成功的「金字招牌」——哈佛大學

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1990 / 3月

文‧李光真 圖‧鄭元慶


曾經有人在台灣做過「世界上知名度最高的大學」的調查,結果「哈佛」以壓倒性多數榮登榜首。的確,翻開台北市的電話簿,你也會看到哈佛企管班、哈佛管理叢書、哈佛幼稚園、哈佛婚姻廣場、哈佛眼鏡行……等一連串標榜「哈佛」的廣告,哈佛的勢力真是無孔不入。

 

話說回來,「哈佛」真是象徵「最高品質」嗎?它的「金字招牌」魅力在那堙H


有人說,「好」大學都是「老」大學,這句話或許不能「放諸四海而皆準」,但的確有它的道理。

舉幾個例子:目前世界排名第一的法國巴黎大學,正是歐洲(也是西方)的「大學之母」;而「學術聖城」牛津、劍橋,則開啟了英國高等教育的濫觴;再看俄國莫斯科大學、德國海德堡大學,那一個不是擁有足以傲視群倫的悠遠傳統?

上承劍橋,下啟「長春藤」

也因此,要了解美國「長春藤盟校」的老大——哈佛,首先得回溯它的光榮歷史。

和它的「母大學」——牛津、劍橋一樣,哈佛的創校宗旨也是為了培養牧師。只是在西元一六三六年創校時,整個新英格蘭地區還是「蠻荒之地」,波士頓城本身也只有短短十年不到的歷史,無怪乎「哈佛」最初只是個不起眼的小機構,連正式名稱都沒有。

西元一六三七年,一位從英國劍橋大學伊曼紐(以馬瑞利)學院畢業的校友——約翰.哈佛——來到美國,他秉持著牛劍人「學術至上」的觀念,想在哈佛所在地——緊鄰波士頓的「新城」創立一所學校,已經有初步規模的哈佛(當時還不叫哈佛)於是雀屏中選。

有趣的是,這位哈佛先生並不要求學校取名「哈佛」,卻要求將整個「新城」改名為「劍橋鎮」以紀念自己的母校,同時含有「薪火相傳」的意味。可惜第二年秋天(一六三八年),這位年僅卅的哈佛先生就因為肺病溘然長逝了。

哈佛臨終時將一半家產——約七百八十英鎊、及二百六十冊藏書統統捐給學校。這在當時真是了不起的大手筆,於是校方也慷慨地將學校命名為「哈佛」,以資紀念。

有關哈佛先生的趣聞軼事在校園中始終流傳著,其中最有名的,首推「三個謊言」的銅像。

歷史悠久,傳奇豐富

這座銅像位於遊人訪客必經的「哈佛園」內,英挺的塑像下有三行字:約翰.哈佛,創校者,一六三八。

事實上,如前所述,哈佛創校於一六三六年,哈佛先生充其量只能算贊助者;更荒謬的是,這個英挺塑像根本不是哈佛本人,而是校方在遍尋不著他的「檔案照片」,無奈之下找的替身——一位有模特兒風範的哈佛校友。這對以「真理」為校訓的哈佛來說,光是「出身」都弄得不明不白,將錯就錯,也算是糗事一件吧!

哈佛的歷史不僅頗富傳奇,更重要的是,創校三百五十四年來,哈佛出過六任總統,並且始終是美國政經文化的重鎮。有人說,「哈佛史」就是一部「美國史」,這句話絕不誇張。

遠從「美國獨立革命」說起,「哈佛公園」就曾經是華盛頓將軍的「指揮總部」所在地,而英美雙方一決勝負的關鍵——三座加農砲,目前仍然安放此地,供人憑弔。

此外,南北美內戰期間,北軍傷亡慘重,這時第一個響應林肯總統號召,組成志願兵團的,也是一位劍橋鎮民。不少哈佛學生在內戰中捐軀,他們的英名都列在哈佛的「紀念教堂」中。同一座教堂的四壁上,還排滿了在第一、第二次世界大戰及越戰中慷慨成仁的「哈佛之子」英烈榜。每位到此一遊的訪客,看到這份密密麻麻的名單時,都會立刻感受到一股陰沈哀穆的氣氛,久久也揮不去。

你也可以留名哈佛!

