古謠傳唱北大武山下

──泰武國小
:::

2012 / 11月

文‧陳建瑋 圖‧金宏澔


太平洋的風吹過屏東北大武山,吹送著排灣古謠飄洋過海到全世界。那些因風災來襲曾經遺失的美好傳統,如今又因新校園的屹立,重現在祖先的土地上。


屏東縣泰武國小座落在北大武山腳下,彷彿守護聖山的勇者,屹立於此。2009年莫拉克風災後,泰武國小和部落村民一同遷居到此,無圍牆的開放校園融入周遭美景,令人心曠神怡;校舍牆面上巨大的彩繪,述說著排灣族誕生的故事。

歷經2年時間、3次遷校、6次更改預定地,泰武國小終於度過重重難關,在各界協助下,於2011年9月28日正式「復活」,成為莫拉克風災重建工程中,第一所完工的學校。新校園被日本土木工程學會訪問團譽為「最美麗的學校」。從廢校危機到站穩腳步,泰武國小用自己的方式,向世人展現它強韌的生命力。

泰武三遷的流浪者之歌

泰武國小校長伍麗華在2009年8月1日上任,才到任就碰上莫拉克風災侵襲。連日豪雨沖蝕下,原本在山上的舊校區地基龜裂,由於地處順向坡,潛藏地層滑動的危險,不得不進行遷校規劃。自嘲為菜鳥校長的伍麗華,一上任就體認到當老師跟當校長的責任有多不同。

泰武國小的學生來自2個村、2個學區,其中一個部落因風災必須與學校一起遷離,但另一個留在原部落的學生怎麼辦?

伍麗華當時曾絕望地對全校教職員說:「大家如果覺得未來的日子很辛苦,那我們就早點結束,讓這裡廢校。」因為老師一樣可以到別的學校去教書;但「如果大家覺得泰武國小這塊招牌值得保存,那我們就要做好打一場硬仗的準備。」

打仗吧!他們的第一個敵人是時間。

從開會決定不廢校到新學期開始只剩20天,在不中斷學習的前提下,校方只有3個禮拜的時間找到暫時棲身的校舍。好消息是,教育部承諾將會另覓適當地點作為永久校區;壞消息是,暫定的中繼校區有2個選擇:佳平和佳興,而這兩村都非常希望新校區能遷到自己村裡。

兩村村民各有立場。佳興村民認為,泰武距離佳興只有5公里,村裡還有已經廢置的泰武國小分校,這幾年因有藝術家和木雕師傅進駐,環境維持得很好,遷來佳興理所當然。但伍麗華認為,佳興部落的地質安全評估報告尚未出爐,交通狀況很差,佳平應該比較安全。

雙方僵持不下之際,一位長老起身發言提醒大家,照排灣族的傳統,誰受的傷最嚴重,族人就該體諒他的心情,不要讓他受更多傷,佳興村民這才願意妥協。

一波未平,一波又起

暑假過後,泰武國小師生如期在佳平復課,借用的校舍卻因緊鄰著泰武國中,出現教學上的問題。

由於荒廢日久,佳平校區只有4間教室堪用,只好讓兩個年級共用一間教室,教室中間釘上一層薄薄的木板,連黑板也只能用半邊。活動空間也相形變小,以前下課鐘聲一響,學生就會衝去操場玩溜滑梯、盪鞦韆,現在搶不到遊樂設施,只能待在教室聊天、發呆。

國中國小教學時間不一、作息不同,也讓老師們頭痛不已。國小一節課是40分鐘,國中則是50分鐘,每當鐘聲響起,師生都搞不清楚到底是上課還是下課。後來傳唱隊發起人、也是排灣族的查馬克老師想出一個方法:用傳唱隊的音樂取代鐘聲,這個獨特的鐘聲一直沿用至今,成為泰武國小驕傲而有趣的傳統。

然而,小學生在上課、國中生在操場打鬧的情況仍無法解決,同時新的永久校區選址過程一延再延,原本打算「忍一下」的伍麗華,做出一個重大決定──再次遷校,搬到佳興分校。

泰武國小師生的回歸,為佳興村帶來久違的歡笑聲,學生也有了可以追趕跑跳的操場。

2010年夏天,延宕已久的永久校區案終於選定位置,援建單位經過6次變更預定地,最終選擇在北大武山下、沿山公路旁占地10公頃的新赤農場,打造永久屋基地和泰武國小新校區。

