聲幽藝揚在鹿港

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1979 / 7月

文‧楊惠娥 圖‧孟慶常


曾經繁盛一時,而有「一府二鹿三艋舺」之稱的鹿港,已沒落多時了。百年前車水馬龍的市街,如今只留下老街曲巷堣@幢幢斑剝的古宅,沐在夕陽的餘暉堙C老一輩的鹿港人所津津樂道的昔日鹿港的繁盛,只能在記憶堨h追尋了。然而,鹿港有一群有心的年輕人,卻不願沈湎在懷舊、傷古的情緒堙A一任古鎮衰頹下去。他們立志要把鹿港無形的文化財,留存下來,發揚光大,做為發展觀光的資源,為古鎮添注新的生命力。於是,他們集中力量,無視於各種阻礙,四方奔走努力,再一次舉辦了為期一週的鹿港全國民俗才藝活動。


車子進入鹿港大街,首先映入眼簾的,是一座古色古香的竹搭牌樓,下面懸著「鹿港觀光周」五個紅色燈籠。

大街兩旁,每隔幾公尺,便掛著一盞古色古香的燈籠。入夜時分,紅色的燈籠,那麼情調地在每一家的屋簷下亮起。小鎮的古樸風味也就更濃馥了。

觀光客從各地湧入,把小鎮僅有的四家旅館擠得宣告客滿。本地人也都抱著趕市集的心情,聚集在各個活動地點。

今年這裡的民俗才藝活動,在民俗體育方面,有龍舟競賽、隔岸拔河、風箏比賽;在民俗藝文方面,有詩書畫展、傳統詩朗吟大會、寫生比賽;在民俗技藝方面,有手工藝展、鹿港民俗市集、盆栽展;在民俗戲曲方面,有南管、皮影戲、傀儡戲。

這其中最引人注目的是龍山寺舉行的民俗技藝展。許多懷有絕技的民間藝人,在主辦單位的再三敦請下,雲集在龍山古寺表演拿手的絕活。

古式大燈的製作好手吳敦厚,一大早從他家堭a來大大小小的竹燈以及五顏六色的顏料,在龍山寺殿廊下當眾表演古式大燈彩繪。他不打底稿,拈筆就畫,不一會兒,燈上便佈滿了繽紛的龍雲與仿宋古體的中國字。

黃成治女士編打燈籠的巧妙手藝,也叫人讚嘆。只見她縱橫交錯,忽而上下交叉,忽而左右編排,霎那間便完成了一具美好的竹燈骨架。

此外,繡香包、製香、糊紙、製竹器、木雕等民間手藝,也吸引了無數好奇的眼光和由衷的喝采。

具有鄉土風味的鹿港點心——豬油c、狀元糕、李仔糖、杏仁茶、粉圓,使龍山寺前庭的民俗市集成了一個甜甜蜜蜜的世界。

夜晚的傀儡戲、皮影戲、子弟戲,更是把老老少少都吸引來了。有些人好奇地擠在戲台旁邊,想一窺幕後的真相;有些人被劇情吸引,看得入迷;也有人「醉翁」之意不在「戲」,他們只是來享受古剎堬D爽的晚風和熱悶的氣氛。

第二屆鹿港全國民俗才藝活動在熱鬧中結束。鹿港人與所有的觀光客都衷心盼望著,盼望明年此時,能再舉辦一次更盛大、更豐富的民俗活動。

「五月五,龍船鼓,滿街路。」在台灣各地,端午節最熱鬧的活動就是龍舟競賽。

在鹿港福鹿溪舉行的龍舟競賽,是本屆鹿港民俗才藝活動的壓軸好戲。

老鹿港人稱賽龍舟為「扒龍船」。過去在扒龍船之前有許多儀式。五月初一「龍王祭」,要上香祭告龍王,並請出龍山寺供奉的「龍王尊神」遊行街頭,同時在福鹿溪畔舉行龍舟開光點睛的儀式。到了初五日,所有船員,就用肩扛了龍船,敲著鑼鼓遊行。所經之處,居民都鳴放鞭炮並燒香禮拜,所以有「五月五,龍船鼓,滿街路」的說法。遊行完畢,便將船放入水中,開始比賽。

