我們可以走得更好——林垂宙專訪

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1993 / 7月

文‧李光真採訪整理


民國七十八年擔任工研院院長至今,林垂宙面對的正是一個快速變動的產業環境,他的感受也特別深刻。以下為林院長接受專訪的內容整理。


擔任院長五年來,我覺得有幾項工作是最重要,也是我積極在做的。

首先自然是定位問題,有人認為工研院是國家機構,又是財團法人,似乎很奇怪,其實這已是一種改良後的設計,應該可以繼續運作下去,只是隨環境改變而要有不同的作法。

譬如去年工研院的經費來源中,來自產業界的約是三分之一(一百十一億經費中,民間契約委託收入為卅六億元,政府專案計畫為八十一億元),希望在兩年後能達到一比一的目標。

把遊戲規則講清楚!

要達到這個目標並不容易,因此工研院未來更要把握工業技術研發的四大原則:實用、具體(例如「低溫超導」雖是學術界的熱門研究項目,但離商品應用還有一段距離,因此工研院對此投入不多),以市場為導向且靈活多變;同時更要講究經濟效益,譬如考量每項研發可為工業界增加多少產值等。

站在工研院的立場,當然希望盡可能拉大與產業界的研發距離:我們做前瞻核心技術,產業界自己去應用在產品開發及量產上。但工研院畢竟是國家成立的,有時擔子是被迫扛下來的。經過最近立法院對工研院的預算及定位爭議,以後我們會調整作法,會要求政府及業界把遊戲規則講清楚。

還有一些該把遊戲規則講清楚的地方,譬如,政府出錢委託的專案研發雖然是「公共財」,但是否一定要公平公開地讓業界取得技術,造成一窩蜂生產,反而在國際市場殺價搶生意等。其實有些已經和經濟部有了共識,但因為工研院是經過正式立法程序設立的,要改變就要修法,像是訂定「產業科技發展法」等,無奈經濟部事情繁忙,無法排入優先處理的順序,才會有這麼多有關定位的爭議。

工研院可以走得更好

其次是組織效率的改良,以前工研院有些所人數太多,功能龐雜。我來了以後,將員工有一千七百人的電子所分為電子所和電腦與通訊所(電通所),電子像上游的鋼鐵,電腦像下游的汽車,本來就不應混淆;又將能源與礦業所改成能源與資源所等,希望能使工研院的組織更符合現在產業界的需要。

其次是行政上的革新,我建立了一套人事績效評估制度,稱為「藍表制度」。每年度初始,每個人都要和自己的單位主管坐下來,面對面地溝通談判,把今年度自己預計要達成的目標一項項寫下來,像是要拜訪多少家廠商、要寫多少篇研究報告等。當然年度中若有需要可以修正,而年度結束打考績時,就可將這張藍表當作評量這一年表現的依據。

當然,藍表剛開始時,大家都會因為不知道怎樣替自己定目標、不知道怎樣和主管談判而有些反彈,但實行三、四年來,已經逐漸上軌道。只是工研院有規定,員工的薪水是按績效核定,並且列入機密,這在國外是理所當然的;偏偏國人喜好互相打聽、透露薪水,也會為這樣的制度增添困擾。

總之,各項工作都難免有挫折,還有像是去年底立委選舉,院裡有同仁想出來競選,我們基於同事之誼去幫忙,卻惹來許多誤解爭議,對我來說,真是個很「痛」的教訓。未來,對內要把這麼大的一個院凝聚起來,成為一個整體;對外保持靈活彈性,隨時修正作法,工研院可以走得更好的。

〔圖片說明〕

P.112

工研院雖是財團法人型態,但其實有諸多政策管制。把定位釐清,是院長林垂宙的第一要務。(薛繼光攝)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Getting More Industrious-An Interview With Dr. Otto C. C. Lin

edited by Laura Li /tr. by Phil Newell

Since becoming president of the Industrial Technology Research Institute in 1989, Dr. Otto C. C. Lin has faced a rapidly changing productive structure. His impressions are quite profound. The following is drawn from an interview with President Lin.


