生命淬煉盡成舞——江青

:::

1989 / 8月

文‧李光真 圖‧張良綱


從「跳民族舞的小美人」,到熠熠電影紅星,再蛻變成國際現代舞壇上的一員,江青的生命歷程橫跨了中國大陸、港台、美國,最後定居在遙遠的北歐,她的一生,看似「傳奇」,卻更富含堅韌、自適的人生哲理。


睽違十九年,一代金馬獎影后——江青,終又重返國門。當江青踏出中正機場,看到孫越、曹健、傅碧輝……等影壇老友,在深夜中守候迎接時,四十三歲的她也不禁又跳又叫、又摟又抱。經過多年時空的阻絕,江青一貫的率真、熱情,仍然很快地感染周遭每一個人。

昔日明星,今日舞者

「總算是了了一樁心願!」從電影界「出走」,江青以舞蹈工作者的身分重回故土,儘管不少演藝界老友對江青略顯冷澀的現代舞展,有著「看不懂」、「轉變太大了」的慨嘆,但江青仍然相當滿足:「趁我還跳得動時,回來為老朋友、為昔日的觀眾演出,讓他們看看舞台上真正的江青——這一直是我最大的心願!」

說起當年踏入影壇,也實在是因「舞」結緣。

江青十歲就進入「北京舞蹈學院」主修民族舞,十六歲畢業後轉往香港發展。第一個工作是為邵氏的歌舞片編舞,沒想到女主角樂蒂中途退出,電影遂告停擺,反倒是有著一雙靈俏大眼、一張甜美鵝蛋臉的江青被國聯影業看中,一部和凌波搭檔演出的「七仙女」,使江青一砲而紅,成為紅遍港臺的「國聯五鳳」之一。

民國五十五年,年僅廿的江青,更以「幾度夕陽紅」榮獲金馬獎,達到了演藝事業的高峰。

然而「從影七年,舞蹈也中斷了七年」,江青回憶道。整天拍戲、應酬,民族舞成了特殊節慶時才偶爾展露的額外「才藝」,連從小苦練的基本功也荒疏殆盡。

挫折中的轉捩點

但畢竟自幼習舞,銀幕下的掌聲並不能滿足江青,「電影只是工作,真正的精神慰藉還是跳舞」,她說。

在江青與電影導演劉家昌傳出「婚變」、繼而隻身赴美前,她已經著手籌辦一間舞蹈教室;教室還沒裝潢完成,身心困頓的她就毅然「出走」,到新大陸去找尋新的天地。

如果不是當年的「婚變」,江青還會重回舞壇,成為今天的舞蹈創作者嗎?——面對這樣一個許多女性雜誌記者最關切的話題,江青總是沈吟半晌,然後說:「對於已經發生的事,我從來不做『如果沒有……』的假設;但在電影圈待得越久,想重回舞蹈的心就愈強烈,這種意念從來沒消失過。」

但江青也不諱言,初去美國,只有一個模糊的信念:「我要再開始跳舞!」至於如何開始,選那一條路,又能走多久、多遠?都在在令她惶惑。

那一段日子的確是潦倒黯淡的。慣於享受眾星拱月、逢迎讚美的「玉女影后」,一下子跌落冷清、甚至是失敗的谷底。但江青並沒有像許多人預言地被「擊倒」,她把自己關在房間堙A劈腿、拿頂……,一點一滴,再把「基本功」從頭拾起。

「那時候,舞蹈就是唯一的寄託了。每天不是苦讀英文就是練基本功,有時候驀然發覺自己一、二個月都沒開口和人講過話」,江青回憶。

日子終於有了轉機。兩年後,江青在長島的一場中國民族舞演出,受到加州大學柏克萊分校教授的青睞,他主動詢問江青是否有意教課,於是江青抱著一本英文字典,戰戰兢兢地去應徵,開始了她教授「中國舞」的生涯。

找到了自己要的舞……

「一年半的柏克萊教職,的確給了我很大的幫助」,江青至今仍對這段幸運往事充滿感激。這種幫助,不僅是一份安定的生活,更讓她可以免費旁聽其他老師的課。也就在這堙A江青第一次接觸到正統學院中的現代舞。