哈佛不僅擁有歷史,它對歷史人物的尊崇也是「誠於中,形於外」的。以全校數百棟大大小小的建築來說,幾乎沒有一座不是以和哈佛有關(多半是捐助者或是校長、院長)的人名來命名的。

舉例來說,遇刺身亡的甘乃迪總統是「哈佛之子」,也是哈佛學子的「偶像」之一,以他命名的,不僅有著名的甘乃迪政治學院,還有環繞附近的甘乃迪紀念公園、甘乃迪街、甘乃迪學社……等等,光憑在此擁有的一席之地,就足以使甘乃迪不朽了吧!

哈佛的「命名哲學」,並不純然是「歌功頌德」的酬庸,它往往也紀錄了整個大學的成長過程。像是哈佛文理研究所的行政大樓——拜爾里堂,就是為紀念哈佛有史以來第一位榮獲數學博士的威廉.E.拜爾里教授;而以研究非洲及非裔美籍黑人問題著稱的杜伯瓦學社,也同樣是以第一位獲得哈佛博士文憑的美籍黑人W.E.B.杜伯瓦來命名的。這也似乎意味著——只要你有開創性的成就,哈佛總會將你記上一筆,讓你永遠「名垂母校」!

哈佛重視歷史,自然對它的母校——劍橋——的種種傳承也是崇敬有加。「牛劍雙璧」的貴族傳統中,不計成本,完全以學生為中心的「書院制」、「導師制」,在此地雖然已經式微,但在大學部還是可以找到一點「遺風」。

哈佛之子,「貴」在大學

首先要知道的是,身為「貴族中的貴族」學校,哈佛之驕貴,不在外國學生佔三分之一的十大研究所,而在大學部。

對學校來說,為數六千多人的大學生多半自費來此,是哈佛的「衣食父母」,學校有必要小心呵護。因此每年大一新生一入學,都被安排在校區中心的「哈佛園」中住宿,並且在大學餐廳用餐。食宿設備或許不算豪華,但卻有訓導師(Proctor)負責照料生活起居,而全體新生朝夕相處,也可以培養「哈佛意識」、增廣彼此的見聞。

「新鮮人」生涯結束時,全體學生再以抽籤方式分配到十三棟不同的「學舍」(相當於劍橋的「書院」),如果沒有意外,這就是他們往後三年的棲身之地了。大部分學舍都座落在景色優美的查爾斯河畔,每棟學舍還有不同顏色的鐘樓圓頂:有的金光閃耀、有的鮮翠、有的朱紅……,遠遠望去,的確充滿了「夢幻」氣息。

沈默的教育革命——核心課程

哈佛大學部的教學制度尤其特殊,大一新生入學是不分科系的,只要從五大「核心課程」入手,培養學生對學術範圍和研究方法的初步概念,這也是哈佛大學部標榜「通識教育」的精神所在。

所謂的「核心課程」,包括文學與藝術、歷史、社會分析及道德觀、自然科學、外國文化等五大類。這份在一九七八年,由哈佛文理學院院長羅索維斯基提出的課程設計相當新,立刻在西方學術界引起極大的衝擊和討論。在方法上,它也完全打破傳統科系的分類,而以某一個「專題」做為研究重點。

舉例來說,在「歷史」課程中,有的課以「法國大革命」為主題,有的專門探討「十字軍東征」,學生不僅要掌握基本的「史觀」,還要能從文化、人類社會學、心理學、經濟學、政治學、宗教……等多種角度切入問題核心,以抽絲剝繭的方式慢慢釐清紊亂表象。而經過這樣的探究過程,這些歷史事件和學生的生活經驗緊緊交融,原本事不關己的空洞名詞,至此也就成為學生認知中,有血有肉的一部分。

