鄉音悅耳傳後生——呂泉生的音樂生涯

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1990 / 3月

文‧陳淑美 圖‧陳品君


「飲啦!杯底不可飼金魚,好漢剖腹來相見,拼一步,爽快麼值錢!

 

友的杯底不可飼金魚,興到食酒免揀時,情投意合上歡喜,杯底不可飼金魚。

 

朋友弟兄無議論,要哭要笑記在伊,心情鬱卒若無透,等待何時咱的天。哈哈哈……醉落去,杯底不可飼金魚。啊……」

 

這是老牌台籍作曲家呂泉生在民國卅八年四月所寫的一首歌「杯底不可飼金魚」,你聽過嗎?


「杯底不可飼金魚」原是首勸酒歌。「不可飼金魚」意謂把杯中酒一飲而盡,不要留下來餵養金魚,其寓意取自台灣民間俗諺,趣味性十足。

但是如果你有興趣觀察,在早期一些在野黨聚會的場合,你也可以聽到對這首歌不同的詮釋。

最常被引申的是歌詞中的最後兩句:「心情鬱卒若無透,等待何時咱的天。」(若不解開心情的鬱悶,我們的前途何時才會開闊呢?)

喝咖啡加辣椒

呂泉生的作品中,經常被傳誦的,還有「阮若打開心內的窗」。

這首歌以民國四十三、四年「耕者有其田」實施後的時代為背景,歌詞中,奉勸土改後的地主在能夠不因失去土地而悲觀喪志,重新「打開心內的窗」,來面對新生活。

在某些強調本土意識的人看來,這首歌反映土改後地主的苦境;有些政治主張較強烈者更將歌曲解釋作:自從外來政權到台灣後,「台灣人」就沒有好日子過了。在尚未解嚴之前,這種說法的確存在。

但是,這樣的引申是否合理?原作者呂泉生一笑置之。「就像現在大家喝咖啡加糖、加牛奶,五十年、一百年之後說不定大家加辣椒,但咖啡還是咖啡呀!」呂泉生比喻。

他認為,音樂的表現非常單純,即旋律、節奏和合聲;好的音樂流傳千古,不好的音樂瞬即消失,一切取決於音樂本身,至於改編者的引申、歌唱者的處理,原作者都無從置喙,「只有一點,使用的人需付費」,呂泉生打趣道。

好漢剖腹來相見

不少人好奇,呂泉生當年在作這些詞曲時,到底有沒有政治意識呢?

呂泉生說到「杯」歌的由來:「卅六年二二八事件發生後,本省外省同胞不能溝通,只會打招呼,不敢說真話,『面和心不和』。我想到趙元任寫過『茶花女飲酒歌』中的『天公造酒又造愛』,於是寫了這首『飲酒歌』來發抒感想。歌詞堙y好漢剖腹來相見』就是勸大家,男子漢大丈夫什麼事不要放在心裡,說出來就是了。」

「阮」歌的心境則是:「當人去樓空、田園讓給別人,青春、美夢都無法想像時,請你打開心內的門窗,安靜來想一想,你會得到安慰和鼓勵,使你再站起來,再重建家園,再留在故鄉……。」

從這兩首名歌的由來來看,今年已七十四歲的呂泉生當年的心境,無疑是相當樂觀的。而樂觀、和悅、帶著明朗的現實主義色彩,也正是樂界人士對呂泉生的綜合評價。

此物只應天上有

呂泉生,生於民國五年,台中縣神崗鄉三角村人。外祖父是台灣中部著名古書院——筱雲山莊的主人呂炳南。目前已被列為重要文化財產的台中縣神崗鄉篠雲山莊也是呂泉生幼時玩耍、進修課業的地方。

根據師大音樂系教授許常惠的說法,西式音樂傳入台灣,約在一八六○年,與基督教長老會以詩歌傳教有莫大關係。台灣早年第一批音樂家,許多人皆出於宗教家庭,呂泉生也是其中之一。

