集思廣益,盡獻忠言

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1981 / 9月

文‧硯文 圖‧李培徽唐根禮陳銘政


中華民國七十年國家建設研究會,於七月六日至二十日在台北舉行,共有國內外學者專家二三七人參加,分為政治外交、教育、文化新聞、經濟、科技及衛生六組,經過兩週的參觀與研討,共提出六百九十三項建言。而國內輿論界基於「愛之深,責之切」的心理,也向國建會提出了種種建言。在這當中,有少數人對國建會功能持保留態度,更有人戲稱這好比是「政治大拜拜」。然而,若往深處去探討,究竟是誰有道理呢?


立意深遠,具有多重功能

國建會自民國六十一年開始舉辦,到今年已有十年了。除前年(六十八年)舉行兩次以外,其餘都是每年舉行一次,所以今年舉行的是第十一次。民國六十年我國退出聯合國,同時美國尼克森政府亦開始與中共展開關係正常化的試探行動,國建會就是在這一國際情勢險惡的關鍵時刻誕生。民國六十八年初,美國卡特政府宣佈與我國斷交,承認中共,這對我國又是一次打擊,因此那一年特別加開了一次國建會。

由此可見,國建會是配合國際情勢與國家處境而設計召開的。究其目的,在於廣開言路,讓海內外知識份子有機會聚集一堂、共商國是,匯合大家的智慧與力量,提出建言,以報效國家。並藉此機會增進溝通,促進團結。可見國建會具有多重的功能,立意亦屬深遠。

國建會召開十年來,歷屆參加人士,聽取國情報告,參觀國家建設,提供興革意見,踴躍而熱烈,確已收到團結人心、凝聚力量的效果。來自海外的人士,更把在國內的所見所聞帶回僑居地,產生了影響力。而由於大眾傳播媒介對國建會的詳盡報導,無疑建立了另一朝野溝通的管道。

政府施政參考國建會意見

行政院長孫運璿在今年的國建會開幕致詞中提到:「過去數年中,政府所採取的很多重大施政措施,都參考了國建會的建議。諸如:製定動員勘亂時期公職人員選舉罷免法、辦理中央民意代表增額選舉、實施審檢分隸、製定國家賠償法、開放國外觀光旅行、建立貨幣市場、發行面額較大紙幣、強化地方組織、修正財政收支劃分法以改善地方財政、全面推動基層建設、興建縣市文化中心、提倡文藝體育活動、改善工業結構、加強推動職業訓練、制定節省能源措施並力求能源多元化、保護生態環境、加強醫療保健設施和擴大社會保險……等等。」這些措施的迅速推動,明顯地看出政府對國建會的重視,以及國建會對國家各種建設的貢獻。

以今年的國建會來說,綜觀大會所提的建言,洋洋灑灑六、七百項,諸如:司法情治有關單位對人民的約談方式宜循刑事訴訟適當程序進行、擴大僑委會組織、重視海外台籍新僑、製定記者法、逐步開放報紙登記證並防止報業兼併、召開全世界華人會議共同討論應以何種生活方式與政治制度統一中國、召開全國財政會議全盤檢討財政收支以確定我國財政收支策略、加速氣渦輪及蒸汽渦輪研究發展工作以達成自力造艦造機的第一步、設立全國性成人病防治網並加強成人病科學行為研究……等,均是能針對國家當前需要而提出的中肯意見。

與會者表現高度的愛國熱忱

此外,與會學者專家的愛國熱忱亦十分令人感動:教育組學人自告奮勇,願就有關改進大學聯招辦法,由學人做成具體研究計畫,預計明年提出,屆時交由教育部大學入學考試研究委員會研究辦理。科技組為了在開會前能多溝通彼此意見,以使正式開會時效果更好,經常早上六點多就起床集會討論。此外,政治外交組的曹日新博士在一次聚餐中,幾度哽咽地吐露心聲,他說:「我這次回來看到國家各方面進步的情況,心中覺得非常慚愧,因為我們未曾在國家最艱難的時候回來貢獻自己的力量。」台灣時報總編輯蘇墱基也是今年的與會者,他說:「我們與會同仁們,每次開會都惟恐時間不夠,爭相發言,希望多貢獻一己之力。我不相信,在兩百多位與會者中,會有誰是抱著參加『大拜拜』的態度來參加國建會的。」

