東歐世界的人權何在?

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1999 / 4月

文‧美國 雷恩葉博士李家慧譯寫



編輯先生:

歷史事件的因果關係,往往需要我們拉長時間來看,才能得知分曉。

巴爾幹半島的悲劇可以溯源至「得利亞儂條約」,奧匈帝國解體,捷克斯洛伐克、南斯拉夫及羅馬尼亞新興國家相繼成立。這些人為強制劃分的邊界,使得阿爾巴尼亞的回教徒與塞爾維亞人共處一地、強令捷克人與斯洛伐克人併為一國,埋下現今巴爾幹半島戰火的導火線。

當時劃分國家疆界時,並未考慮「全民公投」的原則,忽視不同種族所形成的無形疆界,使得解體後的奧匈帝國中三分之一的人口(奧匈帝國人口四千八百萬,其中一千六百萬被劃入其他民族為主的國家疆界內),淪為少數民族。這些人並不是離鄉背井的移民,卻在不得已的情況下成為自家境內的「異邦人」。

當時在位的美國總統威爾遜,主張以「多瑙邦聯」取代奧匈帝國,並希望基於「民族自決」的原則,以公投來釐訂邦聯內部的疆界,然而他的提議卻被丟在一邊。一九一九年三月三怳@日,威爾遜提出盟國劃分匈牙利的方式不合情理,不幸他的意見又遭法國否決。最後,雖然美國國會拒絕簽署「得利亞儂條約」,但大勢底定,割地畫界的決議成立。

一個社會文明程度的指標,端視其對少數族群權益的尊重而定。捷克斯洛伐克、南斯拉夫及羅馬尼亞嘗以開除國籍、種族屠殺、驅逐出境、強迫遷徙與驅散,以及其他種種斬草除根的方式來解決其境內的少數民族問題,匈牙利人被迫在國籍及財產之間作抉擇。由於這些戰後新興國家的種種高壓與迫害政策,約有三怳飛U生於斯、長於斯的匈牙利人流離失所,他們不得不咬著牙拋棄所有,倉皇逃到今天的匈牙利國境內。

西元一九五六年後,匈牙利首都布達佩斯的青年們,雖一度英勇抗暴,重創共產主義,但卻使得捷克斯洛伐克、南斯拉夫、羅馬尼亞等這些新興的共黨國家統治者,得以鎮壓境內叛亂之名,變本加厲地強迫同化其境內少數的匈裔同胞。羅馬尼亞乘勢廢除了外西凡尼爾的匈牙利自治區;南斯拉夫也藉機收回了佛佛迪那的自治權,至今,三百萬生活在這些國家境內的匈牙利人,仍必須仰人鼻息,無法享有一九二○及一九四五年兩次世界大戰後,列強保證給予的自治權。

奧匈帝國解體迄今已八抩l年,近二千多萬無辜的少數族裔同胞,受足了三個世代的苦楚。今天南斯拉夫戰火正熾,我們應當開始正視中歐地區的重建問題。更重要的是,在重建過程中,主事者應著眼於建立一個長治久安的中歐聯邦,而非創造許多隱含種族仇恨的小國。解鈴還須繫鈴人,為了中歐的穩定與繁榮,中歐秩序的藍圖必須由當地所有少數民族共同執筆籌畫,以締造出一個美好的願景。

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EN

Human Rights in Eastern Europe

Dr. Alfonz Lengyel, USA


Dear Editor:

The tragedy of the Balkans can be traced back to Trianon, where from the fragments of Hungary, the successor states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and greater Romania were created. These artificial formations forced Albanian Muslims to live with Serbs and compelled Czechs to live with Slovaks. It takes time for historic events to reveal their consequences.

The new borders were not drawn on the basis of plebiscites. By ignoring the ethnographic borders, the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian empire, population 48 million, resulted in16 million people becoming ethnic minorities. These minorities were not emigrants who voluntarily left their old country, but people who never moved from their hometowns, yet became foreigners because the borders were redrawn around them.

President Wilson asked for a Danubian Confederation to replace the monarchy and wanted to draw the internal borders within it, on the basis of self-determination through plebiscites, but his views were disregarded. On March 31, 1919, he called the proposed dismemberment of Hungary absurd, but was overruled by the French. As a result, the United States Congress refused to approve the Treaty of Trianon, but the treaty was implemented anyway.

In any society, the test of civilization is respect for minority rights. The successor states which were created attempted to solve their minority problems through denationalization, ethnic cleansing, deportations, expulsions, transfers, dispersions and many other forms of uprooting. Hungarians had to choose between their nationality and their property. Because of intimidation and coercion, 350,000 Hungarians decided to leave all their possessions behind and flee to Hungary.

After 1956, when the heroic children of Budapest mortally wounded Communism, the rulers of the successor states used the uprising as a pretext to speed up the forced assimilation of their Hungarian minorities and things got even worse for Europe's largest minority. It was after the Hungarian revolution, when the remaining autonomous Hungarian regions of Transylvania in Romania and Vojvodina in Yugoslavia had been abolished. Today, in those artificially created countries the over 3 million Hungarians have no autonomy at all, although it has been guaranteed by the Great Powers in 1920, again in 1945, and once more by the European Parliament in 1993, in Article 11 of Decision 1201.

Problems do not solve themselves accidentally. Those who want a better future must first have a plan, a concept of that future. For the stability and prosperity of Central Europe, that plan should start with autonomy for all the minorities of the region and could eventually aim for a large and therefore stable voluntary federation.

It would be fitting if on the 80th anniversary of the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and after the resulting terrible suffering of three generations of some 20 million innocent people of ethnic minorities, we would start the process of rebuilding. It would be even more fitting if in this process of rebuilding, we would not be creating hostile and unviable mini-states, but would aim at a stable and powerful Federation of Central Europe.

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