台北怎麼那麼擠?

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1989 / 3月

文‧陳淑美 圖‧王煒昶


台北,和許多人口密集的大都會一樣,讓人又愛又恨,也心急盼望「明天會更好」。

想看看台北「今天」的面貌嗎?周末午後的頂好商圈,是個略嫌誇張,卻也不失真切的例子。

站在忠孝東路、敦化南路路口極目四望,首先映入眼簾的,自是迄邐不盡、午步蝸行的車陣,車陣兩旁參差遊走的,則是騎樓下萬頭鑽動的人潮和攤販;如果遇上個陽光普照的大晴天,似霧又像塵的「懸浮微粒」將遠方山嶺的能見度降至最低,眼下能見的,就只剩掛滿市招、面貌模糊的兩側大樓了。

有沒有想過,台北為什麼那麼擠?

台北市長吳伯雄上任後,第一要事就是整頓交通,最近又積極部署「打通騎樓」行動。接受本刊編輯採訪時吳市長一再強調「一心打拚,全力以赴」的決心,他要怎麼做?

除了交通瓶頸、騎樓攤販,台北市多如牛毛、大而無當的市招會有漸入佳境的一天嗎?

抱怨台北擁擠嗎?

六分之一的人擠在百分之零點七五的土地上,會有什麼結果?

有沒有想過,何以至此?有個十分宿命的說法,姑且聽之:


有人認為,早在百年前,台北大部分還是荒煙蔓草之時,就已註定了它今日的擁擠。

且翻開史料,推推台北的今世前緣。

和許多台灣都市一樣,台北原也是早期移民部落。約在宋元時代,大批平埔族集居於此,明末始有漢人墾殖。到了清朝,由於大稻埕及艋舺的港埠功能,清廷將之選為台北府,但比起發展於中南部的兩座大城——台南及鹿港,台北的發展已算最遲了。

台北府成立,正等待大力建設時,中日戰爭隨即爆發,台灣淪為日本殖民地。而台北也成了日本人新設的「台灣省會」(時稱總督府)。

以後的發展就不是台北人所能控制的了。文化大學市政系主任謝有文指出,當城內三分之二還是荒煙蔓草之際,日本軍閥就已兵臨城下,在傳統市街中,注入帝國主義都市發展模式。民國卅四年台灣光復後緊接著政府遷台,使台北一躍成為中華民國臨時的首都,一時成為政、經、軍合一的重鎮。

命中註定要很擠?

短短的半世紀內,台北不像一般中國或西方都市,她沒有經過由市集、城鎮而都市的逐步發展,整個都市規劃可說是定命於歷史因素,因此也難免帶些因時制宜的色彩。

謝有文指出,目前台北市整個都市計畫的基礎是民國廿一年、台灣還在日本殖民時代所做的,當時規劃的人口容量六十萬,是現在的五分之一。

規劃不足,加上人口大量增加,問題更形複雜。台北市政府統計資料顯示,民國五十七年、台北市改制為院轄市時,全市人口為一百六十萬人;到了六十三年則突破兩百萬人;至今日近三百萬人。廿年來,平均每年人口的增加率為百分之二點七八,也就是說每年台北市約要添加六萬人。

比起世界各主要的都市,這樣的增加率是十分驚人的。去年十二月,英國經濟學人雜誌,針對全世界四十個城市所作的一份調查指出,從一九六七到一九八七年,台北的人口增加率在四十個城市中排名第十一;在亞洲國家中除我國高雄及澳洲的雪梨、柏斯,遠遠領先雅加達、新加坡、東京等地。

分析台北市的人口結構,可發現以外來人口為主的組成色彩十分濃厚。戶籍資料上,遷入的人口永遠大於遷出。目前從台灣省或高雄市等地遷來的「非台北市籍」人口,共有一百八十萬,佔了全市人口的三分之二。

「台北人」不愛台北?