沒有過多外在的成規模式,只要求盡情「表達自我」的現代舞,對從小接受中國民族舞及俄國古典芭蕾訓練的江青,不啻是一項觀念上的大轉變。

「以前我受的訓練,是以『技巧』掛帥,較少用『感覺』、『思維』去編一隻舞或跳一隻舞;而現代舞卻啟發我,原來舞蹈的天地這麼廣,你可以用它來表現內心最深的掙扎,也可以用它來表現你對社會、對某一件事的看法。」那種「這就是我要的舞」的驚豔,改變了她的舞蹈生命。

從愛上了現代舞,到一年半中去了紐約八次,江青逐漸清楚自己要走的路——創作。雖然這是一條寂寞而艱苦的路,但對歷經了人世滄桑起伏的江青而言,「創作」卻是一條最能讓她自由呼吸、並且幫她釐清思緒、沈澱感情的一條路。

於是,在紐約州立大學教課之餘,江青抓住每一個機會,向現代舞壇的大師們觀摩學習,瑪麗.安東尼、喬伊斯.崔斯勒等人,都曾給她許多啟發;而每天接觸的、談的、練的……都是現代舞,也使她很快地掌握住現代舞的「語彙」。

不再孤軍奮鬥

成立舞團,則是江青的另一個轉捩點。這和從影、教學一樣,也是「無心插柳」下的成果。

那是在一九七三年時,江青帶著系上學生在紐約市政廳演出,結果出乎預期地成功,故幾位班底留了下來,成為「江青舞團」的成員。往後十二年,從剛開始的一年一度發表會,進展到一年兩次、三次、甚至巡迴各地,參加各項國際性舞蹈節,這支富有獨特中國風格的舞團,終於在國際上闖出了知名度。

「中國風格」一直是江青舞作中最受矚目的。從第一個作品——用王維的詩和周文中的音樂編成的「陽關三疊」開始,傳統中國文化的精神始終貫穿在她的舞蹈裡。即使現在沒有多少時間研讀古籍,但莊子、楚辭、唐宋詩詞、戲曲等,在「北京舞蹈學院」文化課程中讀過的,仍然是她腦中經常浮現的取材對象。

今年四月她在紐約古根漢博物館推出的獨舞——源自李清照的「聲聲慢變奏」,就不僅蘊含這種精神,更直接在演出時用中文念白。當「尋、尋、覓、覓、冷、冷、清、清……」配合著空洞重覆的腳步聲響起時,即使完全不懂中文的觀眾,也能夠感受到那種淒靜欲絕的傷懷。這種超越時空國界的「共鳴」,正是江青最引以為傲的。

「文化的根就是創作的根」,江青多次嚴肅地強調。而她比一般中國人更得天獨厚的是,她還擁有豐富多變化的民族舞語彙:蓮花指、劍指、雲手、蹲轉……,這些自幼銘記在心的舞步和身段,創作時都成了素材,許多意念也能因此「具象化」。

中西兼容,富含哲理

江青以這次在台灣首演,為紀念故友葉清而作的「竹節」為例,儘管許多人認為這支舞碼失之「單調」、「重覆」,但江青原先的創作意念正是要表達葉清平淡、堅實的個性。

江青首先取「中空高節」的竹作為象徵,再用化自安徽「花鼓燈」中,具有「貼地」及「堅韌」等含意的「水車步」為基本的步法;而出現了七、八次的「三點頭」——「亮相亮三次」,也意在加強對故友的懷念。

「這些民族舞蹈的語彙其實都具有深刻含意」,不過江青也特別強調:「但我不是要跳民族舞蹈,而是取擷適合我用的語彙,把它們融入現代舞中,並賦予新的精神。」

是不是因為這些「異國風情」,才使得江青在競爭激烈的世界舞台上擁有一席之地?江青承認:「當然要有特色,才能夠凸顯自己。」但她絕不認為在藝術成就的評鑑中有國籍、性別之分。

「不管別人邀請我參加『少數民族舞展』、『女性舞展』、或把我稱為『會跳舞的明星』,都是我最反對的!」江青堅定地說。

「看不懂江青的舞」?!