升上二年級,學生可以嘗試著在四十多種不同的課程分類中,去挑選自己的「主修」,而學校從一開始就不禁止學生多試試幾種選擇。對哈佛人來說,從各種排列組合中,去揣摩、設計一個符合自己性向的「個人課程」,是很大的成就感;當然,若總是心猿意馬、不知道何去何從時,還是要儘快求教於負責課業輔導的導師(Tutor)。

既然不分科系,哈佛大學部(簡稱「哈佛學院」)也就自成一個完整系統。而大學部課業重歸重,但富家子佻達、倜儻的作風,還是劍橋鎮上最受人矚目的焦點。每天晚上,在「哈佛廣場」上拿著吉他自彈自唱、大聲喧鬧;在法國麵包城徹夜高談闊論;或是開著名貴跑車在查爾斯河畔發「飆」的,多半是這群「天之驕子」。

醫商法政,金字招牌

相較之下,哈佛真正的學術重心——十大研究學院,就顯得氣氛肅穆、光影黯淡得多了。

提起哈佛的十大研究所,無一不是享有赫赫聲名的。位於波士頓城鬧區的哈佛醫學院、牙醫學院,及公共衛生學院,長久以來一直領導著世界醫學走向。雄偉的校區建築中,鮮少有人閒遊、談笑,所有的師生都忙著在實驗室、臨床醫院及圖書館中埋頭苦幹,和外面擾嚷的市街形成明顯對比。

哈佛的管理課程——法學院、商學院、甘乃迪政治學院,也同樣以訓練精良聞名。這幾個學院是哈佛的「金字招牌」,凡是到此地苦讀一番,拿到學位的,都彷佛鍍了一層金,立刻身價暴漲。

除了這些「炙手可熱」的熱門學院外,哈佛的文理、教育、神學以及設計學院,也都是全美數一數二的。哈佛本來有十足的優越條件可以發展為「全科大學」,然而在緊鄰的麻省理工學院強勢「陰影」下,哈佛既不敢吃力不討好地貿然籌設工學院,多次要「購併」麻省理工學院又被峻拒,以至於哈佛「大矣美矣,獨缺工科」,的確是美中不足的憾事。

冷門課程,貢獻卓著

話說回來,只要是在學校課程涵蓋範圍內的,哈佛總是力求完美、鉅細靡遺。因此,哈佛的冷門科系、冷門課程很多。

目前在中研院歷史語言研究所擔任研究員的洪金富,是國內的「元史」專家,而在哈佛五年,他就充分見識了哈佛治學的廣博、精微。

洪金富在哈佛的老師是位研究元朝蒙漢碑文的學者,以嚴謹的考據方式來推衍當時蒙漢兩族的文化交流狀況。「這門學問這麼冷門,連國內都沒有什麼人注意,但在哈佛,這門學問已經有相當長久的歷史,不僅有教授能教、有學生願意學、而且各種語文的參考書籍齊備,實在令人不得不佩服!」洪金富說。

曾以「訪問學者」身分在哈佛研究一年的中研院經濟研究所副研究員陸雲也認為,哈佛冷門科系多,正是財力雄厚的私立學校「回饋」學術界的最佳方式。

「一般公立、州立學校礙於政策,總要以滿足最多數學生的需求為前提,因此很多值得研究、但卻不具實用功能的科系就只有割捨。」陸雲認為,以「學術生態學」來看,長此以往,當然會有偏頗,因此哈佛願意投資冷門科目,意義十分重大。

領導潮流,勇於創新

冷門科目多,不僅展現哈佛教授群的「實力」,有時候抓對了方向,還能開風氣之先,為學術界另闢新領域。

「以『婦女研究』為例,在六○年代初期,婦運才剛剛萌芽,哈佛的『婦女研究』就已經開出博士課程」,陸雲指出,不到十年,這門學問躋身全世界最熱門的科目之一,哈佛的「洞見」居功厥偉。

有獨到的「洞見」、勇於創新,正是哈佛始終走在時代尖端,聲譽不墜的原因之一。

以教學方法來說,近代教育史上的幾項重大突破,都在哈佛手中實現,像是「選修」制度,通識教育的理念、科際整合的方法,乃至於最新的醫學教育改革……等等,每每帶給全世界學術界深遠的影響。