呂泉生幼時就跟著母親上教會,由於天生有副好嗓子,也參加唱詩班,因此比同齡孩子更早接觸音樂。

念台中一中時,他跟同學到東京旅行,在日比谷公會堂聆聽了一場小提琴演奏會,使他體會到了音樂的美好,從此下定決心要學習這種「只應天上有」的東西。

中學畢業後,到當時最好的東洋音樂學校(今日東京音樂大學前身)專攻音樂,已成了他的第一選擇了。

東洋音樂學校時期的呂泉生原主修鋼琴,二年級時的一次意外事件,使他摔傷了手臂,從此只好改修聲樂。畢業後,他考上日本東寶公司日本劇場,擔任聲樂演員,又同時擔任日本國家電台NHK的廣播合唱團團員。當時每月日幣一百八十多圓的月薪,跟當時甫出校門的日本年輕人比起來,已是一等一的高收入了。

民國卅二年,他返鄉探望病重的父親,原本要立刻再去東京,但因為當時已值中日戰爭的末期,往來台日之間船隻隨時有被炸沈的可能,不得已而留下。

緊接著台灣光復。政府遷台之後,他先後擔任中國廣播公司音樂組長、省交響樂團合唱指揮、靜修女中老師、台灣省文化協進會音樂主任委員等職,民國四十六年,榮星合唱團成立,他應聘為團長至今。

由謠變歌

不少人把呂泉生歸為「本土音樂家」,儘管他對這類的稱號並不以然,「那個音樂家不是從本土出發?」呂泉生說。但是,「他的音樂所表現的本土意識,我相信相當真實地反映著民國卅至四○年間,台灣樂壇轉變時期(從日據轉至中華民國)歌曲的風格,尤其他的台語歌曲,在平易近人的歌詞與歌曲的配合中,充分顯出他樸實而正直的感受,是無人能比的」,許常惠如此評論。

前述「杯」、「阮」是兩個例子,膾炙人口的搖籃曲——「搖嬰仔歌」更是其中代表作。

「嬰仔嬰嬰困,一瞑(一夜)大一寸,嬰仔嬰嬰惜,一暝大一尺,搖子日落山,抱子金金看(仔細看),你是我心肝,驚你(怕你)受風寒……」

這首歌道出了普天下父母在搖抱孩子睡覺時的憐愛及期望之情,不管在那個年代唱來,均令人心動。

呂泉生不僅創作歌曲,也改編民謠。

「他是第一個用五線譜記錄台灣民謠,將閩南語民謠由謠變歌的第一人」,台灣民俗學作家莊永明如此定位。

據呂泉生的說法,他到鄉間採集民謠,始於日本念書的時期,初為課業所需,後來因為東寶日劇的工作需要,他又再度接觸了民謠採集。到了光復前後,他已先後採集了多首民歌,今日大家熟悉的「丟丟銅仔」、「六月田水」、「一隻鳥仔哮啾啾」……等均是發表在當時著名的文藝刊物「台灣文學」上的曲子。

先畫圖,後有字

從呂泉生的經歷看來,他採集民謠,基本上是為用而取,採集之後,很快就編寫成曲,賦予它生命,然後把它唱出來,重新還給大眾。

對呂泉生來說,採集民謠可說是興趣所在,也是「工作之餘所付出的對自己土地的關愛」。但從閩南語民謠保存的立場來看,由於呂泉生這樣學過西式音樂技法的音樂家,將向來只供吟唱、沒有樂曲的民謠改編,使其有了不同的結構及表現,等於給了當時已趨沒落的台灣民謠,賦予了生命。

對於成為音樂史上民謠採編的第一人,呂泉生的反應還是淡然一笑。

「就好像人類先會畫圖,然後有字、變成句子,再來有文章,之後再有小說,能說故事了……,這是一種自然進化的過程」,呂泉生比喻。

他說民謠的進化也是一樣,由念句子不成調地唱,到寫成樂曲的歌,也是一定經歷的過程,他只不過因緣際會,剛好成了實際行動的第一人而已。

呂泉生的音樂生命中,採集、創作歌曲,生命力最旺的時期,約在一九四○到五○年間。目前大家熟悉的呂泉生名作如「杯底不可飼金魚」、「阮若打開心內的窗」、「搖籃歌」等,均於此時寫成。