2010年12月,新校區的開工動土典禮依循排灣族古禮,將原來在山上的校碑和老榕樹移到這裡,並讓孩子們把想對泰武國小說的話寫成小紙條,掛在榕樹上。

「泰武國小你好,你知道你要搬來這裡嗎?一下子搬到佳平,一下子搬到佳興,你是開心,還是難過呢?」孩子純真的童言童語,道出兩年多來遷校的心情,而新學校又能帶給孩子們怎樣的未來?

從根開始,探索未來

透過教育部牽線,新學校由明基友達文教基金會認養興建,並找來知名的郭旭原建築師及互助營造團隊,以工程費用7,800萬元,決心打造一所獨一無二的學校。

當新校地選定後,具有魯凱族血統的伍麗華深知學生將來和漢人互動將更加頻繁,必須重視原民文化流失問題,她積極地與設計團隊和縣府討論,希望將排灣族元素融入校園設計中,建構一所排灣族文化意象的學校。

如今一踏進校區就可看到大型牆面彩繪,以太陽、陶壺和百步蛇3種圖象,述說著排灣族起源的神話。校舍安排則以陶壺廣場為中心,陶壺象徵孕育下一代的子宮;長條型的校舍以南邊的石板屋為首,環繞著廣場成一個半圓,側面彩繪黑紅白綠交錯的百步蛇側紋,守護族人。

太陽的元素則呈現在設計團隊配合政府的「綠光計畫」中,於學校屋頂架設「一體型太陽能電池模板」,每年總發電量可達8萬8,500度,剩餘電力轉賣台電後,每年約可進帳六十多萬元。

古謠傳唱,永不休止

為了消除師生在遷移過程中的不安情緒,伍麗華堅持絕不能放棄學校的傳統:木雕和古謠。

中繼校區沒有木雕教室,他們就從舊校區把工作桌搬下來,搭起帳篷充作臨時木雕教室,讓學生繼續練習。新校區的木雕工房現在也接近完工,可以讓傳統技藝延續下去。

泰武國小最著名的古謠傳唱隊,更是從不曾中斷練習。

催生古謠傳唱隊的靈魂人物是查馬克‧法拉屋樂,早在2000年就讀台東師範學院時,就開始參加學校的原住民歌舞社團。

2003年他被分發到泰武國小任教,校長請他指導一位女學生參加全國鄉土歌謠比賽,一舉奪下冠軍,可惜的是比賽中唱的並不是排灣族自己的歌曲。

「學唱歌不是要讓別人來打分數,」查馬克說,讓孩子快樂而驕傲的唱歌,是為了述說祖先的故事,不需要跟別人做比較。

排灣族沒有文字,唯有透過歌謠才能呈現排灣族的歷史文化。對音樂一竅不通、連簡譜都看不太懂的查馬克來說,要學會古謠的唯一辦法,就是找部落裡的耆老一句一句地學,用錄音機土法煉鋼一字一句地錄下來學習聲調,再請耆老們逐字解釋歌詞的意涵。

經過多年努力,至今查馬克已收集了四十多首排灣族古謠,包括工作歌、情歌等;他希望能繼續收集更多祭典歌謠,也請熟悉樂理的朋友紀錄下來,讓後代繼續傳唱。

失落半世紀,驚艷全世界

透過耆老的教導,泰武國小的歌聲讓族人和全世界再次領略到傳統古謠之美。排灣族的古謠曾在日治時期被下達禁唱令,失落了近一甲子,許多族人甚至從來沒聽過這些古謠。

有一次,佳興部落的頭目嫁女兒,他希望男方能在婚禮上唱一段古謠,男方卻尷尬地唱不出來,只好找查馬克來幫忙,請泰武國小古謠隊上台演唱,這才讓頭目和耆老們落下滿意的眼淚。