除了中國文化以外,對「生活」本身的靜心體會,也是江青的創作泉源。

例如每次演出都佔有極重份量的「詮釋」部分,江青就有著顯然側重哲理探討的創作意念:「同樣的事,看法可以迥異。個人的經驗、感情,以及外界的環境變化,在在影響我們對事物的觀點和態度,而『詮釋』就企圖反映這種事物的多面性。」

於是,江青將完全相同的同一套舞步,做了「角度」上的變換,分別以舞台正前方、側前方四十五度角、正上方、正後方……做為中線,結果能看出其中「玄機」的觀眾竟然少之又少。而她以同一個旋律,藉不同樂團的演奏、或配以不同編舞者的舞作,也往往給觀眾全然不同的感受。

當然,對一個成熟的編舞者來說,舞蹈語彙再豐富、哲理再深奧,也要通過觀眾的「直覺」考驗。這次江青在國人「預期過高」的情況下,演出評論褒貶互見。

新象負責人、本身為音樂家的許博允認為她的舞「很『冷』,但是深度很夠」。而國立藝術學院舞蹈系講師陶馥蘭則指出,江青的舞,往往意象流於簡單,肢體動作也失之「平面」,力度、流動感略嫌不足。而「看不懂」、「怎麼不像跳舞——沒有跳躍、也沒有旋轉等高難度技巧?!」則是一般觀眾的反應。

重視「過程」,忠於自己

對於這些評語,江青免不了有挫折感,但她仍有自己的信念:「我的舞蹈較注重觀念的闡釋,若能從當晚演出舞碼的整體結構來探討,或許比較不會『見樹不見林』。」

江青清楚自己創作過程的每一步思維,但她也喜歡留下「空間」,讓觀眾自己想像。

「像我有一首作品『洞』,在創作最早期是拿來象徵窗戶——因為人都是透過窗戶去看世界,然後人懂得愈多,包袱也就愈重、愈纏愈放不開、患得患失,於是我的『洞』也愈開愈多。」

可是有很多觀眾看過後,忍不住問她:「這些『洞』是不是代表傷口、是說感情創傷是剪不斷、理還亂的……?」江青回想起這些可愛的觀眾們「體貼入微」的揣想時,就忍不住開心地笑起來。

對江青來說,作品受歡迎固然值得高興,但她所以選擇創作的路,正是因為過程重於「成品」。也因此,儘管一些外國人士認為「江青的中國民族舞跳得比現代舞好多了,她為什麼要跳現代舞,而且要自己創作呢?」但江青卻堅持「忠於自己」,用自己真正喜歡的方式來展現自我。

國立藝術學院舞蹈系主任平珩就很贊同這種態度,她說:「江青知道自己想要什麼、要如何表達;也清楚自己每一支舞的意念和意義,對舞蹈工作者而言,這種發自內心的動力,就是不斷進步的驅力。」

用「生活」來豐富舞作

從一九八五年江青解散舞團之後,創作、獨舞、擔任藝術指導……就成為她的事業重心,而從世界各地來的邀約也從未間斷。

一九八七年,江青到中國大陸巡迴表演,在拉薩市創下了西藏有史以來第一次現代舞演出;同年她應紐約林肯表演藝術中心的大都會歌劇院之邀,為普契尼歌劇「杜蘭朵公主」編舞;今年香港藝術節中,香港舞蹈團演出了她的舞劇「冥城」(大劈棺);而離開台灣後,短短的後半年,她又分別要為英國、瑞典的兩齣戲劇編舞……。

做為一個足跡遍及全世界的自由藝人,江青心中卻有著一個遠在瑞典、遙遠而溫暖的家。家中的主人——世界知名的瑞典籍血液專家彭貝克——是一個願意給予江青自由發展的空間,卻又能在藝術理念上提供心得的良師益友;而年僅四歲半、稚嫩可人的小兒子,則是江青最大的歡樂泉源。

為婚姻而解散舞團、在事業顛峰時懷孕生子,又為了和兒子相處,放棄許多優渥的演出機會……,這些,在珍惜演藝生命,以「個人實現」為人生目標的歐美藝術界而言,都算重大「犧牲」。

關於這點,江青也有自己的看法:「我從來不認為舞蹈是我的全部,——『生活』才是!」

在家時,練舞室之外,江青喜歡下廚房做菜;喜歡捏捏弄弄,做實用雕塑;喜歡教兒子一字一句念中文,講起「媽媽經」時更是笑開了眉眼。而出外演出時,江青則會在緊湊行程中抽空到各地遊覽,大街小巷地逛,去瞭解當地社會的民俗風情。

或許,回望江青走過的路,想想她堅持理想、卻也擁抱真實人生的自適,有人看不懂江青的舞,又有何妨呢?

