「民意部長」理交通——張建邦

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1989 / 8月

文‧宋菊琴 圖‧黃麗梨


此次內閣改組,台北市議會議長張建邦入主交通部,成為內閣異動中唯一部長級人選,也創下第一位由民意代表直接拔擢入閣的先例。

 

張建邦是執政黨中常委,知名度雖然不小,但是過去「新聞曝光率」較低,個人主要資歷也頗為單純,曾任淡江大學校長廿二年,台北市議會副議長、議長共廿年。

 

被戲稱為「苦守寒窯廿載」的張建邦,終於得以破窯而出,但投入的卻是千頭萬緒、錯綜複雜的交通部,不少人為他捏把冷汗,認為他在跳「火坑」。原本專攻「經濟」與「教育」的他,將如何迎接來自「交通」的嚴酷挑戰呢?


首先回顧一下張建邦的經歷,他以農業經濟的專長接掌淡江大學,在具備了教育行政的特長後,又投身台北市議會;而在他對台北市政瞭若指掌之後,他的頭銜並未改為台北市長或教育部長,而是爆出冷門的交通部長。

但是,從他甫接掌交通部就擊出幾個漂亮的「安打」,就又叫人不得輕忽他的實力。

六月四日中共血洗天安門事件爆發後,爭議已久的兩岸通訊問題,經行政院大陸工作會報正式核准,可經由第三地區轉接。交通部展現最佳效率,三天內,海峽兩岸便正式通話。

北部第二條高速公路(北二高)徵收土地補償費過低問題,地主代表原定六月三日前往國民黨二中全會現場示威抗議,張建邦獲悉後,主動邀約地主代表溝通,結束了這場風波。

農經碩士管淡大

張建邦出身宜蘭羅東望族。日據時代有錢人家的子弟大都送到日本讀書,父親卻堅持要他接受祖國教育。他十一歲就由祖母陪同到上海,自小學開始接受完整的中文教育。

在上海頗負盛譽的教會學校——聖約翰大學經濟系畢業後,他赴美國伊利諾大學取得農業經濟碩士學位。當初的理想是,「中國以農立國,百分之八十是農民,要解決中國的問題,須從農業改革著手」,張建邦說。

原擬繼續攻讀博士學位,卻因父親突然病逝,他匆匆返國接掌由父親一手創辦的淡江文理學院(淡江大學的前身),開始全心投入教育行政工作。

年輕時的滿腔農業改革熱忱,只在台大農經系兼了十年的課,「現在已經跟不上了,連教書都不行了」,張建邦笑著說。

入主淡江,他開始自修教育行政、行為科學等書籍,在講求分層負責的管理理念下充分授權。民國五十四年,張建邦在參加哈佛大學舉行的一項國際會議後,帶回了未來學的觀念,為了推展未來學,他還創辦了一本「明日世界」月刊。

「根據過去的經驗推測未來趨勢,做出決策,是普遍運用的思考模式;所謂未來學,是指先訂定未來的目標,再依此目標規劃達成目標的步驟。這兩種思考方式應相互運用,做為決策時的依據」,張建邦主張。

受了未來學的影響,他為淡江大學創下了三個第一:是公私立大學中最早引進資訊教育的學府;是國內圖書館中第一個全部採用電腦自動化整合系統者;是國內唯一講求區域研究的學府,設有美國、歐洲、日本、拉丁美洲等研究所。

議會衝突是正常

張建邦辦教育是「父命不可違」,進入政壇奉的則是「黨命」。

民國五十八年,台北市改制為院轄市,第一屆市議員選舉提名時,張建邦遠在英國開會,返國甫抵機場就被記者包圍,鎂光燈閃爍不停,他一問之下,才知已被國民黨提名參加競選。他第一個反應是:「要一個學者到處向人拉票,不太好意思吧?」在經國先生「教育固然重要,台北市也很重要」的指示下,張建邦在台北市議會一連擔任了十二年副議長,八年議長。

從按部就班的學術界進入毫無軌跡可循的議會,曾有人擔心張建邦無法適應。但他面對著這群「自命不凡」的議員自有妙招。

「不能嚴格執行議事規則,否則會引起對抗,要瞭解每位議員不同的性格,分別以不同方式處理」,深諳教育界老前輩——孔子——「因材施教」之道的張建邦,便以圓熟的處事態度,稱職地扮演了「救火隊長」的角色。

在議會中衝突四起時,很難有人能常保心平氣和,張建邦如何能「老神在在」地為人「滅火」呢?