六○年代以後,光復後第一批留歐學音樂人才如馬水龍等陸續返國,國內音樂環境丕變,留歐學派成為創作歌曲的主流。也就在這時候,呂泉生創辦了榮星兒童合唱團,在兒童音樂天地中,找到另一個出路。

呂老師風格

榮星兒童合唱團成立於民國四十六年。在那個物質匱乏的時代,音樂仍被當作可有可無的東西,成立兒童合唱團如果不算異想天開,至少也是個大膽舉動。

合唱團的發起人是台灣北部望族、也是呂泉生台中一中學弟辜偉甫,合唱團的團員,最初也從辜家及呂泉生相熟的親朋好友子女中招收。

呂泉生表示,榮星創辦卅四年以來,支持最力的是辜家大小,這也是使合唱團安定最重要的力量。

辜偉甫不僅出借場地,也提供資金。榮星最早即在辜家客廳婼m唱,後來才遷到今日涼州街的辜家古宅;由於有辜家資助,榮星一直到成立第六年才開始向團員酌收微薄的茶水費。有一年霍亂猖獗,小朋友還獲贈一瓶殺菌鮮奶,從此成為慣例,這在當時可以說是十分昂貴的享受。

也因此,早期的「榮星」總讓人覺得帶有貴族色彩,後來雖因時光的流轉、音樂教育的普及而淡化,但榮星在古宅婼m唱,要求團員健康、活潑、功課好等作風,卻因此而流傳下來了。

談起榮星風格,沒有人會否認,創辦、指導「榮星」卅四年的團長呂泉生是最大的影響者。

「你可以說榮星風格就是呂老師風格,沒有問題」,第九期團員,如今是榮星混聲隊伴奏的郭月如說,「因為他跟別的老師不同,因此我們也跟別人不同」,她自豪地說。

知音者能愛音樂

榮星人有何不同?呂老師的看法是:榮星出來的孩子一定健康、愛音樂。

他指出,一般人常覺得進榮星合唱團不大容易,其實卅幾年來榮星每年招生的條件都一樣,只有三點:體格要健康,性格要開朗,要真正喜歡唱歌。

「入團測驗時,我們只考兩樣,唱Do Re Mi Fa So La Si Do七聲階,及一首兒歌——妹妹揹著洋娃娃」,呂泉生進一步說明。

呂泉生「擇人」的條件,似乎頗能符合音樂教育理論,但這樣訓練出來的孩子到底又有何特色?

「能知音」,呂泉生肯定地說。他表示,榮星出來的人、別的不說,音感的訓練一定比別人甚至比音樂科系的學生好。

這與他一直相信的音樂哲學有關。

呂泉生說明,音跟樂是不同的兩件事情,音是科學的,有一定的高低、長短、和快慢、大小;樂是藝術的,可以表現的。但是假使一個演唱者拿捏不準音,構成的旋律,必然不可能準確,這在正統音樂標準看來就是不合格,也就根本達不到「樂」的藝術性。

十三期的團員,目前擔任榮星指導老師的廖智慧對此深有體會。

她指出,榮星出來的,對音樂的要求可說十分嚴格,甚至到了挑剔的地步。「樂譜上每個音的表現,到任何加快、減慢等記號,對我們來說幾乎是直接反應的」,廖智慧分析,這多虧了兒時的嚴格訓練。

唱歌像跳舞

對榮星的孩子來說,很少人沒挨過「團長」的罵。

「小時候,對他簡直是怕死了」,郭月如表示,呂老師對學音樂的態度,極其嚴肅。遲到了要罵,唱錯了要罵,樂譜記號沒表現出來要罵,連上台步伐走亂了也會被罵,「我就不知道有多少次被他說道:你回去,明天不要再來了!」廖智慧回想起來仍心有「餘悸」。

