世紀風華.儒者行

孔德成百年紀念系列活動
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2019 / 5月

文‧李珊瑋 圖‧林旻萱


末代衍聖公,首任奉祀官,前考試院院長孔德成,是孔子第77代嫡長孫,歷經時代風雨,堅守命脈道統,刻寫世紀傳奇。

孔德成先生百年紀念會暨法書文物展,2019年1月19日於中油國光廳與國父紀念館博愛藝廊盛大舉行,海內外精英群至,緬懷一代宗師儒者之風。多項首次面世的珍稀文物墨寶,集海內外摯友、門生,慨允借展,堪稱空前。

配合紀念活動所出版的《孔德成先生合集》,收錄文集、日記、法書,彌足珍貴,為不可多得的文獻史料。另耗時3年半,斥資近千萬,並赴大陸各處實地拍攝《孔德成傳記紀錄片:風雨一盃酒》,更是考證史實,為繼《儒者行:孔德成先生傳》一書後,又一詳實陳述孔德成生平之重要依據。


 

萬仞宮牆迎聖裔

寒冬裡的暖陽,溫煦地灑落在松仁路上。偌大的中油國光廳裡,冠蓋雲集。前總統馬英九、台北市副市長鄧家基、內政部民政司長林清淇、台北市民政局長藍世聰及日韓中儒道學會代表,門生故舊、海內外孔氏宗親等數百人,為緬懷一代儒者孔德成,莊重而溫馨的齊聚一堂。

國父紀念館博愛藝廊同步舉行紀念特展,包括孔府捐贈故宮之康熙手書「萬世師表」墨寶,大批珍貴手稿、遷居重慶時期日記等重要文獻。其他如證書、官印、勳章等私人物件,諸多珍貴照片、法書,也彙集展出。每一張照片,每一件法書,背後都有動人心弦的故事。

首次面世展出的孔府家傳緞繡五爪蠎袍,推為清光緒皇帝贈製。搭配由菩提子、翠玉、碧璽組成的朝珠及一品文官補子,顯示孔府的尊崇,以及孔德成父親一品公爵孔令貽的殊榮尊貴。

在紀念會首播的《孔德成先生紀錄片》,也同步在展場播放,演繹著一世紀前的民國9年,農曆正月初四,山東曲阜孔府內外戒備森嚴,眾人屏息以待,直到那「國之重寶」,震天價響地呱呱墜地,承襲2,500年的聖裔血脈,在多年懸念後,終於延續。第32代衍聖公,孔令貽的遺腹子──孔德成,還未出世,就成孤兒。17天後,生母王太夫人也告別人世。

也是首次面世,紅黃雙色的北洋政府徐世昌大總統令,是衍聖公孔德成襲爵封軸。這位襁褓中的小公爺,出生百日即襲封爵位,肩負起孔府家業的傳承重任。

身為「聖府」繼承人,卻生不逢辰,命途多舛。9歲那年,對孔德成視若己出的嫡母陶夫人也溘然辭世。無父何怙,無母何恃的孤寂,是孔德成終生至痛。

煙硝烽火志不屈

另外一張重要文物,國民政府特給憑證,1935年任命孔德成為第一代「大成至聖先師奉祀官」。時年15歲的孔德成,於南京宣誓就職。紀念展中的任命禮服照,孔德成氣宇軒昂,老成持重。要凝聚多少早熟的智慧,才能顯現出莊嚴泰然的翩翩風采。

3位年幼的孔家嫡系手足,在親長雙亡後相依為命,份外親近。兩位親姐出嫁,孔德成以「孑餘」自名,道盡心中的孤餘絶望。

一紙保存良好的結婚證書,記述孔德成的世紀婚禮,在硝煙四起中,完成終身大事,孤寂的心,終於重新找到溫暖的歸屬。但是上天對這位一脈相承的末代貴族,始終沒有停止試煉。

1938年1月1日,18歲的孔德成接到即刻南下諭令,妻子孫琪方臨盆在即,走或不走,頓成兩難。但要斷絕為人傀儡的憂忡,急迫到容不得絲毫猶豫,必須即刻連夜動身。次日凌晨2點,孫琪方用手撐著後腰,挺著足月的孕肚,搖曳的燭火,時明時暗,引導她步履蹣跚地邁向漆黑的夜空,面對一條前途未卜的道路。一個時辰後,日軍進駐曲阜,間不容髮的果斷抉擇,寫下了截然不同的時代樞紐軌跡。