還有一位與會學人,在一次餐敘時,舉杯站起身來,誠摯地說:「我邀請大家和我一塊兒舉杯,向各級長官們致敬。這次回來深深體會到他們工作的認真與辛勞,遠超過我平時的想像,他們奉獻的精神與報國的熱誠,實在是我們大家的福祉……。」

在政府方面,蔣總統經國先生、行政院長孫運璿以及黨政有關首長對此項會議也很重視,或舉行茶會招待大家,或親自出席聽取意見,說明施政,亦足以表達政府尊重民意、廣納建言的誠心與決心。在外交方面,外交部長朱撫松、政務次長錢復,都首次公開明確地指出我國今後的外交政策將本著「不退讓、不迴避」的原則,以更積極的態度參與國際事務。孫院長也首次表示,政府正積極研擬設置公共電視台,使得辦理一座專用的國家公共電視台的工作,進入具體化的階段。孫院長並公開表示,歡迎海外學人回國服務。類似這種種新觀念與新措施,都在在證明政府當局不斷在求新求進當中。

所費可觀,所收穫是否值得?

儘管國建會有許多正面的功能,然而,舉辦國建會,政府需負責歸國學人的來回交通費、住宿餐費、各項建設參觀活動的安排等一切費用,所費實屬不貲,因此國內每一位納稅義務人對國建會的動態與功能自是十分關注,究竟政府每年花費大筆經費舉辦國建會,是否值得?

例如:今年國建會的新聞當中,就有認為國建會成員素質降低的報導。文化新聞組領隊李瞻教授立即發出不平之鳴。李教授指出,新聞記者所以會指本屆國建會的水準降低,大概是他們自己所認識的幾位學者沒有參加之故。

李教授強調,我國的海外學人遍及世界各地,就以旅美學人來說,各個學門的專家有兩萬多人,而國建會舉行了十一次,只邀回一千多人。有很多學人的學術成就很高,但並不為國內新聞界所熟悉。因此,新聞記者憑一己的認識來評斷國建會學人水準的高低,這是不公平的。

另外,有些報導批評國建會的建言,是老調重彈,缺乏意義。李教授認為,這也是以偏概全、對國建會缺乏充分了解的說法。他說,國家在現代化的過程中,不斷會遭遇新的問題,有些是過去不適合談的,現在可以談;過去沒有能力做的,現在能夠做了。此外,事實上每年國建會都有新的構想出現。例如,今年文化新聞組提出成立傳播學院,培養高級傳播人才,這就是從前沒有提過的。今天我們的社會言論由封閉走向愈來愈開放,國建會的影響是不容忽視的。儘管有些建議曾數度被提出過,但也不能說是「陳腔濫調」,因為這樣可以不斷提醒政府重視這些問題,或許有一天時機成熟了,就能付諸實現。譬如:「籌設公營電視」,這個建議曾被提出數次,今年終為政府所接納,就是一個具體的例子。

重在觀念的溝通與啟發

李教授並且強調,我們無法要求國建會的每個建言都立即可行或皆是驚人之議,只要每年的建言中都有部分可供採行,那就是有所收穫了。國建會的會期只有兩週,除去參觀訪問的時間,實際用於討論問題的只有一個星期,在這麼短的時間內,實很難針對各種問題提出具體可行的步驟。因此國建會的真正精神,李教授以為,恐怕並不在於制定方案,而在於觀念上的啟發。而觀念上的溝通與實現,並非朝夕可得。因此我們不能期望每年舉辦國建會都能收立竿見影之效。換句話說,如果我們要判定國建會的功過,就不能單看目前,而必須從國家長遠的利益著眼。