宛如天籟的古謠隊成名後,各界邀約不斷。2006年錄製的專輯《唱一首好聽的歌》,入圍第18屆金曲獎最佳原住民音樂專輯獎;2009年6月獲邀至歐洲各國巡迴演出;2010年參加上海世界博覽會演出。第二張專輯《歌開始的地方》,也榮獲第23屆傳藝金曲獎最佳傳統音樂詮釋獎。

「出國表演不是目的,而是要讓孩子把眼睛張開,看看自己和別人有何不同。」伍麗華說,泰武國小要留住的不只是古謠,而是排灣族文化。

曾經熄滅的火炬,如今重新點燃,在下一代的手中要握得更緊、燒得更旺。

民族學校,獨樹一格

泰武國小是屏東縣第一所特許「理念學校」,學生不需遷戶籍就能入學,擁有很大的招生彈性,以及20%的自定課程。該校學生每個禮拜要上一節民族教育課,和一節國際教育課。

民族教育課講授排灣族歷史文化、社會制度和傳統禮儀等;國際教育則可以讓學生將自己的生活經驗類比到其他國家。例如,排灣族的聖山是北大武山,而日本的富士山、非洲的吉力馬扎羅山等,也是當地的聖山,聖山的意義、為什麼要崇拜、有什麼樣的儀式,以及開放與保護間如何取捨等,就是國際教育希望孩子能深入去思考的課題。

「國際教育不是要告訴學生,某個國家面積多大、他們有什麼特產。」伍麗華認為,國際教育跟民族教育是一體兩面,只有從自己的生活經驗出發去認識世界,才能了解自己文化的珍貴之處。

此外,伍麗華還打造「第三學期」的概念,利用暑假讓學生進行為期10天的「特訓」,住在山上,向耆老學習祖先生活的方式。

在這10天中,小朋友要認識山上可利用的動植物,例如可食用的野菜、蝸牛;並且實地學習耕種咖啡、山芋等泰武作物;還要回到山裡對祖先和土地歌唱,告訴祖靈「泰武的孩子遵循著你們的教誨,過得很好。」

在師生努力下,泰武國小將廢校危機化為轉機,大破大立,透過傳唱曾經被遺忘的歌曲,他們把夢作大,把根扎深,在新生家園裡,繼續唱歌給土地聽。

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EN

Taiwu Elementary—A Paiwan Alternative School Finds a Home by a Sacred Mountain

Kobe Chen /photos courtesy of Chin Hung-hao /tr. by Geoff Hegarty and Sophia Chen

At the foot of North Dawu Mountain in Pingtung County, the Pacific breezes carry the Paiwan tribe’s ancient ballads across the sea into the wide world. And some of the good that was destroyed in Typhoon Morakot is now being rebuilt.


Rooted firmly at the foot of North Dawu Mountain, Taiwu Elementary School appears the guardian of the sacred peak. After the Morakot disaster in 2009, Taiwu Elementary and the local villagers moved to this new location. With no perimeter wall, the school blends in with the beautiful natural landscape, while a mural on the wall of a school building portrays the origins of Paiwan tribe.

Over a period of two years, with three relocations and six changes of planned location, the school has overcome many difficulties with assistance from many quarters, and was eventually reestablished on September 28, 2011. It was the first school to be completed as part of the Typhoon Morakot reconstruction program. A visiting delegation from the Japan Society of Civil Engineering praised Taiwu as “a most beautiful school.” In its journey from the threat of permanent closure to finding a secure future, Taiwu Elementary School has shown the world its strength and resilience.

Relocation

School principal Wu Lihua began her duties on August 1, 2009. But only days after her arrival, the school was hit by Typhoon Morakot. Because of erosion from the continuous torrential rainfall, fissures appeared in the ground on which the original Taiwu Elementary School was built. As the school was positioned on a “dip slope” on the mountain, it was at risk of being carried away by a landslide, so relocation was the only option. Immediately after taking up her position, Wu, who self-mockingly describes herself as having been a rookie principal, was forced to realize the huge difference in responsibility between teacher and principal.

In desperation, Wu told the school staff: “We can all see that the future is going to be very hard. We could do nothing and let the school be closed down. But if we feel that the name of Taiwu Elementary School is worth saving, then we should prepare for a tough battle.”

They decided to fight. But their first enemy was time.