福鹿溪是絕佳的賽龍舟場地。由於河面寬僅五十公尺,擠在兩岸吆喝、加油的觀眾,能清清楚楚地看見選手奮力划槳的神情,還可聽見舟上鑼鼓,一聲急似一聲,因此更能融入緊張的爭競氣氛堙C

經驗豐富的龍舟老手說,划龍舟要有充沛的體力,要會同時運用腰力和臂力,使槳深而有力地吃進水中,才能加快船速。同時還要有持久的耐力,才能划完二百公尺的全程。

有時競賽激烈時,有經驗的掌舵人會將長舵頂入不太深的溪道中,使船速加快。在奪標的一剎那,更需運用特殊技巧,使船頭翹起,幫助奪標者拔旗。奪標者在快到終點時,把小腿抵住龍鬚,半身懸在空中,在水花中奪旗。常常由於競爭激烈,奪標手因此摔落水中。

穿插在龍舟賽間的「隔岸拔河」競賽,是今年民俗大會首創的體能競賽,吸引了大批的觀眾。

拔河地點在福鹿溪的兩岸。一條主繩,連接兩岸。另有五條支繩,繫著主繩。每一支繩各有四名選手拉住。為了防止主繩落入河中,河面放置了二十隻油桶,贏的一方要把輸的一方拉下水去,這真是名副其實的「拔河」。

這種遊戲,源自戰國時代的公輸般。只是那時不叫「拔河」,而叫「拖鉤」。當時南方的吳國,派出大批水軍跟楚國打仗,公輸般就在楚國訓練水兵準備迎敵,「拖鉤」是主要的課程。「拖」是拖拉對方船隻的纜繩,「鉤」是用有●的篙把對方的船●過來。經過長時間的演變,成為民間常見的拔河遊戲。

在國內手工藝圈子堙A「鹿港師傅」的手藝一向是出了名的。尤其是木雕,更是鹿港師傅的絕活。這絕活是早年過海移居鹿港的泉州師傅流傳下來的。

在鹿港,走幾步路,就有一家傢具店或佛具店。老一輩的人都曉得買木製家具要買正宗的鹿港貨,木料好,不變形走樣,不會有蟲蛀,而且雕刻得極其精美。

鹿港的大小寺廟有五十多座,所以雕刻佛像的行業也很興盛。

在民俗技藝展中,吳清波表演了「神像雕刻」。只需幾把挫刀,一把釘鎚,一座座栩栩如生的觀音像、媽祖像、彌勒佛,就在他敲敲打打下完成了。

香是民間拜拜用的重要宗教用品。製香全憑手藝。鹿港許多香鋪,都有幾十年的歷史,各有其祖傳秘方。在本屆民俗技藝展中表演製香的林壁B,就是有六十年歷史的李壽春香鋪的當家師傅。

他抓起一捆削好的細竹條,熟練地攤展開來,挑出太細太軟的淘汰掉。然後從塑膠袋中倒出香粉——香粉是香樹樹皮和中藥磨成的,細心地用篩子篩過,而後平鋪在台子上。細竹條有五分之三的部份用水浸過,輾過香粉時,便沾上了香粉。然後拿出去曬太陽,便製成了香。林壁B說,他一天工作六小時,大約可以做一百斤的香。

鹿港的烏沉香在清朝時是有名的上品。目前生產較少,價錢比一般的線香貴,大約一斤要一千六百元。上等的沉香一般市價也得這麼高的價錢才買得到,普通的線香只需要四十元到一百元就可以買到了。

在鹿港鹽埕海邊,近萬名的遊客和鹿港鎮民觀賞了空中風箏比賽。

各式各樣的小型風箏,輕而易舉地便飛上了天空,悠遊翱翔。有些是翩然飛舞的蝴蝶,有些是搖曳生姿的美女,還有唯妙唯肖的老虎、青竹絲也在空中爭奇比巧。有的將竹削笛繫在箏首,迎風嘯鳴,更是別有一番情趣。

大型風箏,最引人注目。有三十節以上的蜈蜙,還有色彩鮮豔的八角龍等。因為當天風不夠大,要把這些巨型風箏放上天去還真不容易。有時好幾個壯漢拖著龍首,逆風奔跑;有時兩個人拎著龍尾,爬上了屋頂,但巨龍卻只在低空逗留一會兒,便又頹然落地了。

