從「心」發現台灣——程曙

:::

1993 / 2月

文‧蔡文婷採訪整理 圖‧邱瑞金



為什麼我們的高速公路兩旁要種木麻黃和相思樹?高速公路上有死狗表示什麼?什麼是梅花開道?什麼是雙十進寶?不知道吧?!種木麻黃和相思樹是因為耐旱耐貧瘠、特別易種,有「先驅樹種」之稱;路上有死狗,表示兩旁鐵絲護網一定有破洞。而梅花是國道標誌,所以叫梅花開道!那再問你,中山高速公路是國道一號,正在興建的北二高,是國道幾號?二號!答錯了。我們的道路南北向皆以奇數編號,東西向才用偶數編號,所以北二高是國道三號。

至於「雙十進寶」,指的是泰山收費站,這個最大的收費站南北各有十個收費道,曾經有一天收費破七百萬元的記錄,自然是雙十進寶囉!想想六十八年通車時,很多人稱他為「繞遠路」,因為它既不經市中心又必須要收費,流量可知不高。但是到現在每逢假日必定塞車,可以看出現代人在乎的是時間而非金錢了。

事出必有因

只要往中南部旅遊,人們都必定要上高速公路,雖然不過是一條公路,然而去查問所看到的每件事,其中就有話題跑出來了。「事出必有因嘛!」進一家旅社、遊樂區我也都會問問老闆,有時就會問出很多故事來。

我叫程曙,從專一開始領隊,現在是世界新聞傳播學院觀光宣導科三年級學生。除了金門,全省差不多都走遍了,墾丁還去了近廿次。

所謂領隊,得負責沿途解說、行程照顧,還要帶團康。和導遊不同,我們不需任何考試檢定,人才來源主要是各大專觀光科系學生和旅行社自行招募培訓職員。國人從事國民旅遊去年超過五千萬人次,除了公司團體旅遊,也經常有散客報名隨團。

我讀的是觀光,不過課堂所學以旅館、餐飲為主,並且著重理論和概念,和領隊實務可說沒有交集。培訓工作是由同學組成的「領隊群」,老鳥帶新鳥,經驗相承;不然就由旅行社資深領隊教導。

從生活出發

領隊是一種服務業,不像學校上課,即使不愛聽也得聽。很現實的,你講得無趣,就會出現你說你的,我睡我的畫面。面對一車男女老少、背景不同的團員,我大多會從他們身邊熟悉的事物講起。

像是清境農場,它是因為開鑿中部橫貫公路的補給線而存在,如果提起它的開發者,——鄧克保,大部分的人就會想起他們看過的「異域」一書,清境農場似乎就親切多了。如果到宜蘭,先提金六結,許多人都曾有親友在那兒服役經驗,多少知道一點。再由「為何宜蘭地名多是結、圍、城?」,就可以拉到宜蘭的開拓史。

導遊不同看書,就在於「所見所聞」,看到什麼再加解說,才能知行合一。在霧社時,每個領隊都會講抗暴歷史。每當走到森林中時,聽著當年的抗暴族人在森林一個個上吊自殺,只因曹族人認為這樣可以回到生命的起源。由於樹就在身邊,團員們的神情也就特別肅穆,樹和事蹟也就一同記了下來。

眼睛看不到的

有一些特色容易發現,有一些特色則是眼睛分辨不出來的。像是古蹟,只用眼睛看,不就是一幢幢老房子,那還不如去看台北市的建築,千奇百怪,每一幢都不一樣。

各地都有名產,宜蘭有「四寶」:鴨賞、膽肝、金棗糕、羊羹。為什麼都是醃漬食物?這和她的歷史、交通有關。以前宜蘭對外,除了水路,只有一條草嶺古道,往外不易,豐富的物產要長時運送而不壞,只好先行醃漬。淡水鐵蛋好端端的,要滷得又小又硬;新竹貢丸原是以零雜肉混成,這些都顯示出台灣人民移墾性格下,形成的儉省生活方式。

常常有的上班族,一到觀光點,不是大唱卡拉OK,就是通宵打牌,第二天再一路呼呼大睡。我實在不明白他們何必這麼辛苦出來遠地打牌。常有前輩說,遊客需要教育,我想這一車上,大部分的人都年長於我,我只能說,把我的感動、感想分享給他們,我想我感動了,應該也能感動別人吧!

什麼地方去了會再去?