「議會中先天存在著黨派、利益團體的衝突,這是民主政治必然現象,所以民主政治效率差,極權政治效率高」,他說。在這認識之下,面對議會紛擾,他都能尊重反對意見,再以他協調、溝通的能力,化解歧見。

他的作風不僅贏得黨籍議員的肯定,也獲反對黨的讚揚。在他離開市議會時,議員不分黨派,爭相歡送。

部長瘦了

當了交通部長才二星期,張建邦已足足瘦了三磅,每天早上八點上班,要忙到晚上十點才回家,有時還得帶五、六十件公文回去批。每週打兩次高爾夫球的習慣,已減為一次。但他樂觀地說:「這種情況,過一陣子就會好了。」

在交通專業知識方面,張建邦於台北市議會議長期間,因經常面對台北市交通問題,他已下了一番工夫研究,但交通部業務十分龐雜,張建邦為盡速進入狀況,一方面抽空聽取各單位簡報,一方面幾近事必躬親地批閱公文。

「以後會分層負責,依事務的重大程度分別授權各次長或司長直接裁決」,張建邦認為,「部長不必是專才,重要的是要會用專業人才。」

為此,他很注意提高員工的士氣。在他上任後開出的第一張支票是——明年三月選出的模範郵政人員,除了照往例有獎金、獎狀外,加出國考察一周。張建邦說:「對基層人員應有實質的鼓勵,才能完全發揮『獎』的功效。」

對於高層幹部,張建邦則鼓勵他們培養世界觀,多參加國際會議和加強在職訓練。

「員工福利和進修的錢是不能省的」,張建邦說。在這原則下,一連串的鼓勵措施將陸續出籠,這對振奮士氣將有實質的幫助。

溝通協調是關鍵

對外來說,交通部的業務與民眾生活息息相關,與各部會或地方政府有更多關聯,如何使政策能夠推展,協調和溝通能否成功是關鍵。這對有廿年議會歷練的張建邦來說,應是駕輕就熟;輿論界也認為,這正是張建邦能雀屏中選的原因。

此外,張建邦具中常委的身分,每週都得參加中常會,較其它部長級參加的行政院會之外,多了一次與層峰溝通的機會,相信對解決難題也可多一分助力。

其實張建邦的善於協調、溝通,不只是因為他「技巧嫻熟」、「管道比別人有力」;廿年的議會生涯,使他比別的官員更有機會瞭解民意、認同民意。

就以工程進度嚴重落後的北二高來說,前交通部長郭南宏在立法院質詢時就曾指出,徵收土地的地價補償問題,就是影響工程進度的主因。對此,張建邦的論點是,「犧牲小我,完成大我」的觀念要改變了,應使少數人也能得到犧牲應有的代價。他指出,像日本政府就儘量將徵收地價提高,使地主很願意配合政府的政策,「國家窮沒話說,現在有錢了,應該有合理補償」,他表示。

例如北二高新竹段的地價徵收依公告地價已無法調整,但是,有關地上物補償費用將在合理範圍內予以提高。尤其是土地全部被徵收者,將給予額外的補償;未來中南部地區土地徵收也將比照辦理。