製造風箏要有技術,還要符合力學上的原則。風箏一定要輕,每一節要左右平衡,才能飛上天空。所謂風箏形,就是對角線成直角,面積等於二角線乘積之半,不符合此原則,風箏便很難放上天去。

風箏飛上天後,放風箏的人只靠手中一條線,來調節風箏的平衡。應該鬆線時絕不能拉緊,必需收線時切不可放鬆,否則風箏便有下墜和斷線的可能。風箏一旦斷線,想收也收不回來,那就成了名副其實的「放」風箏了。

設在龍山寺的「聚英社」,是本省目前最能保存古傳統風貌的南管樂團。在本次民俗活動期間,他們每天在龍山寺的戲台上演出,有的彈奏琵琶,有的輕扣二弦,有的閉目吟唱,有的輕擊拍板……台下悠然閒坐的聽眾與之輕輕唱和,渾然沉醉在古老芬芳的旋律中。

南管是福建安溪、南安、晉江、惠安一帶的地方音樂。唱詞採中原音韻,用晉江腔;唱詞詞藻深奧似崑曲,屬於文人案頭的靖曲。鹿港開埠較早,經濟繁榮,人文薈萃,由於南管通俗而雅麗,當時鹿港人不論識字與否,都能吟唱數曲。

南管樂器有上四管和下四管之分。上四管是洞簫、琵琶、二弦和三弦;下四管是響盞、叫鑼、四板、雙音及小鼓。上四管是主樂器,下四管則屬伴奏樂器。

在聚英社門前橫楣上題著「御前清客早蜚聲」。八十歲的王昆山社長說:「御前清曲」是出自清朝康熙皇帝的御筆。當康熙六十大壽時,安溪大學士李文貞羅致泉州附近五大樂手進京,舉行御前演奏會。康熙皇帝聞之大喜,驚為天下絕響,當場取支洞簫與之合奏,並御賜宮燈和彩傘以為嘉許。從此,宮燈與彩傘成為南管樂團的光榮標誌,而洞簫手也被尊為首席樂手。

聚英社的成員有八歲的小童,也有八十歲的老翁。在龍山寺兩側廂房堙A常可看見老的少的在一起彈奏,一起吟哦,我們可以肯定——這柱香是會傳下去的。

陳金月女士在龍山寺表演的「挽面」,讓許多年輕小姐大開眼界。因為在美容院林立的今天,這種古老的美容術已經難得一見。

從前女孩子未出嫁前不能拔汗毛和眉毛,到結婚前一天才請人到家堮冪情A叫做「開面」。開面時,新娘子不能叫痛,也不能有閒人在一旁吵鬧。

挽面人要先在待嫁新娘的臉上塗一層「新竹粉」,減少汗毛滑溜。然後拿出一條棉紗線,一頭用牙齒咬住,左手抓住另一頭,右手從中攔起轉兩圈,而後利用牙齒和左手拉張棉線,讓繞結在臉上轉動,將臉上汗毛絞起來,而使臉上容光煥發。新娘開面後到第二天上花轎前不能見天。

挽面人在為新娘開面時,都要說些吉祥話。男方在事後會送一個大紅包和幾束麵線給挽面人,以為酬謝。

陳金月說,婦女臉上的汗毛不宜用剃刀修,因為會愈修愈粗,長得也快。但時代不同了,畢竟用剃刀要快得多,所以挽面的婦女也就愈來愈少了。

在傳統習俗堙A五月五端陽節,大人要在兒童襟前繫上一個香包。在扇形、粽形、葫蘆形、八卦形、雙壽桃、茄子等各式各樣的香囊堙A放著煙絲或香料,據說可以避邪驅毒。

七十三歲的張江招治老太太,是目前鹿港碩果僅存的製作香包的能手。她在龍山寺表演繡香包的絕活,從剪紙板到描繪、繡花以至於縫綴、裝飾,全都靠著她的一雙巧手,大約一個半鐘頭可以完成一個玲瓏可愛的香包。老太太說,繡香包一定要手指不能出汗,才不會把緞面的布料弄髒。這也是她的絕活難覓傳人的原因之一。

熊熊的火光,喧騰的鑼鼓,洶湧的人潮,畫破了寧靜的古鎮之夜。一連兩晚,鹿港人和外地觀光客一同沈浸在熱鬧、刺激的宗教遊行堙C

一般廟宇神祗出巡,大都在白天舉行,唯獨鹿港,也在夜間舉行,叫做「暗訪」。

入夜時分,中山路兩旁的燈籠都點亮了。兩排熊熊的火把,引導著五十多所廟宇的神輿、陣頭、儀杖隊、旗號隊浩浩盪盪地在砲竹連天中上路。那種威儀、那種神秘,真能撼人心魄!