我常在想,什麼樣的地方,你去過了還會想再去?如果你對這個地方認識多一點,有個朋友在那兒,也就是除了欣賞美景之外,能和這個地方的人、事、物產生交流,而帶著一種「心情」回去,這個地方才會成為你生命的一部分。

例如墾丁公園的垂榕谷,榕樹的根從岩壁上長長垂下,已經有上百年歷史了。從我國中第一次到那兒,我就和垂榕根一起拍照。一年一年,我在長大,垂榕一旁見證,未來我還要帶我的孩子來和垂榕合照,就像我們在墾丁有一個老朋友一樣。

當記憶開始生根,墾丁對我就不只是一個風景區而已了。

帶團去澎湖,我喜歡提起馬公鎮上「島民情結」、「澎湖故事妻」和「雅倫紋石紀念館」。這三家店的老闆都是喜愛家鄉而回來開業的在地人。要說地方特色,風景是,名產是,而「人」應該更是。因為人,地方才更見自己的情調。在我們結識了這些人之後,就更願意再拜訪一次了。而我也將這樣的心態,告訴我的團員。

誰該認識台灣?

記得有一回帶東埔團,一個女孩子家就住在隔壁水里,我問她怎麼以前都沒去過東埔?她揚聲回答我,「不止沒去過,我根本沒聽過這個地方!」

我很訝異,為什麼我們受這麼多教育,學這麼多事,可是對於居住生長的地方,反而不想特別去學、去看。包括我自己。我一直不懂閩南語歌曲為什麼這麼流行?在我身邊極少聽到有人用閩南語交談啊!而太平山、草嶺離台北都不算遠的地方,攤在課本上,其實和美國的舊金山、日本東京一樣遙遠陌生。

我很高興我的工作使我「認識」了台灣,也向別人介紹台灣,只是我仍然疑惑「認識」台灣,只是一個領隊的工作嗎?

〔圖片說明〕

P.114

「導遊不是講課,要能引起團員興趣才行」,領隊程曙喜歡從人們身邊的熟悉事物開場,再帶入講台灣風物的特色。

P.115

台灣雖小,但地景豐富。因風蝕海蝕而形成的女王頭,是野柳勝景之一。(鄭元慶攝)

P.116

沒有專業科系,沒有考試檢定,領隊內涵全靠同業互相學習和自我充實。

P.117

一上高速公路遊客通常紛紛睡覺,可知沿途有人為和自然十大名景?

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Let Your Heart Be Your Guide--Cheng Shu

edited by Ventine Tsai /photos courtesy of Diago Chiu /tr. by Phil Newell


Why are there casuarinaceae and acacia planted along the sides of the highway? What does it mean when there are dead dogs on the highway? What's the "Plum Flower Road"? What's the "Double Ten Fortune Entering"? Don't you know?!

The reason for planting casuarinaceae and acacia is because they are easy to plant and resistant to heat and can survive in poor soil, so they are called "vanguard trees." A dead dog by the side of the road means that there is definitely a gap in the mesh barriers on either side. The Plum Flower is the symbol used on national highways, so they are called Plum Flower Roads. Now let me ask you one: If the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Freeway is National Highway 1, then what's the number of the second north-south highway now being built? Number 2--NOT! North-south highways in Taiwan are all odd-numbered, with even numbers only used on east-west highways, so the second north-south freeway is Number 3.

As for the "Double Ten Fortune Entering," that's the Taishan Toll Station. This largest toll station on the highway has ten lanes going in each direction, with a record of over NT$7 million once collected in a single day. So naturally that's "Double Ten Fortune Entering"! Think back to 1979 when the highway was first opened to traffic--many people called it the "Detour," because it didn't go through the center of the city and you had to pay, so there didn't seem much prospect for a lot of traffic. But now it's invariably jammed every holiday, so you can see that what modern people care most about is time, not money.

There's a reason for everything:

You only have to go traveling in central or southern Taiwan and you have no choice but to take the highway. Although it's just a highway, still when you go to the information center and see everything, lots of things to talk about just jump right out! "There's a reason for everything!" Whenever we go into a hotel or tourist area, I always ask the boss questions, and sometimes you can hear some pretty interesting stories.

My name is Cheng Shu. I've been leading tours since my first year in college. Now I'm a third year student in the Department of Tourism at the World College of Journalism. I've been probably everywhere in Taiwan except for Kinmen. I've been to Kenting almost 20 times.

The tour leader is responsible for explaining everything along the way, and for taking care of everything on the itinerary, and you also have to keep the group members entertained. The difference from a guide is that we don't have to have any certified qualifications. Our ranks are mostly filled by kids from the tourism departments of colleges and universities, or by people developed by the travel agencies themselves. Citizens last year took 50 million trips in the country. Besides company sponsored tours, there are also unconnected individuals who sign up to join the tours.

I study tourism, but the classes I take mostly concentrate on hotels and restaurants, and stress theory and concepts, and you could say they have nothing in common with the job of leading tours. Training for real work takes place in the "tour leader teams" organized by classmates, with the veterans teaching the ropes to the rookies and everyone exchanging experiences. Otherwise get instructed by senior tour leaders from the travel agency.

Starting from life:

Tour leader is part of the service industry. For customers, it's not like going to class, where even if you don't want to listen, you have to listen. It's very harsh--they think, if you are boring, then you say what you want to say, I'll just sleep. Faced with a bus full of tour members, men and women, young and old, each with a different background, I mostly talk about things that are familiar to them.