雖然沒有任何研究或學術報告可以說明,這些外來人口對台北市的「認同」情形,及假使有所謂「移民」心態,對台北市發展的影響如何,但從一些民意調查中,仍透露了不少值得重視的訊息。

去年七月,台北市政府對全市四千九百名市民作一項有關市政建設的意向調查。結果發現:在詢問市民對市政關心程度時,答「稍有關心」及「無所謂」的人數加起來,幾乎佔了受訪者的一半(百分之四十八);在問到現在與一年前來比較,台北市變得怎樣時,答「和現在一樣」、「不清楚」的加起來也佔了二分之一強(百分之五十三);問及與一年後相比較,台北市會如何時,答「和現在一樣」及「不清楚」的比例更高,達六成以上。

至於市民為何要住在台北?及心目中理想的台北市應具備何種條件?市府在民國七十三及去年各作了一次調查。

在七十三年對四千一百名市民的研究調查之中,「居住在台北有什麼好處?」答案的排名順位分別是:「交通網發達便捷」、「有錢隨時都可以買到東西」、「就業較為容易」、「做各種生意機會多」、「生活自由不受干擾」、「文化休閒多」、「有名氣的學校多」、「消息靈通及刺激多」、「排水防洪設施良好」。由此看來,遷居台北的人口中,物質層面的誘因佔很大部分。

心目中理想的台北應有什麼條件?四千九百名市民的優先順序為:治安、交通、住家環境、教育品質、環境保護、公共設施、社會福利、就業機會、醫療、文化精神生活、人際關係、物質享受等。環境保護、公共設施、社會福利及醫療的次序在治安、交通、住家環境之後,似乎也反映了台北人的關心面。

台灣錢淹台北?

有人把都市發展的過程比喻作人類文明發展的縮影:人口增加帶來經濟的發展,製造了財富、累積了智慧,但也產生了人類智慧所難以解決的問題。衡諸台北市的發展幾乎也可作如是觀。

翻開台北市財政資料還可以發現,台北市民的財富是呈幾何倍數「跳」著成長的。民國五十七年,歲入才廿二億,四年後成倍增加為四十六億;再經過四年跳升至一百廿三億;到了去年,歲入的總收入已是六百七十五億,是台灣地區第二大城高雄市的三點五倍。

但是,因經濟發展製造出來的問題卻更可觀,台北市民的切膚之痛——交通,就是一個例證。

不少研究均顯示,台北市交通「病」在車輛太多,激增的理由是人們拚命買車,這完全是經濟發展的產物。

市政府資料顯示,民國六十年時,台北市小客車只有兩萬七千輛,當時每輛車可享有二百零九平方公尺的道路面積;七十年小客車為十六萬輛,每輛可享有七十二平方公尺的道路;到了今年,小客車已增加到卅七萬輛,每輛只能有五十一平方公尺——即當初四分之一的空間了。

車多、人多,空氣糟

車輛增加使行車速度減慢,這三年尤其嚴重。台北市政府交通局資料顯示,前年十二月以前,在台北市開車平均時速還可以達廿公里;到了去年,平均時速為十三公里;今年開春以後,由於捷運等工程的施工,已有人很不樂觀的預估,平均時速很可能會低於八公里——跟小跑步的速度差不多了。

車輛太多更帶來了空氣品質的惡化。去年十二月底,環保署空氣污染警報頻響,平均兩、三天就發布一次,市區的松山、南港,及郊區永和、中和、板橋地區都曾出現超過有害人體健康的警戒值,而板橋還幾度出現罕見的中級警報。

忙碌緊張的都市生活,使台北市民的十大死因中(民國七十二年始)永遠有腦血管、心臟、高血壓、自殺等「都市型」疾病;每十萬人中卅八人因心臟病而死的比例,與經濟學人調查中「緊張的日本」(比例為四十五人)相差無幾了。

治安情況似乎也亮起了紅燈。

台北市議員張德銘的調查指出,以去年來說,普通案件——如竊盜、傷害等,平均每天有九件無法偵破;重大刑案——如強盜、殺人等,則平均兩天有一件無法破案。

鞋太小?換雙大的!