神,也有「神際關係」。於是,某廟的王爺要出巡,其他親密友好的廟宇神明都會前來助陣。如果是合港崇拜的大廟神祗出巡,那麼各廟的神明都齊來陪伴護駕,於是天兵天將前後銜接,隊伍綿延數里,十分壯觀。

暗訪的最後節目是「送惡」。由乩童以神符令牌法器,將邪魅押解到海邊「正法」,才算功德圓滿,達成護境安民的任務。現在「暗訪」的迷信觀念已減少了,代之而起的,是熱鬧的民俗節慶氣氛。

老一輩的鹿港人心目中,都記得那個「講古老仙」——施旦。

在他們年輕的時候,電視還沒有出現。於是,在晚風習習,清涼如水的夏夜,搬張凳子,圍坐在龍山寺後殿廣場中聽施旦講古,便成為平淡生活中極大的點綴與調劑。

那時候,施旦才四十多歲,聲音十分宏亮,他能把封神榜、水滸傳、西遊記、三國演義、少林寺中方世玉打擂台等故事的精華,講得活神活現,引人入勝。尤其是他特別強調故事堜儒絡`義的民族精神,更能緊扣著憨厚耿直的鹿港人的心弦。所以他的聽眾很多,常常一個晚上,就有五斗米的收入。

「封嘴」了十四年的施旦,在這一次民俗才藝活動中,再度「開講」,使許多鹿港人得以重溫舊夢。

龍山寺古老的壁簷下,懸掛著四盞古色古香的彩燈。錯落的小竹凳上,坐滿了男女老少的聽眾。施旦一手拿著「嘉慶君遊台灣」的書,一手配合著臉上的表情比劃著。老一輩的人聽得饒有興味,彷彿時光倒流,又回到了從前的歲月。年輕人也許不十分聽得懂,卻也情不自禁喜歡在此坐會兒。——這一片古色古香、拙樸悠閒的氣氛多麼怡人啊!

〔圖片說明〕

P.2、P.3

左:在龍山寺表演的大燈彩繪。上:手工藝品展展出的家具及竹製器具。

P.5

本頁的圖片是在民俗技藝展中表演的:1.糊紙藝術、2.捏麵人、3.錫器製作、及4.狀元糕。

狀元糕的製作過程,是將在來米磨成粉,放進木模,加入砂糖、冬瓜糖,蒸一分鐘後,便可食用,味道甜甜的很好吃。據說,狀元糕是清朝皇帝宴請狀元時的茶點。也有人說,入京考試,吃了狀元糕才會及弟。郭福成已經有十五年沒有做狀元糕了。幾年前,鹿港民俗文物館出高價要將他的木模買去展出,他捨不得所以沒賣,沒想到在民俗技藝展中,它們又派上用場了。

捏麵人是一項流傳民間已久的民俗手藝品。在施錦江的木盒堙A放了五顏六色的糯米糕,他這邊捏掉一塊,那邊黏上一塊,不一會兒,就捏出了栩栩如生的三國演義的人物,西遊記的孫悟空、豬八戒、唐僧,還有花鳥、動物、水果等,出神入化的手藝,叫小孩子看得目瞪口呆。

P.8、P.9

右上:鹿港龍山寺供奉的龍王尊神。左上:鹿港媽祖廟堛滲垓聽O牌。左下:手工藝品展覽中展出雕刻精美的神輿。

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Past Glory Recaptured in Lukang Pageant


Only the time-worn buildings and stories recounted by the oldest residents are reminders that Lukang on the west-central coast of Taiwan was one of the most prosperous centers on the island about a century ago. Recently, however, a group of young people has become dissatisfied with the mere recollection of past glory. They decided to organize a national folk art activities week in Lukang.

