many years from the Puli winery, the brothers are natives of Huangyai County in Chekiang Province, which used to come under the Shaohsing prefecture in ancient times.

For several generations, the Chou family has been in the business of selling and producing Shaohsing wine, and once had 10 wineries and wine stores. In 1951, they started a profitable association with the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau.

The two brothers explained that there is no particular formula for making Shaohsing wine, and everything depends on the skill of the brewer. With the help of some chemical engineers, the two brothers developed a formula based on the right blend of materials and water, and the ideal climate in Taiwan. After conducting several trials, the bureau chose Puli as the site of its main production plant, and assigned the two brothers to work there. Today, plants are located in Taipei, Taichung, Hualien, Tainan and Pingtung. The Puli winery, however, is still the doyen of all the plants, and is the only one where Old Shaohsing is produced.

At first, the production facilities at Puli were simple and crude. Containers with a capacity of only 48 gallons were used to for fermentation. As demand for the wine grew, stainless steel vats with a capacity of 1,600 gallons each were used.

Glutinous rice, ponglai rice and wheat are the main raw materials used in making Shaohsing. After being polished and crushed, the ponglai rice and wheat are soaked for 15 hours. The resulting mash is placed in a steaming machine for 30 minutes before aspergilli are added to aid the fermentation process. The next step is to mix the steamed glutinous rice with the ponglai rice and wheat and add water, after which the fermentation process can begin. During this process, the temperature around the vats must be kept down, as too much heat will turn the brew sour. The cooling facilities at the Puli winery are able to maintain an even temperature throughout the fermentation process.

During the first stage of fermentation, which lasts 12 days, the temperature around the giant stainless steel vats is kept at between 7 and 8 degrees Celsius. During the second fermentation period, lasting for about 18 days, the vats are sealed, and the temperature is raised to 17 or 18 degrees.

The brew is then filtered with an automatic mash filtration machine. After being pasteurized, the finished product is sealed in earthen vessels and kept for at least two years, or in the case of Old Shaohsing, for five years. As a result of its greater age, Old Shaohsing has a more mellow flavor and a brilliant golden color.

Half of Taiwan's annual output of two million dozen bottles is produced at the Puli winery. Statistics show that last year, about 100,000 dozen bottles were exported to Japan, Hong Kong, the United States and countries in Southeast Asia. The Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau is planning to expand its facilities for producing Shaohsing wine to a capacity of 7.23 million dozen by the end of 1985, and to 10 million dozen by 1986.

[Picture Caption]

1. The success in producing Shaohsing can be attributed to all the workers at the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau, including the Chou brothers. 2. Glutinous rice, ponglai rice and wheat are the major raw materials used in brewing Shaohsing. The flavor is the best among all the wines produced in Taiwan. 3. The Puli winery produces the largest quantity of Shaohsing, partly as a result of the fine spring water in the area. Picture shows the giant water tower at the Puli winery. 4. The fermentation process is the most important part of making Shaohsing. The process is divided into two stages, primary and secondary. 5. & 6. After being pasteurized, the finished product is sealed in earthen vessels. It takes at least two years to make ordinary Shaohsing, while Old Shaohsing is stored for five years before being sold.

1. 2. 3. The process of making Shaohsing is totally mechanized and under strict quality control. 4. Shaohsing plays a pivotal role in any repast to which guests are invited.

 

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!