台北市因歷史、人口增加、經濟發展等原因而造成的問題,如今正待一一解決。但一個明顯的事實是,單憑台北市民之力,恐怕已經無能為力了。

根據台北市長吳伯雄的說法,由於解決交通紊亂、綠地過少等急迫性的問題,今年開始,台北市總共要負債台幣一千兩百億,以此來做包括捷運、徵收公共保留地等公共建設。張德銘更保守地預估,十年內台北市負債額將在三千五百億新台幣左右。

「等於是拿台灣省民的錢,來解決台北市的問題」,一位專家指出,台北市的歲入雖為全省之冠,但有趣的是,歲入絕大部分「羊毛出在羊身上」——花在經建及交通建設上,而歷年來這二者加起來的總合,約等於教育科學文化及社會福利支出的總合。如今台北市市民尚未享受經濟發展之利,卻已經要開始負債了。

台北市將往何處去?現任台北市長吳伯雄的看法是,就台北市的現狀來建設,先解決目前交通、飲水、空氣污染、綠地、生活品質等問題,而不是再開發,再吸引更多人來台北。

吳市長的答案似乎頗能瞄準靶心,問題則是,台北市資訊密集、就業機會多、賺錢容易,似乎永遠像一塊磁鐵,吸引前仆後繼的人潮擁至,如此一來,台北市問題是不是永遠難以解決?

於是有人發出奇想:不如把台北市擴大,將台北市外的幾個衛星都市,例如板橋、三重、永和、新店,甚至於基隆市,全部劃入台北市行政區,如此不僅可以減輕台北市地狹人稠、負荷過度的困擾,也可增加這些衛星都市的收入,對台北縣市界間,常年爭吵不清的飲水、垃圾等權責問題,也可解決。

遷都,好嗎?

沒想到此案一提出,卻引來各方反對。台北市民怕稅收外流,負擔更多財政支出,台北縣民也怕最有稅收潛力的幾個市鎮全被台北市吸納;而且也懷疑台北市此舉只是為了解決都市中討厭的垃圾、飲水等問題。

擴大台北市行政區的想法還在爭議未休,另一個異想天開的辦法又被提出:台北市乾脆遷都算了。

說起來好像也不是很瘋狂,遷都的例子在英國、韓國,及目前的日本都曾經或正在嘗試中。

一九四○年起,英國便對過度集中倫敦的問題採取對策,將政府機關及職員人數分散到地方,比率高達百分之四十四;而韓國在十年前也把經企院、商工部、建設部、保健社會部遷到離漢城不遠的果川市;至於日本討論經年的遷都計畫,也已有具體結論:目前國公立考試、研究、教育機關等都已移轉到了離東京市二小時車程的筑坡學園。

台北呢?這似乎不再是命運或歷史,而是現實給予這個城市的一大考驗了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.78

資訊集中、文化刺激多,是不少人選擇住在台北的理由。(鄭元慶攝)

P.78

台北為何會變成今日這樣,有人說是命中註定的。

P.79

台北人心急地盼望「明天會更好」。

P.80

台北市政府用在社會福利及教育文化的預算尚待加強。(張良綱攝)

P.81

經濟發展帶來了就業機會,使台北擁進更多人。(張良綱攝)

P.81

藍天、綠水,可調劑的自然景觀——台北人需要這些。

P.82

仁愛路林蔭道路上,很少沒車的時候。圖攝於二月間舉行的台北國際馬拉松。(鄭元慶攝)

P.83

觀音山、淡水河、……垃圾?台北近郊一景。(鄭元慶攝)

P.83

理想台北的優先位置

為何住在台北市?

資料來源:台北市政府主計處

P.84

大都市裡,商業刺激多,各式活動五花八門。(張良綱攝)

P.85

台北繁華街——東區騎樓地攤一景。

P.85

轉型期中,台北的角色更形突出。(張良綱攝)

P.86、P.87

這樣的都會印象,台北人當不會陌生。

P.87

世界各主要都市人中增減情形(1967-87)

單位:每百人

註:取材自「經濟學人」

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Taipei: What's the Big Attraction?