但儘管如此,沒有人否認,呂老師給他們很多。

廖智慧回想,從小她就很喜歡聽老師對音樂的詮釋,譬如他會說:唱歌不要像作體操——硬綁綁的,要像舞蹈——柔軟一點呀!這類比喻,讓她感覺到音樂生命原是這樣特殊、值得追求的。

「有時你覺得他說的是一些暗語」,自稱比較不怕老師,現在也擔任團員指導老師的陳盈伶說,現在她也會學老師,用「比喻」向團員訴說音樂了。

一直到現在,郭、廖、陳這三位「呂門子弟」對老師的感覺,都還是又愛又敬。

「他外表上看來那麼嚴肅,臉上經常有股不可侵犯的凜然,但有時談起話來又那樣的生活,簡單得每個人能懂,卻又一針見血」,廖智慧形容,她經常就在這種又怕、又愛、又敬的交雜情緒中跟老師接近。

古典藝術家?

看起來,呂老師似乎很兇,但實際上,他是個很可親的人。例如:問及他對某首音樂的看法時,他會將錄音帶放在隨身聽裡,把耳機湊在你耳朵上,說「你聽呀!」

去年二月台中縣文化中心邀他返鄉開演唱會,他一高興起來,便給文化中心寫了一副對聯:「返鄉樂展揚歌聲,鄉音悅耳傳後生,後代鄉親不相識,原來同是中縣人。」

吟詩作對,是呂泉生目前的最大嗜好。

「詩樂本來是即興,昔時樂聖大詩人,興到舉筆不修改,我亦試看行不行?」呂泉生在自己出版的打油詩專輯首頁,寫出自己學詩的心聲。

對呂泉生生平深有了解的師大音樂研究所碩士連憲升認為,如果藝術家有所謂浪漫型及古典型——比較理智、清明,跟社會理法不衝突的區分的話,那麼呂泉生無疑屬於後者。

他的性格十分簡單、樸實,不管從其曲風及音樂經歷來看,整個音樂生命均帶著明朗的色彩。

手摔壞了,就學聲樂;創作音樂主流的舞台不屬於他了,就投入兒童合唱,在他的寫成的曲調媕Y,找不到突兀及不和悅的音樂語法,在他的作品中,樂觀、努力,鼓勵人向上是最多的主題。連憲升認為,這似乎也是他僅有的一項可議之處:人生原本並不圓滿,音樂又何必一定和悅呢?

這使人憶起德國詩人席勒說過的一句話:「生活是嚴肅的,藝術是和悅的。」呂泉生難道是這句話的奉行者?

〔圖片說明〕

P.88

呂泉生的音樂生命充滿和悅的樂章。

P.89

民國五十四年,實踐家專任教時期的呂泉生。之後呂即專注於管弦樂及合唱曲的教唱,較少從事聲樂演唱。(呂泉生提供)

P.91

從青壯到華髮,這樣專注的表情從來不變。

P.91

榮星兒童合唱團三十四年來的「標準隊型」。

P.90

「榮星」練唱的時候,音唱不準的,腳步踏錯的,不專心的孩子均難逃團長的「法眼」。

P.93

呂家客室裡的這張桌子,譜出過多少感人的樂章。

P.92

學生的歡笑、雄偉的樂章、凌亂的樂譜,呂家客廳從來不顯得寂寞。

P.93

呂老師每週到榮星六天,數十年如一日。

P.95

篠雲山莊古宅,呂泉生與鄉親談起年少時光。

P.94

去年二月間的一個午後,呂泉生回到他幼時就讀的小學,台中縣神崗鄉岸裡國小。

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近期文章

EN

A Legacy of Folk Music for the Young-- the Musical Life of Lu Ch'uan-sheng

Jackie Chen /photos courtesy of Chen Pin-chun /tr. by Andrew Morton


The composer Lu Ch'uan-sheng was born in 1916 at Shenkang Taichung county. His grandfather Lu Ping-nan owned the historic Hsiao Yun Academy at Shenkang, now listed as a major cultural relic. Here Lu Ch'uan-sheng used to play and take lessons in his childhood.