〔圖片說明〕

P.94

江青的舞作,蘊涵中國風味及哲思。(江青提供)

P.95

這張曾經風靡港台的姣美面容,已更增添智慧與圓融。(江青提供)

P.98

家居時的江青,是平淡自適的。圖為江青攝於紐約自宅。(江青提供)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Chiang Ching A Life--In Dance

Laura Li /photos courtesy of Vincent Chang /tr. by Phil Newell

From "the folk dancing little beauty" to film star to her transformation into a citizen of the realm of international dance, Chiang Ching's life has spanned mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the United States, and has most recently settled in distant Northern Europe. Her life is like a fairy tale, but even more is it a story of persistence and a philosophy of coming to terms with herself.


After a 19-year separation, Chiang Ching, one of the first generation of Golden Horse award-winning actresses, returned to Taiwan. On coming out of the airport, she was surrounded by her old friends from filmdom. The 43-year-old could not help dancing, shouting, hugging. . . . Even after a long time, Chiang Ching's sincerity and enthusiasm infected everyone around her.

Her entry into stardom was fatefully linked to dance.

When ten years old, Chiang entered the Peking Dance Academy to study folk dancing. After graduating at 16, she went to Hong Kong. Her first job was as choreographer for a Run Run Shaw film. It was never expected that the female lead would pull out halfway through. The eyes of the studio came to rest on the adorable, big-eyed, oval-faced Chiang Ching. The film made Chiang Ching an overnight sensation.

In 1966, only 20, she won the Golden Horse award, marking the high point of her acting career. Nevertheless, "in doing seven years of film, I was cut off from dancing for seven years," she recalls. Between filming and compulsory social engagements, folk dancing was relegated to an "outside talent" and her basic skills waned.

But the applause of film audiences wasn't enough to satisfy Chiang. "Movies were just work. My real spirit was still on dancing."

Before Chiang's marriage to her film director husband broke up, she had begun work on a dancing classroom. But before the decorating was finished, she suddenly decided to "take off" and seek new vistas in the new world.

If she hadn't had a marriage crisis at that time, would Chiang have returned to dancing and be a choreographer, as she is today? Faced with this most popular of questions, Chiang responds, "As for events that have already happened, I never make 'if I hadn't. . .' speculations; but the longer I stayed in movie circles, the more intense my desire to return to dancing became. This belief never disappeared."

Chiang cannot help but admit, however, that in going to the U.S. she only had a vague idea of what she wanted. "I only wanted to begin dancing again." But she was confused about direction.

Those days were definitely hard times. Used to the life of a star, Chiang plunged into silence. But she was not, as many predicted, overwhelmed. She shut herself in her room doing leg splits and bends, bringing back her "basics" bit by bit. "At that time dancing was my only refuge. Aside from studying English, I was practicing basics. Sometimes I would suddenly discover that I hadn't said a word to another person in a month."

Her days finally reached a turning point. After two years, she staged a performance of Chinese folk dancing in Long Island. It caught the eye of a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, who asked Chiang if she had any interest in teaching. Clutching her English dictionary, she accepted the post as a professor of Chinese dance.

"My year and a half at Berkeley was really helpful," notes Chiang. This assistance was due not only to stability in her life, but also because she could freely sit in on the classes of the other teachers. It was here that she first came face to face with orthodox academic modern dance.

With few rules except to "express yourself," modern dance was a tremendous conceptual change for Chiang, who had only training in Chinese folk dancing and Soviet classical ballet. "In the past, we always used 'skill' as the mark of excellence; we rarely used feeling or 'thought' to choreograph or dance. Modern dance taught me that the universe of dance is vast. You can use it to express your deepest conflicts or views toward society or events."