Take for example the Ching-ching Tourist Farm. It exists because of the subsidiary line of the central cross-island highway. And if you talk about its founder, Teng Ko-pao, most people will immediately think of the book Foreign Land that they have read, and it seems that Ching-ching suddenly becomes a lot more intimate. Or if we go to Ilan, I first talk about Chin-liu Strongpoint. Many people have had friends or relatives do their compulsory military service there, and know a little something about it. From there you get questions like, why do so many place names in Ilan end in "strong-point," "barrier," or "walled city?" Then you can bring the conversation around to the history of the development of Ilan.

When in Wushe, every guide will tell the story of the aboriginal resistance against repression. When the group is walking into the forest there, they are hearing about how the aboriginal resistance fighters hung themselves from the trees one by one, because of the belief of the Tsao people that this way they could begin the life cycle anew. Because the trees are right there at their sides, the mood of the group members is especially solemn, and they will always associate the trees and the history together in their minds.

What you can't see:

Some special features are relatively easy to discover; others can't be seen with the eye. Take for example an historic old neighborhood. If you just use your eyes, it's just one dilapidated building after another. But that's not as good as seeing the architecture of Taipei City with all its strange and unusual variations, with each building being different.

Every location has its special foods. Ilan has the "four treasures": duck feet, gall and liver, golden jujube cakes, and bean jelly. Why are these all pickled foods? That's because of her history and communications. In the past, except for sea routes, Ilan's only link with the outside was an old dirt track, so it wasn't easy to get around. The best foods had to be able to stand extended journeys without spoiling, so it was best to pickle them first. The "iron eggs" of Tamsui have to be soaked until they are shrunken and hard, while Hsinchu meatballs are made up of the odds and ends of many types of meat. These things all reveal the sparing, frugal lifestyle that took shape under the pioneering character of the early residents of Taiwan.

Often office worker types will, as soon as the get to the tour stop, either start singing karaoke or play cards all night, so the next day they spend snoring away. I don't understand why they go through all the effort of coming so far just to play cards. Often older tour guides say that travelers need education. I think that most of the people on the bus are probably older than me, so I can only express my feelings and share with them. I figure if I feel moved by something, then I should be able to move others!

Take for example the hanging banyan trees in Kenting National Park. The roots of one tree hang down from the rock walls, and are very long. They have a history hundreds of years long. Ever since the first time I went there as a middle school student, I've had my picture taken with that tree. Year after year, as I've grown up, the banyan stands by my side in confirmation. In the future I want to take my children there to take their photos. It's like we have an old friend in Kenting National Park. And when the memories take root, Kenting will no longer be just a tourist attraction to my family.

What kind of place would you go back to?

I often wonder what kind of place would attract people who've already been there to go back again? If you know a little bit more about a place, if you have a friend there, then besides appreciating the beauty, you can also have some interaction with the people, affairs, and things of that place, and bring a little of that sentiment back home.

Taking a tour group to Penghu, I like bringing up the shops called "Island People Complex" and "Penghu Story Wife." The owners of the shops are all natives of Penghu who love their home and returned to start businesses. If you want to talk about the special characteristics of a place, of course the scenery counts, and so do the special foods, but people should count even more. This is because you can only see the real ambience of a place through its people. After we meet these residents, we are even more willing to pay a return visit. And I share this attitude with my tour group members.

I remember one tour group to Tungpu. One girl lived right next door in Shuili, and I asked why she had never been to Tungpu before. She loudly responded, "not only haven't I been here before, I hadn't even heard of this place!"

I was really surprised. How is it that we get so much education and learn so many things, but we don't specially learn about or see the place we are born and raised. I include myself here. I never understood why Taiwanese songs were so popular. I rarely heard anyone use Taiwanese to talk around me. And Taiping Mountain and Tsaoling aren't very far from Taipei, yet in our schoolbooks they are as remote as San Francisco or Tokyo.

I'm very happy that my work forced me to get to know Taiwan, and to introduce Taiwan to others. But I often wonder, is it only tour guides who should get to know Taiwan?

[Picture Caption]

p.114

"A guide isn't a giving a classroom lecture. You have to attract and keep the interest of the tour group. "Guide Cheng Shu likes to start off with things familiar from daily life as a way to get into the special features of Taiwan's sights.

p.115

Though Taiwan is small, it is rich in sights. One of the most famous sights of Yehliu is the "Queen's Head" carved out by wind erosion. (photo by ChengYuan-ching)

p.116

Without any special classes or any examination, the depth of a tour leader depends entirely on what each learns from the other and what each learns on his or her own.

p.117

Passengers usually go to sleep as soon as they get on the freeway. How would they know that along the road are ten great manmade "wonders of the north-south highway."

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!