According to Prof. Hsu Tsang-houei of National Taiwan Normal University, Western music first reached Taiwan in the 1860's largely through the hymns of Presbyterian missionaries. Many of Taiwan's early musicians came from Christian families, including Lu Ch'uan-sheng.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng recounts that as a child he would accompany his mother to church. With his fine voice he soon joined the choir and so began his involvement with music at an exceptionally early age.

While at Taichung First High School he went to Tokyo with some schoolmates, where he heard a violin recital at Hibiya Auditorium. This opened his eyes to the beauty of music and he decided to study this thing "fit only for heaven."

After high school he went to the Toyo Music Academy (now Tokyo Music University) where he studied music, his first choice.

At Toyo Music Academy Lu Ch'uan-sheng originally majored in the piano, but after accidentally injuring his arm during his second year he had to switch to vocal music. After graduation he became a singer in Toho Company's Nihon Theater and a member of the NHK radio chorus. His salary of ¥180 a month was first rate for any young Japanese fresh out of college.

In 1943 he returned to Taiwan to visit his ailing father and intended to go straight back to Tokyo, but ended up staying on because of the danger to shipping at the height of World War Ⅱ.

After the war he served in turn as music director of the China Broadcasting Company, choral conductor of the Taiwan Symphony Orchestra, teacher at Ching Hsiu Junior High and music chief of the Taiwan Provincial Cultural Association. When the Rong Shing Choir was founded in 1957 he was appointed its director, which he remains to the present day.

Many consider Lu Ch'uan-sheng to be a "native musician," although he personally disagrees with this term. "After all, what musician is not a native?" he retorts. But Hsu Tsang-houei explains, "I believe the native consciousness his music expresses truly reflects the style of Taiwanese songwriting in the transitional period (between Japanese rule and Taiwan's retrocession to the ROC) in the 1940's and 1950's. His Taiwanese-dialect songs in particular combine appealing lyrics and melodies and are beyond compare in their display of genuine and direct feelings."

His popular lullabies express the tender affection felt by parents the world over as they rock their babies off to sleep. They appeal to the heart at any age.

In addition to composing songs, Lu Ch'uan-sheng also transcribes folk ditties.

"He was the first person to record the folk ditties of Taiwan in Western musical notation, and the first to transform these into songs," confirms Taiwan ethnologist Chuang Yung-ming.

By his own account, Lu Ch'uan-sheng began collecting folk ditties in the Taiwan countryside as a study assignment during his student days in Japan. By the postwar period he had built up a large collection of folk songs, some of the most familiar of which were published in the well-known arts journal Taiwanese Arts in Taiwan.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng's procedure was to collect the types of folk ditties he wanted to use, quickly set them to music and perform them. In this way he gave them back to the people endowed with a new lease of life.

Collecting folk ditties has been a fascinating hobby for Lu Ch'uan-sheng and "a way of showing affection for my own land." As a trained musician he was able to transform Taiwanese folk ditties which were previously only chanted rather than sung and give them a whole new structure and expressive power tantamount to infusing them with new life.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng reacts with a smile to claims that he is the first collector and arranger of Taiwanese folk songs in musical history.

"This is a natural evolutionary process," he retorts. "It's like the way man began by painting pictures, then wrote characters which in due course formed sentences and eventually prose. That led on to the composition of narratives, and so forth. . . ."

Folk songs evolve in the same way, from tuneless rhymes to songs set to a melody. There is a certain process involved, and it was sheer chance that he happened to take the first concrete steps.