Jackie Chen /photos courtesy of Wei-chang Wang /tr. by Phil Newell

Taipei is like many crowded metropolises: it elicits love and hate, and the anxious expectation that "tomorrow will be even better."

Do you want to know today's Taipei? The situation in the Tinghao area on a weekend afternoon is a slight exaggeration, but not far from the truth.

Standing on Chung-hsiao East Road, section 4, and looking toward the east, the first thing that strikes one is the endless, plodding cars. Then it's the sea of people and vendors in the arcades. Even if the weather is nice, you are sometimes in smog so thick that it's like being in the fog, and visibility is minimum: all you can see are the buildings covered with a confused patchwork of signs. Have you wondered, how did Taipei get so crowded?

After taking office, Mayor Wu Po-hsiung's most important task was straightening out the traffic situation, and actions to make the arcades passable have recently begun. In an interview with Sinorama, Mayor Wu reemphasized his wholehearted commitment. What is he going to do?

Aside from traffic bottlenecks and arcade vendors, will the signs that cover Taipei ever see a better day?

Taipei: What's the Big Attraction?

Do you complain about Taipei being too crowded?

What happens when you put one sixth of the population in 0.75% of the area?

Have you ever thought: how have we reached this state? There is one fatalistic theory. For now, let's listen to it. . . .


Some people believe that even when most of Taipei was still deserted and weed-infested 100 years ago, its current crowded condition was being predestined.

Taipei is like many cities in Taiwan. Early on it was where immigrant tribes made their home. Around the time of the Sung dynasty (960-1279), a group of aborigines settled here. Chinese began opening up the area at the end of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). But compared to the development of Tainan and Lukang, Taiwan's two big cities, Taipei's development was late. The Sino-Japanese war broke out in 1895 an Taiwan became a Japanese colony and Taipei became the seat of the Japanese colonial governor.

Development after this was not controlled by the people of Taipei, points out Hsieh You-wen, professor of political science at Chinese Cultural University. While two-thirds of the city area was still empty, the Japanese military came to the city and began development on the imperialist model. Shortly after retrocession in 1945 came the movement of the government to Taipei, which became the provisional capital of the ROC At once it became a center of political, economic, and military affairs.

Hsieh You-wen points out, the basic plan for Taipei was made under the Japanese in 1933. But their projected population was only 600,000, about one fifth of today's. Statistics of the Taipei City Government reveal that in 1968, when the city became a special municipality directly under the central government, the population was 1.6 million. In 1974 it surpassed 2 million, and is now almost three million. The population has increased an average of 2.78% (or about 60,000 persons) every year for the past twenty years.

Last December the Economist magazine of Britain did a survey of forty cities world wide. Taipei ranked 11th in rate of population growth from 1967-1987. In Asia, it was surpassed only by Kaohsiung, Sydney, and Perth. It far outpaced Jakarta, Tokyo, and Singapore.

In terms of population structure, migrants make up the bulk. According to household registration data, in-migrants have always exceeded out-migrants. Those born elsewhere make up 1.8 million residents, or two-thirds.

Several public opinion surveys reveal some points that deserve attention. Last July, the city conducted a survey of opinion trends about city government. The results indicate that: with regard to degree of concern about city government, "slightly interested" and "don't care" came to a total of 48%. Asked to compare now with one year ago, "the same" and "not certain" totalled 53%. Asked what they think the situation will be in a year, "the same" and "not certain" passed 60%.

And as for why people live in Taipei? And what is their vision of an ideal Taipei? The city government conducted surveys in 1984 and last year respectively. The results are included in the accompanying table. The first study indicates that, among the population which has moved to Taipei, most of the advantages of Taipei involve material incentives. The priorities of public order, traffic, and environment in the latter survey reflect the areas of concern to Taipei residents.

Some people see the process of urban development as a microcosm of the development of civilization. The rise in population spurs economic development, creating wealth, and leading to an accumulation of knowledge. But it also creates problems which are hard for the wisdom of mankind to resolve.