李教授並且指出,國建會除了政治參與、集思廣益之外,還有一個重要的功能,就是國際宣傳。目前我們國家局勢仍十分艱難,中共正在千方百計地分化離間,試圖孤立我們。如何凝聚海內外的力量,團結人心,無疑是個非常重要的課題。因此我們不但要提供愛國的海外學人參與國是的機會,也要積極爭取中立的游離份子。但是,兩週的會期,能夠化解某些與會人士的成見和偏見嗎?

李教授說:「依我和多數與會人員接觸的經驗,發現大部份的人態度都有很大的改變:由冷漠變為熱忱,由誤解變為諒解。若是這些海外學人都能把所見所聞帶回僑居地,所發生的影響力是無法用金錢衡量的。如果放棄了這項努力,那麼我們的損失就更難以估計了。」

無徵不信,請您回來看一看

負笈美國十載,甫於去年回國任教的美國芝加哥大學政治學博士郭仁孚,今年應邀參加國建會。他也認為,國建會對海外學人確實發生了相當大的正面宣傳效果。他說:「回國前,我在美國曾看到不少因參加國建會而改變對政府態度的旅美學人。參加國建會前,他們大多不相信政府在海外所作的紙上宣傳;參加以後,百聞不如一見,當他們知道政府所言非虛,便不期然地在心理上對中華民國政府開始有認同感。這種認同感對他們在海外的言行所發生的影響,是無法衡量的。」

但是無可否認的,國建會仍有不少缺失,尚待改進。例如:許多國建會的與會人員因長期居住海外,對國內情況不甚瞭解,有時發言難免無法切中問題。曾參加過國建會的交通部參事張銑雄提出改進的意見。他認為,應該加強海外學人與國內的聯繫,政府應儘量提供資料,增加海外學人對國內的了解。並將國建會所欲討論的問題,於開會前一定時間,將討論題綱及有關問題背景的參考資料,一併送請與會人員先過目研究。也希望與會人員在返國開會前,對國內情況及政府措施能多作探討。在參加分組討論時,亦宜充分把握發言重點,儘量提供精闢而切實可行的意見。

李瞻教授的意見,則是希望參加過國建會的海外學人,能結合起來在僑居地組織一個學會,定期舉行會議,發行會報,並配合當地的國際貿易和文化宣傳工作,構成一個國際宣傳網。若從這個角度來看,國建會的舉辦只不過是一個開端而已,政府仍有許多措施可進一步實施和加強。

主動檢討,來年改進

今年國建會閉幕後,主辦單位行政院也召開一次會議,提出檢討報告,主動指出今年國建會仍有下列缺失:

(一)在籌備工作方面有:國外出席人選未能在會期半年以前定案,國外出席人數未能兼顧地區分配,參觀訪問節目稍嫌緊湊,分組研究的參考資料仍有部份未能及早寄送,以及少數出席人員的專長與分組不能配合等。

(二)在分組研究方面有:討論時間不夠、難以暢所欲言,部份題綱未列子題稍嫌空泛,及有關問題未能由相關組別聯席研討等。

檢討報告中並且提到,關於部分出席人員與輿論界對於今後國建會舉辦方式的意見,例如:國建會不一定每年舉辦一次、分組不宜一成不變、每年可辦二、三次小型會議,科技方面改為專業性會議等,這些意見正由籌備委員會加以整理研究,留供今後辦理時參考改進。

任何措施都是難免有利有弊,我們要選擇利多弊少的去執行,並努力增其利、去其弊。國建會儘管是個極有意義的構想,也難免在施行時見其缺失。但是從大體而言,這個會議的功能與意義還是為國內外同胞所肯定的,這也就是政府每年定期舉辦國建會的原因。至於應在執行方式上如何突破、改進,使國建會更能發揮功能,就是主辦單位今後的重要課題了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.8、P.9