The most vital period of Lu Ch'uan-sheng's musical career as a collector and songwriter occurred during the 1940's and 1950's. This is when his best-known songs were written. Since the 1960's, when the first post-war generation of European-trained musicians such as Ma Shui-lung began returning to Taiwan, the local music scene has been transformed. As song-writing became dominated by European-trained composers, Lu Ch'uan-shengdiscovered a new career in the world of children's music by founding the Rong Shing Choir.

In Lu Ch'uan-sheng's opinion those who have sung in this choir have a better trained feel for music than even music department students do. "That I can guarantee with my hand on my heart," he proudly says. This is part of his lifelong philosophy of music.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng explains that while sounds have scientific properties of pitch, length, speed and volume, music involves quite different qualities of artistry and expression. But without a correct grasp of musical pitch and melodic structure it is impossible to achieve musical artistry.

Liao Chih-hui, the Rong Shing Choir's choral director, profoundly agrees.

She stresses that the choir members are subjected to rigorous musical demands bordering on perfectionism. "We react directly to every note of the score, even the tempo markings, almost without being reminded." In Liao Chih-hui's view this has a lot to do with rigorous training in childhood.

Very few of the child choristers have escaped a scolding from the director.

"When I was small I was simply terrified of him," confesses Kuo Yueh-ju. As a teacher Lu Ch'uan-sheng adopts a strict attitude towards the joy of learning, and children may be scolded for arriving late, singing wrong and ignoring expression markings. Even walking out of step on stage means a black mark. "I don't know how many times he told me 'Go home and never come back,' Liao Chih-hui ruefully recalls.

Even so, no one would deny that he gave them so much more.

Liao Chih-hui remembers how he would explain that singing was not so much like gymnastics, hard and tough, than like dancing, soft and gentle. Such comparisons hold an important place in her heart and have helped her to feel that musical life is really something special and worthwhile.

"Sometimes he seemed to speak in riddles, but after singing it through a couple of times you saw what he meant," says Ch'en Ying-ling, another choral instructor. Now she follows his teaching method and explains music to the choir in metaphorical terms.

His pupils have complex feelings of love and respect for their teacher. "He looks so stern and forbidding but sometimes he speaks in such a lively, simple and effective way, hitting the nail right on the head," describes Liao Chih-hui.

Lien Hsien-sheng, a graduate of the NTNU Institute of Music who knows Lu Ch'uan-sheng well, considers that he belongs to the classical type of artist rather than the romantic type.

He has a very simple and honest nature, and his entire life as a composer and musician is marked by a transparent dedication to his art.

When he injured his hand he turned to vocal music, and when the musical mainstream left him isolated he threw himself into his children's choir. His compositions show no trace of conflict or displeasure, and the main themes of his work are optimism, dedication and encouraging others. Lien Hsien-sheng thinks this may actually be his sole weakness, for human life is not perfectly satisfactory, so why should music be unfailingly optimistic?

The German poet Schiller once wrote: "Life is serious, but art is serene." Surely this is a view to which Lu Ch'uan-sheng would subscribe.

[Picture Caption]

Lu Ch'uan-sheng's musical life has been a stream of delightful melodies.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng as a teacher at Shih Chien College in 1965. Later he abandoned vocal performance in favor of orchestral and choral music. (photo courtesy of Lu Ch'uan-sheng)

The Rong Shing Choir in the standard line-up it has held to for the past 34 years.

During Rong Shing choir practice any child who sang off-key, walked out of step or failed to pay attention was strictly dealt with by the choirmaster.

From youth to hoary old age, his expression has remained unaltered.

So many moving songs have been composed at this table in Mr. Lu's living room.

Smiling students, majestic music, scores strewn everywhere; Mr. Lu's living room is never a dull place.

For several decades Mr. Lu has regularly spent six days a week with the Rong Shing choir.

Lu Ch'uan-sheng chats over his childhood days with relatives at the historic Hsiao Yun Academy.

One afternoon last February Lu Ch'uan-sheng paid a visit to his old school, the An-li Elementary School at Shenkang, Taichung county.

 

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