孔德成夫婦和老師呂今山、秘書李炳南等8人,驚惶地一路巔簸。3天後抵達漢口,逾5日,在漫天烽火中,孔德成迎來長女孔維鄂。

遷至重慶後住所兩度被炸,直到搬遷到歌樂山,才得以在紛亂中,取得片刻沉靜,1939年長子孔維益在此誕生。

導覽人員特別介紹一幀「猗蘭別墅」照片,茂林修竹,小徑清幽。伴隨著「猗蘭別墅著書圖」,名家題滿詩文,引人佇足再三,繞樑回味。由曲阜畫梁雕棟的府第,到來台後的公寓小樓,孔德成隨緣安居,俯仰自得。唯一的堅持,就是嚴謹自律,勤學不輟。

一生流離未失所

自我調侃一生沒有進過學校的孔德成,來台後先後獲得韓國成均館大學、日本麗澤大學與台灣大學頒贈榮譽博士學位。他一生集中外名師教誨,循先祖足跡,孜孜矻矻,埋首書海,苦研終生。

由孔府家學時期的王毓華、莊陔蘭、吳伯蕭、詹澄秋,到寄居歌樂山時,受呂今山、丁惟汾等良師引導,奠定經學、文字、聲韻、青銅、書法、英文、古琴的紮實學術基礎。1948年赴美學習,接納西方治學思想,肯定民主之公民價值。其間親蒙傅斯年教誨,對其學養人品,仰之彌高,極為敬重。

教學生涯中更自費創舉拍攝《儀禮˙士昏禮》黑白電影,不受局囿,自我突破。當時擔任演員的門生,文物展當天也到場追憶。

孔德成「真行草篆金」五體皆擅,留下法書,無可細數,是紀念展中重要文物。舉杯豪氣干雲,與台大同事臺靜農、屈萬里、張敬、鄭騫等號稱「五虎將」,情誼深厚。中華無盡燈文化學會導覽人員特別介紹:臺靜農治印,封其為「酒霸」,酒後墨寶,更見豪逸不群。

身為聖裔傳人,孔德成自幼恭謹克己,終生將正心、誠意、修身、齊家奉為圭臬,完整體現。展場中「忠信篤敬」墨寶,正是惕勵孫輩的傳家箴言。

在時代浪濤中,孔德成以做為純粹學人自許,即便是受邀擔任國大代表到考試院院長、總統府資政、聖裔外交等要職,始終秉持道統傳承,進退有據。

遷台初期,數度訪問日、韓、歐、美,主持釋奠典禮。更曾於1984年與教宗若望保祿二世晤談,東西巨人之會,成為世紀佳話。聖道入凡,坦然受命,守份盡職。展現樂命自在的灑脫,不忮不求的風骨。

孔德成對文物典籍的保存,始終不遺餘力。對日抗戰初起,慨然允諾山東圖書館大批古籍寄存孔府。讓珍稀善本圖書與文物精品安然度過8年戰事,未受毀損。

1949年故宮博物院、南京中央圖書館、南京中央博物院文物,隨政府播遷來台,1955年集中於新建的霧峰北溝庫房,曲阜孔府文物也一併存放。後改組為國立故宮中央博物院聯合管理處,次年孔德成接任主委。

任內恪盡職守,分門別類記述文物來歷、製程。其間辦理文物赴美展出,極為轟動,並因此促成美方贊助興建台北士林外雙溪故宮博物院。

春風化雨儒道行

由中華大成至聖先師孔子協會、台北市民政局、台北市孔廟、國父紀念館聯合主辦的紀念展,囊括了孔德成的一生。

他與屈萬里的對話,是真摯情誼的最佳註腳。抗戰期間,物資吃緊,寄居孔府的屈萬里想要離開。孔德成用山東腔朗朗的說:「我挨餓時,你跟著我挨餓,我現在有飯吃,雖是粗茶淡飯,大概也還能吃飽,你絕不能走。」那份患難中的義氣,讓兩人結為莫逆。成為台大同事後,共用第五研究室,時相切磋,互有精進。