「預算」是頭痛事

除了土地徵收的棘手問題之外,張建邦另一項「頭痛事」就是預算,每項工程計畫的預算都是筆天文數字。

張建邦認為,開放民營可解決經費問題。「由政府來做已不能滿足人民行的需要,加速交通建設必須善用民間力量」,他說。

對未來工作的大原則,張建邦仍是依交通部既定的短、中、長程的計畫進行。

短程計畫——北二高速公路落後的工程進度要盡快追趕;桃園中正機場的通關作業改善預訂九月底完成;電話線路不足要盡速解決。

中程計畫——興建南港到宜蘭的隧道;新竹至屏東的第二條高速公路;中正機場第二航空站;宜蘭沿海發展遊艇碼頭。

長程計畫——興建高速鐵路;在高雄外海填海建國際機場。

至於能做到什麼程度,張建邦說:「短程目標一定要做好,中程目標能開始動,而遠程目標也能有點眉目。」

集結行政管理與折衝長才的張建邦,一心想運用他的政治智慧,使交通部的政策能夠一項項順利推展,這也正是國人對他的殷切期望。

〔圖片說明〕

P.117

張建邦(右穿夾克者)於民國卅八年,在上海聖約翰大學與同學合影。(張建邦提供)

P.119

在身兼淡江大學校長及台北市議會副議長時,張建邦赴美國伊利諾大學攻讀博士學位,圖為獲博士學位時與伊大校長Dr. Stanley Ikenberry合照。(張建邦提供)

P.121

張建邦的全家福,分別是夫人張姜文錙(右二),女兒張家宜(彈琴者)、張室宜(左一)。(張建邦提供)

張建邦小檔案

.台灣省宜蘭縣人

.民國十八年三月十五日生

.上海聖約翰大學經濟學學士、美伊利諾大學農業經濟碩士、教育博士

.台灣大學、政治大學教授、淡江大學校長、董事長台北市議會第一、二、三屆副議長,第四、五屆議長

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Clement C.P. Chang--Master of Communications

Theresa Sung /photos courtesy of Lily Huang /tr. by Phil Newell

In the most recent cabinet change, Taipei City Council Speaker Clement C. P. Chang entered the cabinet with the Ministry of Communications portfolio, becoming the only ministerial-level change at the time. It was also a precedent for an elected official to move directly into the cabinet.

Clement Chang is a member of the Central Standing Committee of the Kuomintang. Though he is known, in the past his media exposure was low. His primary experience has also been relatively simple. He was president of Tamkang University for 22 years, and vice-speaker and speaker of the Taipei City Council for 20.

Chang has finally reached the top, but the footing is not easy. Many people thought of him as being sacrificed into the volcano when given the Communications task. How is it that Chang, who studied agricultural economics and education, is now taking on the Herculean challege of communications?


Chang took the reins at Tamkang University as a specialist in agricultural economics. After being seasoned in educational administration, he plunged into politics. After getting to know Taipei City, he went on not to become mayor of Taipei or even minister of education, but minister of communications.

But his performance since taking the job has left many feeling they underestimated him. The ministry was ready to implement the decision to open up communications to the mainland (through a third party) in three days. He directly faced and pacified protesting landowners demanding higher compensation for land used in the second north-south highway.

Chang is from a well-known family in Luotung, Ilan County. During the Japanese occupation, most wealthy families sent their children to Japan to study. But Chang's family insisted on a Chinese education, sending him to Shanghai at eleven years old.

After graduating from prestigious St. John's University in Shanghai, he earned an M.A. in agricultural economics from the University of Illinois. His ideal was that China had to build on agriculture, so one should start to work from there.

He planned to continue on with a Ph.D., but his father died. He hurried home to take over the Tamkang College of Arts and Sciences (predecessor to Tamkang University) which was founded by his father.

He turned his attention to educationad ministration and the behavioral sciences. After a conference at Harvard in 1965, he brought back the concept of futurology. He went on to found a monthly The World of Tomorrow. Imbued with futurology, he created three firsts at Tamkang: it was the earliest private university to bring in information education; the first domestic library to have full computerization; and the first school to offer area studies.

Going into education was "father's instruction." Going into politics was "party instructions."