以「選修制」為例,在傳統大學中,幾乎所有科目都屬於「必修」,整個教學過程只能在相當僵化的模式下進行。一八六九年,卅五歲的伊利歐特榮膺哈佛大學第廿五任校長,他在就職典禮致詞時,就大力鼓吹「選修制」——老師願意開什麼課,悉聽尊便;學生願意選什麼課,也不加干涉,在當時引起許多質疑。

事實證明,「選修制」的好處多多。不但「學術自由」得以奠基,而且多了這份自主權,師生雙方更能培養「為自己負責」的心態。最重要的是,每個人依自己的興趣做不同的研究,學術領域逐漸拓展,終於出現今天「百家爭鳴、百花齊放」的繁榮景象。

在一八七○年出任首屆哈佛法學院院長的蘭德爾,也提出幾個至今全世界一致採行的創新理念,其中的「個案研究」、「蘇格拉底式」教學法,更使得哈佛的法商及政經教育獨步全球。有人稱蘭德爾是哈佛「金字招牌」的鑄造者,的確不假。

「實務經驗」重於理論

所謂「個案研究」,原先指的是以法官曾做過的「判例」為研討對象,但目前已經廣泛應用在各個領域,技巧也不斷修正。例如商學院中,以「如何為聯合航空公司選擇最適當的輻輳機場地點?」為題,就足以引發一連串的熱烈討論,再透過以師生間反覆辯證來尋求答案的「蘇格拉底式」教學法,更能使學生掙脫僵硬的條文及原理,直接進入現實問題的核心。

當然,要將「個案研究」的技巧充分發揮,則「實務經驗」和分析、辯證的能力同等重要,否則,一個從來沒在社會上討過生活、連人情世故都搞不清楚的人,單憑「一加一等於二」的紙上作業,就想掌握一個事件背後複雜的運作過程,往往會落得「失之毫釐、差以千里」。

也因此,哈佛各研究院最歡迎的,不是剛從大學溫床中出來的「菜鳥」,而是歷練豐富的「老手」,而商學院更明文規定只收有兩年以上工作經驗的學生。其他如教育學院,學生的平均年齡超過卅歲,其中也不乏已經任教多年,「教然後知不足」的人。

此外,為了拓展學生的視野,哈佛也常邀請重要人物來「現身說法」。獲哈佛法學博士,目前擔任財政部政務次長的賴英照就有多次難忘的回憶:在法學院龐德大樓四樓的大廳,每星期總有三、四天中午有演講,演講者、教授、學生都在三樓自助餐廳買份便餐帶上來,邊吃邊談,然後才正式開講。在哈佛前後五年,賴英照聽過許多精彩的演講、答辯,收穫絕不亞於課堂上的學習。

國際動態,盡在掌中

而拜「一流名校」的聲譽所賜,來哈佛現身說法的人物都非「泛泛之輩」,而且各具特色,不僅有各國達官顯貴、也有流亡在美的反對派人士,如菲律賓的艾奎諾、韓國的金大中等人都曾應邀來此。

「這種活動,一方面代表哈佛一向關心國際政經動態的傳統,一方面提供學生學習從正面、反面、側面等各種不同角度剖析問題的機會」,賴英照說,更重要的,能夠和這些名人顯貴「面對面」討論問題,大大提高了哈佛學生的自視,以及對整個世界歷史的「參與感」。

同樣基於重視「實務經驗」的理念,也使得哈佛願意花大把鈔票敦聘退休的政府要員、企業主管來此授課。他們或許學術理論的基礎不怎麼樣,但卻個個深懂「權謀」之術,又有各種良好「關係」,能夠長袖善舞、呼風喚雨。

對於他們來說,哈佛這樣的一流名校既然肯給他們「教授」的尊銜,他們也樂意透過各種方式為學校募捐、為學生找「錢」途。

只是,過分將學術和實務混為一談,終究會有弊端。前不久有位曾任哈佛研究員的作家寫了一本書——「帝國建造者」,書中「指控」哈佛商學院某些教授在大企業中有豐厚的顧問合同或董事職位,進而質疑他們為人師表、傳道授業的「道德品質」;而各種哈佛策略給人「只求成功、不擇手段」的印象,也令有識之士憂心。

有錢才能辦教育?