曾於台大、台師大、中興、輔仁、東吳大學等校任教,講授「三禮」、「金文」及「殷周青銅彝器」等課程的孔德成,嚴師慈父,是曾永義、章景明、黃啟方、葉國良等弟子對孔德成一致的感懷。

孔德成總是寬以待人,嚴以律己,每每邀請家境不甚寬裕的學生們課後用餐,要讓他們吃好吃飽。但是自家卻極為清儉,有時一個饅頭就打發一餐。追隨他逾半世紀的李炳南和江逸子,對孔上公「躬自厚而薄責於人」的心性,最是體會。

盃酒風雨萬里心

道貌岸然的外表下,聖人的心有血有淚,光環下的悲愴,早已數度情傷心碎。為這次文物展伏首整理數載的長媳于曰潔,感受最深。

孔德成69歲那年,長子驟逝,由白髮人送黑髮人的錐心之痛,到憶及坎坷身世、先人遭辱的震撼疾首,不禁悲從中來,在家人面前瓦解崩潰,淚如雨下。

展場中一頁字跡潦草,滿是塗抹痕跡的日記,記述長姐辭世,悲悽的心境,不言而喻。一幅贈與相隔42年再聚的二姐「風雨一盃酒,江山萬里心」的對聯,道盡孔德成心中的無奈與一生的動蕩漂泊。

三禮權威孔德成,用生命寫春秋,默默篤行「為天地立心,為生民立命」。年邁的他,心中何嘗不期待重返故里,但是有為有守,終其一生,這條回家的路,始終沒有起步。

孔德成逝世3年後,由第79代嫡長孫──奉祀官孔垂長,為他完成深埋心底的遺願。踏上孔德成逾一甲子前,最後一次走過大陸曲阜孔廟前1,300公尺的神道,合乎時代潮流的儒家思想,正綿延萬古,金聲玉振,踽踽不獨行。                         

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EN

A Confucianist's Magnificent Century

Commemorating Kung Te-cheng

Lee Shan Wei /photos courtesy of Lin Min-hsuan /tr. by Bruce Humes

The first-ever Republican-era Sacrificial Official to Confucius, the last person to hold the heredit­ary title of Duke Yan­sheng, former president of the Examination Yuan of the ROC—and the 77th senior lineal descendent of the Sage—Kung Te-­cheng survived stormy times while tenaciously maintaining the Confucian orthodoxy he inherited, and thereby inscribed his name as a 20th-century legend.

“The Ultimate Confucian Professor Kung Te-­cheng: A Centennial Celebration” was held in Tai­pei with great pomp on January 19, 2019 in the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall’s Bo’ai Gallery and in Kuo­kuang Hall inside the headquarters building of CPC Corporation.

Published in tandem with the commemoration, the three-volume Kung Te-­cheng Compendium comprises essays, diaries and calligraphy, representing a collection of rare and precious documents of great historical value. Some three-and-a-half years and nearly US$325,000 were spent for travel to sites throughout mainland China to film the docu­mentary Legend of Kung Te-­cheng: A Goblet of Wine Amidst Wind and Rain, which also is an important contribution to the historical record.


 

Solemn gathering for Sage’s descendant

The winter sun sprinkles warmth on Tai­pei’s Song­ren Road. Inside the CPC Building’s Kuo­kuang Hall, high officials congregate: former president Ma Ying-­jeou; Tai­pei deputy mayor Teng Chia-chi; the director of the Ministry of the Interior’s Department of Civil Affairs, Lin Ching­-chi; Taipei City Department of Civil Affairs commissioner Lan Shih-­tsung; representatives of Confucian societies hailing from Japan and South Korea; and several hundred disciples, old friends and Kong family relatives have come ­together in the hall to solemnly and warmly com­memor­ate Kung Te-cheng, revered Confucianist of his era. (Confucius’ Chinese name was Kong Qiu; thus his descendants are surnamed Kong, also spelled “Kung.”)

