亞當夏娃變變變

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2002 / 11月

文‧蔡文婷


民國七十三年,台灣首位曝光變性人「珍」的故事,讓人們開始注意到變性人的存在。而台灣經衛生署核可的變性手術始於民國七十七年。變性是一種無法逆轉的重大手術,想要變性的人,需要經過那些層層的考量?


變性需要什麼條件?

台灣法律上對於變性手術並無特別規範,醫院參考國外經驗,訂出一套基本條件:

一,經過兩位精神科專業醫生評估、鑑定,取得證明書。

二,必須是原發性的變性慾者。

三,在生活中扮演另一性別角色,至少有兩年以上適應良好。

四,年齡在二十歲到四十歲之間。

五,父母及家人的支持同意。

六,已婚者必須結束婚姻狀態。

變性手術的過程?

一,男變女的手術較簡單,首先包括睪丸切除,然後利用陰莖包皮作成陰道等女性性器官。手術之後,不僅幾可亂真,同時也可以享有性愛的快感。同時依病人體型與需求進行隆乳。最後,還包括一個刮除喉結的修飾性小手術。

二,女變男的手術較為複雜,必須分二到三階段進行,階段間也必須間隔一定時間。首先是女性胸部、子宮、卵巢等生殖器官的摘除。再來則利用女性的陰道、陰唇內包一根小骨頭再造陰莖。外觀尚可,但實際功能與現實仍有落差。

變性人有生育能力嗎?

沒有。男變女,缺乏真正的子宮與卵巢,不會有月經;同樣的,女變男並無睪丸,自然無法生育。倒是有女性變性人在婚後,以兄弟的精子與太太的卵子配對,出生血緣相近的子女。變性人在手術後必須長期服用高單位的荷爾蒙,這將導致變性人短少五到十年的壽命。

變性手術需要多少費用?

在台灣,男變女需要費用約二十七萬新台幣,女變男需要五十萬左右。泰國的價格大約為國內的一半,而美國的變性手術高達三百萬台幣以上。     

相關文章

近期文章

EN

To Challenge Heaven's Will The Facts about a Sex Change Operation

Tsai Wen-ting /tr. by Jonathan Barnard

I n 1984 the story of "Jane," the first trans-sexual whose identity was exposed in Taiwan, made people sit up and take notice of transsexuals, and the Department of Health approved the first sex change operations in Taiwan in 1988. A sex change entails irreversible major surgery. What kinds of things should a sex change candidate consider prior to surgery?


What conditions must be met for a sex change operation?

The law in Taiwan does not stipulate special rules governing sex change operations. But based on standards used overseas, hospitals have drawn up a set of basic guidelines. These require that patients:

1. Have two psychiatrists submit signed evaluations about them.

2. Have gender disorders of the "primary" type (in other words they must have had transsexual inclinations from a very young age).

3. Live in their new gender role and feel well adjusted for at least two years.

4. Be between 20 and 40 years of age.

5. Have the support of parents and other family members.

6. First divorce any previous spouse.

The procedures

1. A male to female sex change is the easier procedure. After removing the male genitals, the doctor creates a vagina out of the inverted skin from the penis. After the operation, the female genitalia look and feel very genuine and the patient will also be able to enjoy sex. The doctor will also perform a breast enlargement operation in accordance with the patient's body type and needs. Finally, the doctor will perform a minor operation to reduce the size of the patient's Adam's apple.

2. A female to male sex change is more complicated, and it is divided into two or three stages, with periods of rest and recovery between operations. First comes the removal of breasts, uterus and ovaries. Next doctors wrap a piece of small bone inside the vagina and labia to create a penis. The penis may look passable, but it won't function as well as the real thing.

Can transsexuals bear children?

No. A man who becomes a woman lacks a real uterus and ovaries, so she won't menstruate. A woman who becomes a man doesn't have testicles, so naturally he won't be able to father a child. Some female-to-male transsexuals have used their brothers' sperm to fertilize their wives' eggs and so produce offspring that are closely related to them. Transsexuals have to take high doses of hormones after their operations, so that their life spans are five to ten years shorter than normal.

How much do these procedures cost?

In Taiwan, changing from male to female costs around NT$270,000, and changing from female to male costs around NT$500,000. In Thailand, the same procedures cost about half of what they do in Taiwan. In the United States, a sex change operation costs over NT$3 million.

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