哈佛的功利色彩的確頗濃,「銅臭味」十足。以最淳樸、沒有什麼「賺錢術」可以標榜的文理學院來說,從拿到申請表格開始,哈佛就不斷地提醒你「錢、錢、錢」!

「請問府上有沒有僕人?僕人的年薪多少?」「府上有自己的房子嗎?如果現在出售可以賣多少錢?還有多少貸款未還?」「你的轎車是什麼廠牌、什麼年份的?」——驚訝嗎?這只是哈佛獎學金申請表上洋洋灑灑問題欄中的幾項而已。

這也難怪。以文理學院來說,今年的學雜費加保險費已高達一萬四千多美元,再加上波士頓區物價奇貴,若沒有二萬五至三萬美元在身上,要想在哈佛待一年,恐怕花在「愁」錢的時間,會比定下心來念書的時間還長呢!

另一方面,雖然校方宣稱百分之八十五的研究生領有各種管道的獎助學金,雖然學雜費從第三年起就減價優待為三千多美元,但為了一個哈佛學位弄得家財耗盡的,還是大有人在。

許多人認為哈佛貴得沒道理,現任哈佛中國同學會會長的藍美華也戲稱哈佛為「販賣學術的學店」。話說回來,在人類文明已經進展到物質掛帥的時代,除了極少數象牙塔堛瑣ヶ搳X—如古典文字等,一般所謂「學術」,的確已經成為用錢堆砌出來的商品。這只要看看大學排行榜的評估標準中,學校預算、研究經費、設備、師資、論文發表篇數……等和「錢」有關的項目佔了很重的份量,便可以略窺一二了。

終也難逃「經濟法則」?

在「美國新聞與世界報導」機構舉辦的一項大型高等教育現況調查中,就有大學校長預測:「資金不夠、又沒有能力籌款、募款的學校,不出十年,就會慢慢輸給有錢有勢的學校。」

這話誠然不假。哈佛之所以給人「功利」的印象,也無非是它要盡其所能,出最高的酬勞延聘名師、爭取研究經費留住好學生,再提供最好的圖書設備、電腦系統,以及完全自由的學術環境,讓師生各取所需、各展所能。

諷刺的是,根據美國最近幾年的大學排行調查,哈佛已經落於西岸新崛起的史丹福大學之後,屈居第二。

對於這點,陸雲則提出「經濟法則」:哈佛的發展本來就和美國國力的擴展息息相關;在第二次世界大戰前,哈佛只是美國的著名學府,第二次世界大戰後,隨著美國勢力的延伸,哈佛的名聲才傳至全世界。如今美國漸趨沒落,取而代之的,是以日本領銜的亞太經濟圈,而史丹福大學和亞太各國僅有一洋之隔,當然「錢」途不可限量了!

是耶?非耶?或許只有讓時間來證明了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.117

這就是「哈佛園」中著名的「三個謊言的塑像」。

P.118

哈佛的建築橫跨長久年代,風貌繁複。這棟古老建築就頗有中古遺風。

P.119

這是哈佛大學舉辦GRE考試的盛況。

P.120

「哈佛園」中這一排清一色的「哈佛紅」建築,是全美國大學的發軔之地。

P.121

波士頓的冬日向來以陰冷蕭瑟著稱,偶爾出一天太陽,就會讓人心情分外愉快。

P.122

這棟建築是哈佛設計學院所在,著名的華裔建築大師貝聿銘也出身於此。

P.123

景色優美的查爾斯河畔,每逢天晴,總是遊人如織。(甘德星提供)

P.123

繼承牛劍傳統的哈佛、耶魯划船競技,是兩校一年一度的盛事,因此平日便勤練不輟。(甘德星提供)

P.124

這座位於「哈佛園」中的石碑,是「中國哈佛同學會」為慶祝母校三百週年慶所捐獻的。

P.125

細細流覽,哈佛之美觸目皆是。這座鐘塔上迎風搖曳的小旗子,不也別有一番情趣?