In 1969, when Taipei was changed into a special municipality directly under the central government, Chang was abroad. Only when he returned home did he discover he had been nominated by the KMT to run in city council elections. His first response was, "To ask a scholar to go around begging for votes, isn't that a little embarrassing?" But under Chiang Ching-kuo's injunction, "though education is important, Taipei city is also important," Chang came to serve twelve years as council vice-speaker and eight more as speaker.

Some feared he would be out of his element. But Chang says, "You couldn't just go strictly by the book. You had to understand the different personality of each councilman, and use different methods to deal with them."

"It's innate that conflicts of factions and interest groups will exist in an assembly; that's an inevitable part of democratic government. So the efficiency of democratic government is less, that of authoritarian government higher," he notes. In the face of conflict, he respected differing opinions and resolved disputes through discourse. This won him respect from those both in and out of the ruling party.

Minister of communications only two weeks, Chang is already three pounds thinner. He puts in days from 8:00 AM to 10:00 PM, and often takes work home. His regular twice-a-week golf habit has been reduced to once. In terms of specialized knowledge, Chang learned much facing Taipei's traffic problems as city speaker. Before the complex duties of minister, Chang has had to quickly get into the thick of things, making time for briefings and reading documents.

He says, "In the future there will be more division of responsibility, and matters will be delegated based on their importance." He believes, "A minister doesn't have to be a specialist; what's important is that he knows how to use specialists."

For those at the basic level, Chang stresses, "You can't scrimp on money when it comes to worker welfare and training." He encourages higher-level cadres to develop a broader world view and deepen on-the-job training.

Vis-a-vis the outside world, the work of the ministry is intimately related to people's daily lives, the work of other ministries, and local government. Coordination and discussion are the keys to making policy work. This is familiar territory for Chang, which is a key reason why he was selected for the post.

Further, Chang holds a seat on the Central Standing Committee. This gives him one more chance per week to stay in touch with top leaders, providing even more help in solving problems.

That Chang is good at coordination is due not only to his skill or "channels"; his years as speaker have given him more opportunities to understand public opinion.

Take for example the north-south highway land compensation problem, a main reason why the project is seriously behind schedule. Chang's view is that the attitude of "sacrifice the little to achieve the big" has to be changed. He says, "The country is not poor; there should be reasonable compensation."

Another headache is the budget. Major projects need astronomical outlays. Chang believes that privatization can solve the problem--"That the work be undertaken by the government is aleady not enough to satisfy the transportation needs of the people. To speed up communications construction, we must use the strength of the private sector."

For future directions, Chang relies on the short- (such as getting the north-south highway on schedule), medium- (the Nankang-Ilan tunnel and a second terminal at CKS airport), and long-term plans (a high speed railroad) of the ministry. As to how much can be accomplished, Chang says short-term goals must absolutely be completed, mediumterm ones should get started, and an eye should be kept on long-term objectives.

It is the sincere hope of the people that Chang can use his experience and wisdom to smoothly implement the policies of the ministry of communications.

[Picture Caption]

Clement C.P. Chang (at right, wearing jacket) in a 1949 photo with class mates from St. John's University in Shanghai. (photo courtesy of Clement Chang)

While simultaneously serving as president of Tamkang University and vice speaker of the Taipei City Council, Chang went to the University of Illinois to earn hi s Ph.D. The photo shows Chang with Dr. Stanley Ikenberry, president of U. Illinois. (photo court esy of Clement Chang)

A Chang family portrait, with wife Chiang Wen-tsu (second from right) an d daughters Chang Chia-yi (playing piano) and Chang Shih-yi (first at left). (photo courte sy of Clement Chang)

Clement C.P. Chang

*Originally from Ilan County, Taiwan Province

*Born: March 15, 1929

*B.A., Economics, St. John's University, Shanghai

M.A., Agricultural Economics, University of Illinois

Ph.D., Education, University of Illinois

*Professor, National Taiwan University and National Chengchi University

President and Chairman, Tamkang University

Vice-Speaker, Taipei City Council, Terms 1, 2, and 3

Speaker, Terms 4 and 5

 

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