圖1:行政院長孫運璿在國建會開幕式中,以「開創一個中國人揚眉吐氣的世紀」為題,發表演說。圖2:蔣總統經國先生在台北賓館的草坪上,以茶點招待國建會與會人員及眷屬。圖中他手持點心,慈祥親切地和大家交談。圖3:行政院孫院長夫婦主持國建會晚宴,和與會人員及眷屬握手寒喧。圖4:今年國建會共分政治外交、教育、文化新聞、經濟、科技及衛生六組分組討論。圖為經濟組綜合討論會進行的情形。

P.10

圖1:國建會與會人員參觀位於台北縣金山的核能二號電廠。接待人員正向來訪人士解答他們提出的問題。圖2:行政院孫院長夫人特別在國賓飯店舉行茶會,招待與會人員的眷屬,氣氛輕鬆而融洽。圖3:在國建會的晚宴中,孫院長將一對與會夫婦的小女兒高高舉起,一老一少都露出真摯的笑容,構成一幅溫馨的畫面。

P.12

國建會與會人員參觀中國造船公司高雄造船廠,親睹國家建設的進步成果。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Meeting on National Development


Despite constant warnings that smoking is the chief cause of lung cancer, one of Taiwan's most popular cigarette brands is still called "Long Life." There was little inclination to change this situation until Prof. Lee Yu-chen urged the government to adopt the name "Short Life," instead. Prof. Lee, a public health scholar working in the United States, was among 237 experts taking part in the 1981 National Development Seminar held in Taipei July 6 to 20. Participants were divided into six groups to cover politics and diplomacy, education, culture and information, economics and public health. During the two-week discussions, the scholars came up with some 693 new ideas and suggestions.

The concept of holding National Development Seminars took hold during the dark days when the Republic of China was deprived of its United Nations membership and the Nixon administration was infatuated with the Mao Tse-tung regime. The seminars have been held once a year since the first one in 1972 except for 1979, when two were held in the wake of the Carter Administration's switch of diplomatic relations to Peiping.

The seminars have proved to be the best vehicle for Chinese intellectuals both at home and abroad to convey their views to the government during the difficult times faced by the nation. As well as strengthening national unity, they have enabled participants to convey what they have seen and heard in their motherland to the overseas Chinese community.

In his opening speech at this year's seminar, Premier Sun Yun-suan said: "The government has taken into consideration the seminar's views in formulating many of its major activities during the past few years, including the enactment of 'public officials election and recall law,' election of additional parliamentarians, separation between trial courts and prosecutor's offices, preparation for the national compensation law, opening of travel abroad, establishment of a money market, insurance of larger-denomination banknotes, gradual liberalization of foreign exchange rates, strengthening of local government, revision of the allotment of financial revenues and outlays for improving the finances of local governments, all-out implementation of grass-roots construction, promotion of cultural development, including the construction of cultural centers in cities and counties, implementation of the science and technology development plan, improvement of the industrial structure, strengthening of vocational training, formulation of energy conservation measures and diversification of energy sources, preparation for 'the environmental protection plan for the Taiwan area' to protect the ecological environment, strengthening of medical care and public health facilities, and expansion of the social insurance programs."

The implementation of these measures is evidence of the government's recognition of the value of the opinions put forward by the scholars. Of the 693 ideas suggested this year, several are considered pertinent at this stage of the nation's development. They include a call for an improvement in the way in which criminal suspects are interrogated in accordance with the law, expansion of the activities of the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission, enactment of a law to govern the activities of journalists, lifting of the ban on publishing new newspapers, prevention of newspaper mergers, convention of a world Chinese conference to determine the social and political system to be adopted in a reunified China, acceleration of research into production of a turbine engine, and establishment of an adult disease control network.