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EN

Harvard University: A "Gold-Plated" Name

Laura Li /photos courtesy of Arthur Cheng /tr. by Peter Eberly

A survey was once taken in Taiwan of "the most famous universities in the world," and Harvard captured first-place honors by an overwhelming majority. Indeed, a flip through the Taipei phone book turns up the Harvard School of Business Management, the Harvard Nursery School, the Harvard Wedding Salon, the Harvard Optical Co., and a host of other companies with Harvard in their names.

Is Harvard really a symbol of premier quality? What's the allure of its "goldplated" name?


Some people say every good university is an old university. Paris, Oxford, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Moscow--the top universities in each country all seem to be those with the longest traditions.

Like Oxford and Cambridge, Harvard was originally founded to train men of the cloth. But in 1636 most of New England was still untamed wilderness, Boston itself having been founded just ten years earlier, and Harvard was an unprepossessing little school without even a formal name. In 1637 a graduate of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, named John Harvard came to America and set out to make something of the school He died the next year at the age of thirty, but he left the school his library and half his estate, and the authorities named it after him in his honor.

Harvard University not only has a long history, it expresses its respect for historical figures in manifest fashion. Almost all of the university's hundreds of buildings, large or small, are named after personages connected with the institution in some way.

Emphasizing history as it does, Harvard naturally cherishes the heritage of its mother school, Cambridge. Although the collegiate and tutorial system of the aristocratic Oxbridge tradition, sparing no expense and centered completely on the students, has vanished, traces of it remain in the undergraduate section.

The first thing to realize is that what Harvard really prides itself on is not its ten graduate schools, where a third of the students are foreigners, but its undergraduate program.

The more than 6,000 undergraduates, most of whom pay their own way, are the university's bread and butter and have to be carefully coddled. As a result, incoming freshmen are housed their first year right on Harvard Yard, the campus center, and take their meals in the university dining hall. The facilities may not be luxurious, but the students are looked after by proctors, and having the entire freshmen body live together day and night enables them to cultivate a Harvard mentality and to broaden their mutual understanding.

Sophomores are assigned by lottery to one of thirteen residential houses (equivalent to the colleges at Cambridge and Oxford), which become their place of residency for their remaining three years. Most of the houses are situated along the scenic banks of the Charles River, each with a different color cupola: glittering gold, bright green, vermilion . . . a truly charming sight when seen from a distance.

The system of instruction at Harvard is particularly distinctive. Rather than concentrating on a single department, incoming freshmen select courses from the core curriculum, which is designed to provide an awareness of the methods and fundamental assumptions of the major fields of study.

The core curriculum covers the five areas of literature and arts, historical study, social analysis and moral reasoning, science, and foreign cultures. Introduced in 1978, the plan created an immediate stir in Western academic circles by breaking through traditional departmental categories.

In their sophomore year, students can select from more than forty different categories in choosing a field of concentration. Harvard students feel a sense of accomplishment designing a personalized course of study that suits their own inclinations, and if they don't know where to start they can turn to their tutor for help.

Not being divided into departments, the college forms a complete entity unto itself, and the undergraduates--whether strumming guitars and singing in Harvard Square, engaged in late-night discussions in coffeeshops or bakeries, or tooling along the banks of the Charles in expensive sports cars--are the most conspicuous members of the university: "heaven's favored children."

The ten graduate schools, which form the real academic core of Harvard, appear much less colorful in comparison. Yet each enjoys an awesome reputation. The only field missing is engineering, where Harvard stands in the shadow of neighboring MIT.

As long as a field is included in its curriculum, however, Harvard seeks perfection, no matter how obscure or out of the way the subject may be. Hung Chin-fu, a researcher in the Department of History and Languages at Academia Sinica and an expert in Yuan dynasty history, came to fully appreciate the breadth and detail of the university's academic offerings during his five years of study there. Yuan dynasty history "is such an unpopular field that hardly anyone in Taiwan pays attention to it, but at Harvard there are not only professors who can teach it and students who want to study it but complete reference materials in all the various languages as well. You can't help being amazed!" he exclaims.