From her love affair with modern dance and her eight trips to New York in a year and a half, she gradually became clear about her own path--creative choreography. Though difficult, for Chiang, whose life had seen more than its share of twists and turns, this was the path which could allow her to breathe freely and help her clarify her thoughts.

Besides taking classes at the State University of New York, Chiang took every opportunity to tap the wisdom of masters of modern dance with whom she came in contact. Every moment was spent in touch with, reading about, and doing modern dance.

"Chinese style" has always been the part of Chiang's work that has received the most attention. From her first work building on poems by Wang Wei and music by Chou Wen-chung, the spirit of traditional Chinese culture has always permeated her dancing. What she studied in Peking often surfaces in the materials she chooses. At a solo performance at the Guggenheim in New York, she read aloud in Chinese. Even those who couldn't understand a word could grasp the sentiment. This "common call," transcending international boundaries, is what Chiang has most to be proud of.

"The roots of culture are the roots of creativity," she says repeatedly. She still uses Chinese folk dance motifs. "These motifs of folk dancing, in fact, have deep implications." But Chiang repeatedly emphasizes that "I don't want to dance folk dance; I choose motifs appropriate to my use, and integrate them into modern dance, giving them a new spirit."

Besides Chinese culture, understanding of life itself is a source of creativity. "Similar things can produce extremely different viewpoints. One's personal experience and feelings, as well as changes in the external environment, always affect our attitudes toward matters. 'Expression' just contrives to reflect the multifacedness of these things." Consequently Chiang does transformations in angle with similar dance steps, using straight forward, 45 degrees, straight up, straight back, as the main lines. But only a small part of the audience can recognize the technique.

Chiang gets mixed reviews from critics. Hsu Po-yun, director of New Image, believes that "the dancing is 'cold,' but has adequate depth." Tao Fu-lan, a lecturer of dance at the National Institute of the Arts, points out that "the symbolism is too simple, and her gestures are flat, and the strength and feeling of fluidity are not adequate." The reaction of most ordinary viewers is, "incomprehensible," or "How can it be dancing? There's no leaping or pirouettes or other highly difficult techniques!"

Chiang cannot help but be disappointed with such critiques, but she maintains her views. "My dancing stresses the explication of a concept. If people can explore from the overall structure of an evening, perhaps they won't be as likely to 'miss the forest for the trees.'" For her, the process is more important than the final product. While some believe she is better at and should stay with folk dance, Chiang believes she should be "true to oneself," and choose the techniques she likes to develop herself.

Since the disbanding of her troupe in 1985, she has focused on choreography, solo performing, and art direction. In 1987 she toured mainland China and did the first ever modern dance performance in Tibet. She choreographed a Puccini opera for the Metropolitan Opera House. During this year's arts' season in Hong Kong, a Hong Kong troupe performed one of her works. She will soon choreograph two dramas in England and Sweden.

In her heart, Chiang Ching has a warm home in distant Sweden. The master of this house, the Swedish blood specialist Birger Blomback gives her space to develop freely and is also a friend and teacher. Her four-and-a-half-year-old son is her greatest pride and joy. Marriage, having a child, and giving up performing opportunities to be at home are seen as major sacrifices in the Western art world, where "self-realization" is stressed.

Chiang has her own view: "I've never thought dancing was my entire life." At home, Chiang likes to cook, do practical carvings, and teach her child to read Chinese. When going out to perform, she takes time to check out the local area to understand its society and customs.

Looking back on the road Chiang Ching has traveled, thinking that she has maintained her ideals and yet embraced a real life that comes to terms with herself, what does it matter if there are a few people who can't understand her dances?

[Picture Caption]

Chiang Ching's dancing reveals a Sinic flavor and intuition.

(photo courtesy of Chiang Ching)

This beautiful face, which has been through hard training and a wave of popularity in Taiwan and Hong Kong, is tempered with wisdom and tact. (photo courtesy of Chiang Ching)

Chiang Ching at home is a person at peace with herself. The photo is of Chiang Ching's New York residence. (photo courtesy of Chiang Ching)

 

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!