After making the momentous decision to oppose the permanent closure of the school, they had only 20 days before the school semester began. To avoid any interruptions to the school’s normal schedule, they had to find temporary premises in under three weeks. The good news was that the Ministry of Education undertook to find a suitable place for the school’s permanent home. But there was also a problem: There were two possible temporary locations for the school—Jiaping Village and Jiaxing Village—which both had abandoned classrooms available for use, and both really wanted Taiwu Elementary School to move to their community.

Both sides had what they considered valid arguments. The villagers of Jiaxing believed that their village was the best option for the school because it was closer: only five kilometers from Taiwu to Jiaxing. On top of that, an abandoned branch of Taiwu School was already there in Jiaxing. It had been used as a studio by artists and woodcarvers for the previous few years and remained in fair condition. But Principal Wu was concerned because the geological safety assessment of Jiaxing Village was yet to be released, and access roads to the village were in poor condition. She thought that the other village would be a better choice in terms of safety.

It was a stalemate. Then one of the Paiwan elders reminded everyone that according to their tradition, the one who suffered the most deserved the greatest sympathy and care, and there was a duty to prevent further hurt to that person, so the school should decide their own fate. The Jiaxing villagers were eventually willing to concede the issue.

However, because the old classrooms at Jiaping Village had been deserted for many years, only four were fit for use, and as a result one room was shared between two grades. A temporary wooden wall was erected to separate them, and each side used half of the blackboard. The playground was also smaller. In the old school, the kids were able to enjoy activities such as slides and swings in the playground at break time, but here the grounds were too small for everyone, so many were forced to spend break time in the classroom.

Also, the Jiaping school was right next to a junior high school campus, and noise from that school could be easily heard. Because elementary and junior high schools have different class timetables, 40 minutes for the former and 50 for the latter, every time the bells rang, teachers and students were confused whether it was class time or break. One of the teachers, Camake Valaule, who had established the Taiwu Elementary School Choir, came up with a solution: using choir music to replace the bell. This method continues to be used today and has become one of the school’s grandest and most interesting traditions.

On to Jiaxing

Nonetheless, while the elementary school children were in class, there was still a lot of noise from the junior high school students playing outdoors at breaks. Meanwhile, the decision regarding a permanent location had been postponed again and again, so Principal Wu was finally forced to make a decision of her own—to relocate to Jiaxing Village, which had by this time passed its safety assessment, until an official ruling was made on their fate.

The return of the Taiwu School to Jiaxing brought cheer to the village, and the students had a better playground for their games.

In the summer of 2010, the long-awaited decision for the school’s permanent location was finally made. An area of 10 hectares at the foot of North Dawu Mountain known as Xinchi Farm was selected as the site for a permanent village—and for Taiwu Elementary School.

The school’s groundbreaking ceremony was held in December 2010. The original school monument and the old banyan tree were also moved to the new location, allowing students to express their feelings about the school in notes hung on the tree.

“Hello Taiwu Elementary School, do you know you are going to settle here? One sudden move to Jiaping, and then another to Jiaxing! Are you happy or sad?” The innocent phrases of the children reveal their feelings for the relocation process over the previous two years. But what prospects will the new school bring?

Preserving Paiwan culture

The BenQ Foundation took overall responsibility for the planning and construction, providing NT$78 million and engaging renowned architect Guo Xuyuan and a team from Fu Tsu Construction, all aiming to create a unique school.

After the school’s site was chosen, Principal Wu became aware of the fact that in their new location, her students would have a greater opportunity to interact with the mainstream Han Chinese culture, so extra attention had to be paid to preserving their Aboriginal traditions. She actively discussed the issue with the design team and the Pingtung County Government, hoping to integrate Paiwan images into the design.

Today, when people step into the school, they can see a large wall painted with three tribal symbols: the sun, a ceramic pot, and the hundred-pacer snake, depicting the myths of Paiwan tradition. The school buildings are laid out in an oval design surrounding “Taohu Square.” Taohu is a type of ceramic pot, which in Paiwan legend symbolizes the womb that gives life. Black, red, white and green zigzagging lines on the facade of the buildings represent the tribe’s guardian, the hundred-pacer snake.

The design team also set up building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar collectors on the roofs. Annual energy generating capacity is around 88,500 kilowatt hours, any excess electricity being sold back to Taipower, making more than NT$600,000 in annual revenue for the school.