Looking at the financial records for Taipei city, one can discover, the wealth of Taipei residents has made a tremendous leap. In 1968, income for the year was only NT$2.2 billion. Four years later, it had doubled to NT$4.6 billion. Four years later it was NT$11.3 billion, and last year came to NT$67.5 billion, 3.5 times that for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's number two city.

However, problems caused by economic development are even more obvious, traffic being one example. The main problem is too many cars. There were only 27,000 cars in Taipei in 1971, an average of 209 square meters of road per car. In 1981, the number of cars was 160,000, with 72 square meters per car. This year there are 370,000 small passenger cars, and only 51 square meters per car. The Department of Transportation has discovered that as of December of the year before last, the average driving speed in Taipei was still over 20 kilometers per hour. This fell to 13 last year; pessimistic estimates say it could go as low as eight km/hr this year.

Too many cars has brought a deterioration in air quality. As of last December, the Environmental Protection Department issued a warning every two or three days. Several sub urban districts passed the "unhealthy" level. A rarely seen mid-level warning was issued several times for the Panchiao area. Further, tense urban life puts heart attacks, high blood pressure, and suicide among the top ten killers of Taipei residents.

In terms of public safety, a survey by city councilman Chang Teh-ming shows that everyday there are nine ordinary crimes (theft, injury) that go unsolved, and one serious crime (robbery, killing) every two days that goes unsolved.

One evident fact, however, is that these problems cannot be solved by the resources of the people of Taipei alone. Mayor Wu Po-hsiung notes that starting this year Taipei will incur a debt of NT$120 billion for construction, including for rapid transit and purchase of reserved land. Chang Teh-ming estimates "conservatively" that within ten years Taipei will have a debt of NT$350 billion.

Where does Taipei go from here? Mayor Wu hopes to be able to resolve the problems of traffic, drinking water, quality of life, and so on, rather than pushing more development which will attract more people. But as Taipei continues to prosper, more people come. Is the problem permanent?

Some have advocated bringing satellite cities like Panchiao, Hsintien, and even Keelung within Taipei's administrative jurisdiction. This could create more space, increase the income of the satellite cities, and help resolve disputes over water, garbage, and other issues. But the idea met opposition from Taipei city residents who feared their tax money would flow out and from Taipei County which faced the loss of its areas with the highest potential tax income.

There is another idea: to move the government to another place. It seems this is not crazy. Examples can be found in England (which moved up to 44% of the government out of densely populated London in 1940), Korea (which moved several ministries out of Seoul ten years ago), and Japan (which has just decided to move examination, research, and educational agencies two hours outside of Tokyo).

Taipei? It seems that this is not a case of fate or history, but is a practical, realistic test for this city.

[Picture]

Population change in major cities around the world, 1967-1987.

(Unit: Number of new persons added per 100)

Source: The Economist

The factors in an "ideal Taipei" as seen by Taipei residents.

Advantages of living in Taipei as seen by Taipei residents:

Source: Department of Statistics, Taipei City government

[Picture Caption]

Information is concentrated, and there's a lot of cultural stimulation-- two reasons for many to choose to live in Taipei. (photo by Arthur Cheng)

How did Taipei get this way? Some people say it is fate.

The people of Taipei anxiously hope tomorrow will be even better.

The budgets for social welfare, education, and cultural activities await beefing up. (photo by Vincent Chang)

Economic development brings job opportunities, and makes for even more people crowding into Taipei. (photo by Vincent Chang)

Blue skies, green seas, reinvigorating scenes of nature--Taipei people need these things, too.

Kuanyin Mountain, the Tamsui River, and, uh . . . garbage? A scene from a suburban area of Taipei. (photo by Arthur Cheng)

It's rare that tree-lined Jenai Road has no cars. The photo was taken at the mid-February holding of the Taipei International Marathon. (photo by Arthur Cheng)

A typical scene of vendors from Taipei's most prosperous area, the eastern district.

In a major city there are endless commercial stimulants, and all kinds of activities are to be found in abundance. (photo by Vincent Chang)

In a period of transformation, Taipei's role is even more evident. (photo by Vincent Chang)

This kind of urban impression is no stranger to the people of Taipei.

 

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