In the five years I have been president of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, I have felt that several projects have been most important, so I have been working on them very actively.

First, naturally, is the problem of fixing our role. Some people feel it is strange that ITRI is a government institution, as well as a corporate entity. In fact, this is already quite an improved situation, and it should be able to keep going this way. It's just that new methods will be required to keep up with changes in the times. For example, last year one third of ITRI's funding came from private enterprise (of total expenditures of NT$11.1 billion, NT$3.6 billion came through contracts signed with private firms, with government projects accounting for NT$8.1 billion). We hope to achieve a 50% ratio after two years.

Get the rules of the game clear:

It won't be easy to achieve this target. Thus in the future ITRI will have to have full command of the four basic principles of industrial technology research and development: Technology should be practical and concrete (for example, though low-temperature superconductors are the hottest topic in academia, practical application is still some ways off, so ITRI has invested little in this area). It should also be guided by the market and be highly adaptable and alterable. At the same time economic efficiency must be carefully observed, for example in assessing how much value any given R&D could add for industry.

From ITRI's point of view, we of course wish we could be farther removed from manufacturing R&D--that we would do cutting-edge core research while industry would apply it in product development and mass production. But after all ITRI is a public institution, and sometimes we are forced to rein in our ambitions. After the recent contention in the Legislative Yuan over ITRI's budget and status, in the future we will adjust our methods, and ask government and private enterprise to clarify the rules of the game.

There are still several areas where the rules of the game need to be clarified. For example, though the research programs the government commissions out to us are "public property," should industry definitely be allowed to openly and freely take the technology? In fact, we've already reached a consensus on some of these issues with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, but because ITRI is established by law, it is necessary to amend the law to make changes. For example there's the Industry Development Technology Act. But because the MOEA is very busy, it cannot give this top priority in the legislative process. That's why we still have so many arguments about the position of the Institute.

Why not the best?

The second area is organizational efficiency. In the past, there were too many personnel in some of the laboratories, whose functions were excessively broad and confused. For example, after I arrived, the electronics lab, with 1700 employees, was divided up into the electronics lab and the computer and information lab. Electronics are upstream products, like steel, whereas computers are downstream products, like cars, and they shouldn't be mixed together. Also, the energy and mining lab was changed to be the energy and resources lab, so that the organization at ITRI can match up better with modern industrial requirements.

Next comes administrative reform. I have set up a grading and evaluation system for personnel called the "blue form system." At the beginning of each year, each person must sit down with his or her supervisor and talk face-to-face. They write down the goals he or she hopes to accomplish in the coming year, such as how many plants to be visited, how many research reports to be written, and so on. Of course these can be amended in the course of the year, and then this form can be used at the end of the year as the basis for evaluating the annual performance.

Of course, when the blue form system began, there was some opposition because people did not know how to set targets for themselves or how to talk with their supervisors. But after three or four years of implementation, things have gradually gotten on track. It's just that ITRI requires that salaries be determined according to performance, and be kept secret. Though this goes without saying overseas, Chinese like to know how everybody else is doing and to reveal their salaries, which creates difficulties for this system.

Finally, it is inevitable that there will be set backs. And then there are cases like last year's Legislative Yuan elections, when one of our colleagues decided to run for office. Based on our mutual friendship, we assisted in the campaign, but this created a lot of misunderstanding and contention. For me it was really a painful lesson. In the future, if internally this large organization can retain coherence and become an integrated whole, and externally can remain vigorous and flexible with the ability to change methods whenever necessary, then ITRI could become even better.

[Picture Caption]

p.108

Although ITRI is a corporate entity legally speaking, in fact it has many political limitations. Clarifying its status is the major responsibility of President Otto C. C. Lin. (photo by Hsueh Chi-kuang)

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