As visitors entered the ancient town for the second of these festivals recently, the first thing came into view was a ceremonial arch bearing the legend "Lukang Tourist Week." Along the main thoroughfare, red lanterns were hung from the eaves of houses, and vendors appeared at every corner competing for tourists' patronage with bargain prices. The four hotels in the town were full to capacity.

Folk art activities held during the week were dragon boat races, across-the-river tug-of-war, kite-flying competitions, calligraphy and painting exhibitions, poetry recitals, painting contests, handicraft exhibitions, a traditional market, potted plants show, and theatrical performances such as nan kuan, shadow play and puppet shows.

One of the most eye-catching of these activities was a folk art presentation by Wu Tung-ho, who showed his lantern painting techniques in a corridor of the Lungshan Temple. Also attracting attention were Huang Chen-chi's dexterous technique in making bamboo lanterns, and displays of sachets, incense containers, bamboo utensils, paper cut-outs and wood carvings.

As the festivities drew to a close, visitors and residents alike were looking forward to an even more grandiose spectacle next year.

The last and best-attended activity during Lukang's national folk art festival was the dragon boat races, held to commemorate the boats rushing down the river to save Chu Yuan, a loyal minister in the state of Chu centuries ago.

After the eyes were painted on the dragons in a ritual ceremony on May 1, the boats were carried shoulder-high through the streets. Then they were launched on the river, and the races officially started. The cheers and applause of the spectators on the banks of the river mingled with the beats of the drums and gongs to create a feeling of excitement. Stamina, experience, body control and teamwork are the key elements in winning a dragon boat race. As each boat approaches the finishing line, the gong beater leans out over the bow, balancing his weight on his upper thighs like a gymnast on a side-horse. The one who seizes the flag is the winner, even if his boat is slightly behind. Not surprisingly, the flag snatcher sometimes falls out of the boat in his enthusiasm. A useful ploy in winning the race is to ruffle the water at the stern with the rudder, which lifts the bow out of the water and reduces friction.

During an interval in the dragon boat race program, the across-the-river tug-of-war is held. A main rope strung between the banks of the Fulu river has five branch strings at either side manned by four people. To prevent the main rope from being submerged in the water, it is supported by 20 floating oil drums. The winner is the side which pulls its opponents into the water first.

During the reigns of the Emperors Chien Lung and Chia Ching of the Ching dynasty, immigration and trade between Canton, Fukien and Taiwan brought to Lukang skills in making exquisite handicrafts such as wooden and bamboo utensils, carved temple decorations and accessories, as well as in the manufacture of incense.

The sculptures of god images, palanquins, temple roofs and other decorations by the masters of Lukang have earned nationwide acclaim. Numerous stores display exquisitely designed furniture such as eight-immortals table, closet, screens and chairs. High quality raw materials, special designs and skilled carving techniques have made the 50-odd temples in the Lukang area museums in themselves.

During the national folk arts presentation, Wu Chin-po displayed his technique in making fantastic god-images. Using files and a hammer, Wu created life-like Goddess of Mercy, Matsu and Maitreya images. During the arts festival, a delicately designed palanquin (below right) and religious instruments (above right) were on public display.

Incense is an important ingredient of any religious festival. Most of the incense shops in Lukang were founded several decades ago, and each has a secret recipe passed on through the generations. Lin Tang-chi, proprietor of a 60-year-old Lishochun Incense Shop, displayed to the public his manufacturing technique during the festival.

After scattering a bunch of polished bamboo sticks on the ground, he discarded those which were too soft or too slender. Then, from a plastic bag, he poured out a fragrant powder made from the bark of aromatic trees and Chinese herbs. After double sifting, the powder is spread on the table, and each of the bamboo sticks, after being dipped in water is rolled through the mixture. After being sun-dried, the sticks are ready for the market. Lin said that he can produce 100 catties of incense a day.

Lukang's Wu Chen incense was regarded as being of the best quality during the Ching dynasty. At a cost of NT$1,600 (US$44) per catty, it is today the most expensive of all, since regular incense sells at between NT$40 and NT$100 a catty. Pictures show, from top, the Dragon King god in Lukang's Lungshan Temple, drawing lots, and making incense.