Singing tribal ballads

In order to reduce the stress for students and teachers during the school’s relocation process, the well-known school choir has never stopped their rehearsals.

Camake Valaule, who is of Paiwan ancestry, was assigned to Taiwu Elementary School in 2003, and soon after began the school choir. The principal then asked him to tutor a female student who was participating in the National Folk Songs Contest. Although the student won the championship, it’s rather a pity that she didn’t sing Paiwan songs in the contest.

“Learning singing is not just for winning competitions,” says Camake, who wants the children to sing happily and proudly and tell the stories of their ancestors.

The Paiwan tribe traditionally had no written language, so it tells about its history and culture through singing. Camake has no formal training in music and little knowledge of musical notation, so the only way to master the ancient tribal ballads is to learn them line by line from the tribal elders. He records their singing to learn the tunes, and then has them explain the meaning of the lyrics.

After years of effort, Camake has so far collected 40-plus ancient Paiwan ballads, including work and love songs, and he’s hoping to expand his collection with more ritual tunes. He has also asked a friend who knows music theory to transcribe the ballads, so future generations will be able to enjoy the songs as well.

Ancient ballad revival

Ancient Paiwan ballads were banned during the period of Japanese rule. Lost for nearly six decades, many people in the tribe had never heard them.

Once, at the wedding of the daughter of the Jiaxing Village chief, the chief asked the groom to sing a few lines of any ancient ballad. As the groom had to admit that he didn’t know any, Camake and the school choir, who were also wedding guests, were invited to sing some ancient ballads on stage. When the chief and the elders heard the choir singing, they were so moved that they shed many tears.

Since the school choir made its name, it has received invitations from all corners of Taiwan and also from overseas. The choir’s 2006 album Singing a Pretty Song was nominated for Best Aboriginal Album at the 18th Golden Melody Awards; the choir was invited to perform in Europe in June 2009, and at the Shanghai World Expo in 2010. Their second album The Place the Song Begins won Best Traditional Interpretation in the Traditional Music Category of the 23rd Golden Melody Awards.

“The focus of their overseas travel is not solely to perform; equally important is to provide the opportunity for the children to see the world, and to see and understand different cultures.” Wu emphasizes that the school intends not only to retain the ancient ballads, but also to conserve Paiwan culture in general.

A torch that had been extinguished has now been reignited, and has passed to the new generation. It is to be hoped that they grip it tightly and keep it burning vigorously.

A unique school

Taiwu is the first “alternative school” in Pingtung County. They enjoy a flexible enrolment policy whereby the school is able to accept non-local students, and they have a certain amount of freedom in the design of the curriculum (up to 20%). Students are required to take both ethnic education and international education lessons once a week.

The focus is on Paiwan tribal history and culture in ethnic education lessons, and the international education lessons provide opportunities to compare their life experiences with others across the globe. Comparing Paiwan’s sacred mountain North Dawu, for example, with Japan’s Mt. Fuji or Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, there are many questions that can be discussed. What is a sacred mountain? Why is it sacred? Why do people respect their particular sacred mountains? What kinds of rituals do people perform there? How do they balance the issues of opening the site for tourists and preserving it as a sacred place? International education aims to inspire children to think in depth about these and other questions.

“International education doesn’t teach the sort of geography that focuses only on the size or products of other countries.” Wu believes that international and ethnic education are two sides of the same coin, so only through students’ own experience of getting to know the wider world are they able to understand their own culture.

Wu has also created the concept of a third semester, in which the school provides a 10-day special training course during the summer holiday. Students live in the mountains and learn from the tribal elders the ways that their ancestors lived.

In these 10 days, the kids have to learn about the wild flora and fauna, such as edible plants and snails, and also learn how to cultivate major crops like coffee and taro. They have to sing to their ancestral spirits and the land on the mountain, and tell them: “We Taiwu children all follow your teachings, and we live well.”

With the combined efforts of teachers and students, Taiwu Elementary School has transformed the threat of enforced closure into an opportunity to rebuild. Singing once-forgotten ballads, they dare to dream big, working all the while to ensure that their future growth is deeply rooted in their own traditions and a place they can call their own.

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