Particularly impressive was the dedication and enthusiasm of the participants. Scholars in the educational group pledged to work out a plan to improve the much-criticized joint entrance examination for colleges and universities. The science and technology group meet as early as 6 a.m. Dr. Tsao Jeh-hsin, one of the participants, openly expressed his regret that he had not contributed his efforts during the difficult times faced by the nation. Su Tung-chi, editor-in-chief of Taiwan Times said: "All of us competed to take the floor because we were afraid there would not be enough time for us to speak our minds. Everyone sought to contribute as much as he possibly could."

Both President Chiang Ching-kuo and Premier Sun Yun-suan attach great importance to the views of the scholars and specialists. The Premier personally joined in the discussions to explain the government's stand point. The Premier disclosed during one of the discussions that the Government is studying the establishment of a public television system. He also extended a welcome to overseas scholars who want to work in the Republic of China.

Although the views of participants are valuable, the government cannot afford to hold the seminars too often. All payment for the participants' board, lodging and travel expenses must come from the taxpayers, who are entitled to wonder whether the expenditure is worthwhile.

Many newspapers criticized the fact that the academic qualifications of many participants this year were not high enough. But this view was dismissed by Prof. Li Chan, head of the cultural and information group, who said newspapers were biased because their favorite scholars had not been included in the invitation list.

He explained: "Chinese scholars are scattered all over the world, with more than 20,000 in the United States alone. While many of the 1,000 scholars who have taken part in the 11 seminars held so far were not known to most people, though they had enviable academic accomplishments."

Commenting on another criticism that some of the views raised in the seminar were trivial, Prof. Li said: "One swallow does not make a summer." He added that critics knew little about the seminars and had neglected the fact that in the process of national modernization, new problems continuously emerge and new solutions must be found.

To close the information gap which arose at the latest seminar, the participants urged the establishment of a broadcasting college to train qualified personnel. There can be no doubt that the National Development Seminars are aiding Taiwan's progress from closed society to open society status. It is true that some of the same views are raised over and over again, but they cannot be considered trivial just because of this, since the government is reminded of their significance. When the time is ripe, the ideas will certainly be adopted. The establishment of the public TV system is a case in point. The idea has been put forward on many occasions, and has only recently been accepted by the government.

Prof. Li stressed that it is unreasonable to expect every point of view put forward at the seminar to be earthshaking. Even if one or two turn out to be practical, the seminar can be considered a success. Only one of the two weeks the seminar lasted was devoted to discussion, and it was impossible to work out concrete programs in such a short time. The true value of the seminar lay in its ability to work out new concepts, though it will take time to adopt them. It is therefore unfair to judge the value of the seminar purely according to its immediate results.

Another function of the seminar is to attract international publicity. There is no doubt that the country is facing great difficulties because of the Chinese Communists' efforts to divide ranks in free China and isolate the nation from the rest of the world. The seminar provided a chance for patriotic scholars to take part in national affairs, and it might also help win over some of the wavering elements. The real test lies in whether the seminar helped people to overcome their prejudices.

Discussing this point, Prof. Li said: "My contacts with participants convinced me that most of them have changed their attitude to a great extent, and many have become enthusiastic in support of the Republic of China's cause. If these scholars can pass on what they have seen and heard here to people in foreign countries, then the influence of the seminars will be immeasurably great in terms of money."

[Picture Caption]

1. Premier Sun Yun-suan addressing the opening session of the National Development Seminar. 2. President Chiang Ching-kuo entertains participants and their dependents at a garden party. 3. Premier and Mrs. Sun host a dinner party in honor of the participants. 4. The seminar was divided into six groups. Picture shows discussions in the economic groups.

1. Participants in the National Development Seminar inspect a nuclear power station at Chinshan in northern Taiwan. Picture shows a technician at the plant answering quest ions raised by visitors. 2. Mrs. Sun, wife of the Premier, entertains dependents of participants at a tea party. 3. Premier Sun greets the child of a participant at the dinner party.

Participants tour the China Shipbuilding Corp. yard at Kaohsiung.

 

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