Lu Yun, an assistant researcher at the Academia's Institute of Economics who spent a year at Harvard as a visiting scholar, says that offering so many out-of-the-way subjects is the best way for a well-heeled private university like Harvard to contribute to the academic world. "Most public and state universities have to put first priority on meeting the needs of the great majority of students, so many fields that are worth researching but have little practical value get dropped," he explains, stressing the significance of Harvard's willingness to invest in unpopular, out-of-the-way fields.

To broaden the students' horizons, Harvard often invites important figures to lecture at the university in person. And thanks to the school's first-rate reputation, willing takers are not hard to come by. They include personages of all stripes: not only leaders and officials of various foreign governments but exiled oppositionists as well, such as Benigno Aquino of the Philippines and Kim Dae Jung of South Korea.

"On the one hand it represents Harvard's tradition of concern for international politics and economics, and on the other it gives students a chance to analyze an issue from all different angles," says Lai Ing-chao, who earned a doctorate in law from Harvard and is now vice minister of political affairs in the Ministry for Financial Affairs. Even more importantly, being able to discuss issues with noted figures face to face greatly raises students' self-assurance and their sense of participation in history.

For a similar reason, Harvard is willing to shell out what it takes to engage former administration officials and retired CEOs as professors. They may not have much of a foundation in academic theory, but they know the ropes and how to get things done. In return, they are more than willing to use their powerful influence in helping to raise money.

Harvard does indeed have a thick smell of the cashbox about it. Beginning right with the application form, it constantly reminds you about "money, money, money!"

Tuition and fees this year have climbed to more than US$14,000, and the cost of living in Boston is high. If you don't have US$25,000 to US$30,000 on hand and still want to stay at Harvard for a year, you'll probably end up spending more time worrying about money than studying!

And although university authorities claim that 85 percent of graduate students receive some form of financial assistance, many are they who exhaust the family savings to come up with a Harvard degree.

In a large-scale review of the current state of higher education in America conducted by U.S. News and World Report, one college president was quoted as saying: "Those schools that are less well endowed or lack the ability to raise funds will spend the next decade losing ground to the strong institutions."

True enough. Harvard exudes such a materialistic air simply because it is doing its best to attract the most notable professors, to provide the best facilities, and to offer a completely free academic environment in which students and teachers can find what they want and develop to the best of their abilities.

Ironically, according to most rankings of American universities during the past several years, Harvard has dropped to second place behind up-and-coming Stanford University on the West Coast.

Lu Yun offers an economic theory as to that. Harvard's development has always been closely related to the expansion of U.S. national power. Before World War Ⅱ Harvard was just a famous American university. It was not until the expansion of American power after the war that Harvard's reputation spread worldwide. Now the United States is gradually being overtaken by the countries of Asia and the Pacific, led by Japan. Stanford is just an ocean away from Asia, so of course Harvard's days are numbered!

True or false? Only time will tell.

[Picture Caption]

A statue reputed to represent founder John Harvard.

The scene of the GREs held at Harvard.

The architecture at Harvard, stretching across many eras, presents a complex mix. This old building has a medieval air.

This row of buildings in Harvard Yard, all Harvard Crimson in color, stands at the cradle of American colleges.

Boston winters are famous for being dreary and overcast, so the occasional sunny day makes people especially happy.

This building houses the Harvard School of Design, where the famous Chinese-born architect I. M. Pei got his start.

The lovely banks of the Charles River are crowded with strollers whenever the weather is nice. (photo courtesy of Kan Teh-hsing)

In line with Oxford and Cambridge tradition, the crew race between Harvard and Yale is a big annual event, and the practice for it goes on year round. (photo courtesy of Kan Teh-hsing)

This stone marker, located in Harvard Yard, was donated by the Harvard Chinese Alumni Association in commemoration of the school's tricentennial.

A close look reveals the beauty of Harvard every-where. Doesn't the little flag waving on top of this cupola have a charm all its own?

 

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