Kite-flying on the beach near Lukang drew thousands of tourists and local residents of Lukang. The miniature kites ranged from those shaped as young girls or scholars to those in the form of birds, reptiles, insects, tigers and snakes. The most eye-catching, however, were the large kites, such as one in the form of a centipede divided into 30 segments, and a horned dragon. To get kites in the air is an art in itself. By running, pulling and appropriately snapping the lead string, and then catching an air current, the kites rise higher and higher, sometimes climbing in a straight line, sometimes buckling like an inchworm. Kites are artistic, scientific and educational toys. There is a special art in designing a kite so that it will look realistic in the air, while at the same time retaining its ability to rise easily and fly well.

Chu Ying club in Lungshan Temple is one of the few nan kuan troupes, dedicated to the preservation of traditional Chinese music. To perform nan kuan music, which originated in Fukien province, the main musical instruments are the upper four kuan, consist of bamboo flageolet, balloon-guitar, two-string and three-string musical instruments, and the lower four kuan, which provide the accompaniment consisting of castanets, gongs and drums. The ages of the players range from eight to eighty. They can be seen playing together frequently in the wings of the temple, amid the fragrance of incense which is kept burning continuously.

Wan Mien, a traditional folk ritual designed to remove fine hair on the face and neck by using a thread, is a unique attraction during Lukang's folk art activities. In ancient China, a maiden was not permitted to "wan mien" until the eve of her wedding, which is known as the "face opening" day. First, the "face opener" applies a powder prepared specially in Hsinchu to reduce the gloss of the fine hair. Holding one end of the thread with her teeth, she grasps the other end by the left hand, and circles it twice with the fingers of her right hand. As the thread rolls across the face, the hairs are removed. With the advance of industrial civilization, however, the wan mien depilation technique is slowly dying out.

One of the traditional customs for children in celebrating the Dragon Boat Festival is wearing hsiang pao, or sachets, to ward off evil spirits. It takes Chang Chieng Chao-chi, 73, one and a half hours to complete one sachet. One of the few surviving specialists in the art, she explains that considerable care must be taken to see that the fingers do not stain the material in the manufacturing process.

The burning torches, loud sounds of drums and gongs and crowds milling around shatter the peace of Lukang's night as the gods are paraded through the streets. These night parades, known as "An Fang" are unique to the Lukang festival, since they are held in the daytime in other places. Palanquins, banners, weapons and musical instruments are carried to the accompaniment of firecrackers. The last program in the An Fang festivity is sending away the evil spirits, conducted by a priest on the seashore, with the blessing of the gods.

Shih Tan, an old master in the art of story telling, is an unforgettable character among the old people of Lukang. Before the era of television, he provided the main enjoyment and relaxation after the evening meal. Shih was able to bring to life such famous novels as The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Pilgrimage to the West, the Investiture of the Gods, All Men Are Brothers and Shaolin Temple. The stories extolling the virtues of loyalty, filial piety, fidelity and justice deeply moved the simple and honest people of Lukang. As mass communication developed, however, the profession of story telling declined. But at the second national folk arts festival, Shih's mouth opened again after 14 years of silence. Under the time-worn eaves of Lungshan Temple, four ancient style lanterns were lit to reveal an audience consisting of people of all ages. In spite of his advanced years, Shih narrated the story of the "Chia Ching Emperor Travelling to Taiwan" with great feeling. While the older spectators were taken back to a former age, the younger ones were mostly uncomprehending. But the time-honored dignified ceremony had lost none of its appeal.

[Picture Caption]

Left: Demonstration of lantern painting techniques at the Lungshan Temple, and above, an exhibition of furniture and bamboo utensils.

Clockwise from above right: Paper pasting technique, making Chuangyuan cake, tinfoil utensils and molding pastry figurines. The figures and animals ingeniously pasted together from small pieces of paper are used as children's toys or to "send off" the dead. Fashioning pastry figurines is an ancient folk art. Pinching small pieces of colorful glutinous rice cakes from his wooden box, Shih Ching-chiang is able to mold all kinds of life-like forms such as monkey, pig, and monk, characters in the Pilgrimage to the West and a variety of other flowers, birds, animals and fruit. His skills caused his young spectators to marvel. To make Chuangyuan cakes, one must first grind rice to powder, place it in a wooden mold and add sugar. After steaming for one minute, the cakes are ready for sale. It is said that this type of cake was used by Ching dynasty Emperors to reward scholars who achieved the best grades in the imperial examinations.

 

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