新港媽祖,紐約入聯記

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2007 / 12月

文‧編輯部 圖‧林令惠


2007年9月中旬,聯合國大會第62屆全會召開前夕,各國政要雲集紐約,而台灣的「開台媽」──新港奉天宮媽祖,也坐著鑾轎,帶著千里眼、順風耳、眾神將與陣頭,以及上百位信徒,浩浩蕩蕩、鑼鼓喧天地走上紐約街頭。開台媽祖遊紐約,為的是保佑台灣進入聯合國,雖然未能一擊成功,但已經順利將台灣民眾的心聲傳達出去。


對台灣2,300萬人民來說,「聯合國」是一道難言的創傷。過去15年來,每年秋季聯大全會時,不得其門而入的台灣,就得透過各種管道,洽請友邦在會中發言支持台灣參與聯合國;無奈在中國強悍無理的杯葛下,年年鎩羽而歸,國際的現實冷暖,台灣可謂點滴在心頭。

2007年,參與聯合國的議題更形發燒。執政的民進黨改弦更張,首度以「台灣」名義申請「加入」聯合國;在野的國民黨則堅持仍以「中華民國」名義「重返」聯合國。「入聯」與「返聯」僵持不下,將分列為兩種公投方案,在2008年3月總統選舉時一併舉行,讓民眾做決定。

為了讓國人瞭解台灣爭取參與聯合國的辛酸史,外交部與國史館於2007年10月底至11月中旬,策劃舉辦了「鑑往知來──我國退出聯合國之回顧與展望」特展。追溯起來,我國本是聯合國的創始會員,並以二次大戰戰勝國之姿入列為安理會5個常任理事國之一。只是1949年內戰失利,國民政府迫遷台灣後,「中國代表權」之爭逐漸浮現,台灣雖力圖保住席位,但聯大仍在1971年通過「排我納匪」的2758號決議案,以中共取代我國。

1971年中華民國退出聯合國、並連同退出其所有附屬組織後,36年來,台灣彷彿被褫奪公權的地球村孤兒,處處碰壁:

台灣無法加入世界衛生組織,以致2003年SARS蔓延時孤軍奮戰,傷亡慘重,迄今仍被峻拒於WHO全球疫情通報機制外;

台灣無法簽署「奈洛比公約」,以致在防制非法的毒品及武器運送上,無法和其他國家進行合作,全球反毒及反恐防護網也因此出現缺口;

台灣無法加入國際貨幣基金組織(IMF),只能祈禱金融風暴與外匯危機不要發生;

台灣無法加入世界銀行(WB)、國際金融公司(IFC)與國際開發協會(IDA),無法利用這些機構的各項資源,也無法參與其援助計劃帶來的龐大商機……

做為一個擁有合法政權與民主自由的國家,做為全球第18大經濟體,台灣所遭受的不公平對待,完全是不合理、不必要的;硬將「入聯公投」視為「獨立公投」而不容討論餘地,也是一種獨斷與蠻橫。這與其說是台灣之痛,毋寧更是世界之恥。

1996年,台灣舉辦首次總統直選、對岸中國以飛彈演習恫嚇時,「新港媽」曾經坐船出巡澎湖、鎮守台灣海峽;這次為了爭取入聯,「新港媽」又萬里迢迢,赴紐約踩街出巡。天上聖母殷殷垂憐,護佑萬民,但不知向來標榜公平正義與普世平等的聯合國,哪一天才能為台灣而開啟呢?

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EN

UN for Taiwan, Mazu in New York

the editors /photos courtesy of Alex Lin /tr. by Scott Gregory

In mid-September, on the eve of the United Nations' 62nd General Assembly, heads of state were joined by another guest in descending on New York: the Mazu idol from Hsinkang's Fengtian Temple was placed on a palanquin and paraded around the city streets. It was accompanied by celestial attendants Thousand-Mile Eyes and Fair-Wind Ears, heavenly generals, performance groups and more than 100 believers banging drums and gongs in a lively procession. The procession was meant to bring good luck to Taiwan's bid to join the United Nations. Though the bid was not a success, the procession did make the voices of Taiwanese heard.


To the 23 million people of Taiwan, the very words "United Nations" are a sore reminder of history. Every autumn for the last 15 years at the UN's annual General Assembly, non-member Taiwan has used every diplomatic channel possible to request that its allies speak in favor of its application for membership. Every year, stubborn resistance by China has meant that Taiwan is unsuccessful. Taiwan has felt every cold, hard blow of international realpolitik.

This year, the pursuit of UN membership has become an even hotter issue. The DPP administration has plans to apply for the first time to "join" the UN under the name "Taiwan," while the opposition KMT has moved to "rejoin" the UN under the name "Republic of China." With one side insisting on "joining" and the other on "rejoining," there will be two referenda on the ballot next March during the presidential election. The people will have their choice.

To raise awareness of Taiwanese about Taiwan's struggle to join the UN, from late October to mid-November the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Academia Historica put on a special exhibition called Look to the Past to Know the Future-A Look Back at the Nation's Withdrawal from the UN. It goes back in history to when the ROC became a member of the UN after victory in World War II and acted as one of five permanent members of the Security Council. However, after the KMT lost China's civil war in 1949 and retreated to Taiwan, a struggle for the right to represent China in the UN broke out. Taiwan sought to keep its original seat, but in 1971 the General Assembly passed Resolution 2758, allowing China to take its place.

In the 36 years since withdrawing from the UN and all of its subsidiary organizations, Taiwan has become an orphan of the global village, stripped of its rights and running into walls at every turn:

Taiwan is unable to join the World Health Organization. Thus, Taiwan was not properly equipped to deal with the 2003 SARS epidemic, and is to this day barred from participating in WHO programs for allocating vaccines and other supplies for disease control.

Taiwan is unable to sign the Nairobi Convention, making it unable to cooperate with other nations in stopping the flow of illegal drugs and weapons. That leaves a gaping hole in international anti-smuggling and anti-terror efforts.

Taiwan is unable to participate in the International Monetary Fund-it can only pray that it doesn't fall victim to a financial collapse or currency crisis.

Taiwan cannot work with the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, or the International Development Association. The developmental resources of these institutions are unavailable to Taiwan, and Taiwan misses out on the great business opportunities presented by their programs.

As a democratic nation with legal sovereignty, and the world's 18th largest economy, Taiwan has received unequal treatment. This situation is unreasonable and unnecessary. It is not only the pain of Taiwan but also the shame of the world.

In 1996, while Taiwan held its first direct presidential election under the threat of Chinese missile tests, the Mazu icon from Hsinkang was taken around the Penghu Islands to protect the Taiwan Strait. Now the Mazu icon has made another long trip, this time to New York to help in Taiwan's bid to join the UN. The Heavenly Mother Mazu takes pity on the people of Taiwan and protects them. But who knows when the United Nations-the supposed guardians of justice and equality-will finally offer membership to Taiwan?

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