關懷與批評

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1988 / 7月

文‧傅佩榮 圖‧林鑫



任何一個時代的革新契機,都是以年輕人的理想為動力的。這些理想有成有敗,決定的因素在那堙H在於以下三點:正確認識現實、勇於自我反省、付出適當代價。

以近來流行的自力救濟為例,任何一項個案都有特定的時空背景與人為因素,不是可以輕易論斷是非對錯的。我們需要充分而周全的資訊,足以說明造成某一現象之主觀與客觀的原因。一個結果往往是由許多原因形成的,反之,一個原因也經常引發許多不同的後果。人類社會中的因果關係,絕不像自然世界中的因果關係那麼明確對應。

因此,自力救濟的化解之道在於溝通,而溝通的條件則是專業而深入的知識,足以分辨某一現象的利弊得失,並預估改善的途徑與成效。今日許多難題的形成,有時不是因為沒有專家,而是因為假的專家太多,社會大眾又無由區別,以致輿論混淆,而加深歧見。

其次,自我反省是負責的表現。美國總統甘乃迪(J. F. Kennedy)曾說:「不要問國家能為你做什麼,卻要問你能為國家做什麼。」社會是大家的,任何問題都有複雜的背景,那麼:我在這堶惕篝t什麼角色?我能為社會做些什麼?我會不會為了一個抽象的理念而忽略了實際處境的困難?如果讓我來做這件事,我有把握做得更好嗎?這一連串的反省可以幫助我們瞭解真相,並提出合理的意見。

接著,要付出適當的代價,不能只是袖手旁觀,說些無關痛癢的話。然而,這堜瓵蛌漸N價,並非暗示年輕人立即參與社會行動,而是相反的,要能沉得住氣,謹守分寸,到達自己真正可以貢獻之時。以在學青年來說,順著情感衝動並不難,難的是珍惜求知機會,沉潛奮勵,準備他日以更高的知識與能力投入社會。

經由以上三個步驟,我們的理念將會顯示時代性與可行性。在以這種理想為標竿,從事關懷及批評社會現象時,還有一些觀念值得一併澄清,如自由與多元。

「自由」是一個美麗的字眼,但是涵義卻十分複雜。它首先意指不受外力干涉,可以自己決定行動,如解除髮禁、舞禁,使中學生的選擇尺度加寬了。這種自由是受到法律規章保障的;然而在保障自由的同時,也有相對的約束力量,就是以「不妨礙他人的自由」為前提。

由此可見,自由並非為所欲為。民主社會的個人,應該能夠以理性的態度管理自己的事,並為自己的行動負責。自由與責任互相依存:只談自由不談責任,難免搞得天下大亂;只談責任不談自由,久之難免形同迫害。必須兩者兼顧,配合理性的考慮,民主政治的優點才能充分展現出來。

「多元」是自由開放社會的結果。人有不同的知能才性、志趣抱負,與人生際遇,因此就個人嚮往的生活方式與社會結構的分工需要來看,自然會形成多元化的現象。多元化固然有助於社會整體的和諧與平衡,提出更多讓人生存發展的空間,但是由此形成的多元主義就值得我們留意了。

任何方面都可以多元化,但是價值上如果多元化就會演變成為價值上的相對主義。沒有絕對的是非善惡,任何行為都可以找到有利的藉口。如此,不僅日常生活行事缺乏共同判準,連法治的基礎也將隨之動搖。

如果我們同意「工作沒有高低,人格才有高低」這句格言,就不得不肯定:生活方式可以多元化,但是涉及人格方面是非善惡的判斷,則必須是一元的。這個「一元化」的內容固然可以討論,但是基本的共同標準則不能沒有。共同標準往往得自傳統,如儒學的教育、家庭的訓誨、宗教的誡律等,經由潛移默化而普遍為人接受,我們沒有理由因為現代社會多元化的趨勢而放棄這些標準。

關懷與批評可以凸顯美好的理想,並相信人間一切應該可以改善。在確定理想時,如果考慮本文所談的一些觀念,則不僅使它得到更廣的回應,也將使它更為可行。

(作者現任台灣大學哲學系副教授)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Concern and Criticism

Fu Pei-jung /photos courtesy of Lin Hsin /tr. by Richard Campbell


The new reforms of every era get their power from the ideals of the young. Some of these succeed while others fail. What are the factors that determine this? They lie in the three points listed below: accurately recognizing reality, self-examination, and paying an appropriate price.

Using the recent trend of people's direct demand for legal remedy as an example, every individual case can be seen to have its own special background as well as man-made factors. It's not easy to judge right and wrong. We need sufficient and complete information to enable us to clarify the objective and subjective causes of certain phenomena. A single result can often come about from many causes. On the other hand, a single cause can often lead to many different consequences. The cause and effect relationship in human society is definitely not as clear as it is in the world of nature. Today many different problems sometimes take shape not because there are too few experts, but rather because there are too many pseudo-experts. Society has no way to distinguish these. So public opinion becomes confused and a severe rift occurs between differing opinions.

Self-examination is as an expression of assuming responsibility. American president John F. Kennedy once said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country." Society is everybody's. Every problem has a complicated background. "What role am I playing here?" "What can I do for society?" "Could I overlook the difficulties encountered in the real situation for the sake of an abstract rational cause?" "If I am allowed to do this, am I certain to do it any better?" This chain of reflections can help us better understand the truth and put forth reasonable opinions.

As for paying an appropriate price, we can't merely stand idly by, mouthing words of no importance. However, the price mentioned here is not the suggestion that young people should immediately go out and take part in social movements, but rather the opposite; they should remain calm and watch tactfully until the time when they can truly contribute something.

Freedom is a beautiful word, but its implications are quite complicated. It at once indicates no outside interference and deciding things for yourself. Freedom and responsibility exist together. If you talk of freedom and not of responsibility, it is difficult to avoid having a world in chaos. If you talk of responsibility and not of freedom, it is difficult to avoid having the appearance of repression.

Concern and criticism give us the beautiful ideal of believing that man can change in all ways for the better. If you consider the concepts in this article when deciding about an ideal, you not only allow it to receive a broader response, but you also make it easier to carry out.

 

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