A special commemorative exhibition was held at the Bo’ai Gallery from January 19 to February 10. It featured a four-character scroll extolling Confucius, “Exemplary Teacher for a Myriad Generations,” penned by Emperor ­Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty and donated by the Kong family to Tai­pei’s National Palace Museum; a large number of precious manuscripts; and Kung Te-­cheng’s diary from when the Nationalist government left Nan­jing for Chong­qing, its temporary capital during the war with Japan. Other personal effects such as certificates, official seals, medals, and many precious photos and calligraphic works were also brought together for this display.

Shown to the public for the first time was an em­broid­ered five-clawed dragon robe of satin, passed down in the Kong family, and said to have been a gift from the last-but-one Manchu emperor, ­Guangxu. There were a court necklace made up of bodhi seeds, jade and tourmaline, and an embroidered “mandarin square” (rank badge) featuring insignia such as a bodhi tree to indicate that the wearer was a civil official of the first rank. These items convey the high esteem in which the Kong family was held, and the honors accorded Kung Te-­cheng’s father, Kong ­Lingyi, duke of the first rank.

The Kung Te-­cheng Documentary premiered simul­taneously at the commemorative gathering and inside the exhibition. It records events in 1920, on the fourth day of the first lunar month, inside and outside the heavily guarded Kong family residence in Qufu, Shan­dong. Every­one awaits with bated breath the first earthshaking cry of this “National Treasure” as he exits the womb, marking the instant that—after much suspense—a 2500-year sacred lineage is assured continuation. 

Also on public display for the first time is the bright red and yellow decree issued by Xu Shi­chang, president of the Bei­yang government, complete with the seal that conferred upon Kung Te-­cheng the hereditary title of Duke Yan­sheng. His father having died several months before he was born, and his mother only 17 days thereafter, within 100 days of his birth this tiny infant in swaddling clothes was designated a duke, and thereby fated to shoulder the heavy burden of the Confucian “family business.”

The fires of war

Another significant personal effect is the certificate issued by the Nationalist government designating Kung Te-­cheng as the first “Sacrificial Official to Confucius.” Just 15 years old at the time, he was sworn in at a ceremony in Nanjing.

A well-preserved marriage certificate serves to docu­ment Kung’s grand wedding ceremony. In December 1936, amidst civil war in China and only months before the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he accomplished this key life event, and with it, his lonely heart once again found a warm place to call home.

But on the first day of 1938, the 18-year-old Kung received an order to proceed south immediately. This presented a dilemma: with his wife Sun Qi­fang about to give birth, should they stay or leave? To avoid the possibility of his being exploited as a puppet by the Japanese, this matter brooked no hesitation; they had to set out that very night. Within two hours of their departure, Japanese troops entered Qufu. Ultimately, this resolute split-second decision determined a completely different trajectory for the era.

A group of eight, including Kung and his wife, his secretary Li Bing­nan and the teacher Lü Jin­shan, fled in fear on a perilous journey. They arrived in Han­kou three days later, and five days after that his wife gave birth to their eldest daughter, Kong Wei’e.

After relocation to Chong­qing, their residence was twice bombed. It wasn’t until they moved to Ge­le­shan in the western part of the city that they found a respite from the chaos. It was there in 1939 that Kong Wei­yi, their eldest son, came into the world.

Constantly uprooted

After he came to Taiwan, Kung Te-­cheng, who often joked he had never spent a day in school, received honorary doctorates from South Korea’s Sung­kyun­kwan University, Rei­taku University of Japan and National Taiwan University. In his younger years in the Kong family home, talented tutors such as Wang Yu­hua, ­Zhuang Gai­lan, Wu Bo­xiao and Zhan Cheng­qiu, and then after relocating to Ge­le­shan, Lü Jin­shan and Ding Wei­fen, offered guidance to Kung and laid a solid foundation for him in the study of the traditional Chinese classics, the Chinese script, poetics, ancient bronze artifacts, calligraphy, English, and the seven-stringed Chinese zither, or gu­qin. Beginning in 1948 he studied in the United States, where he was schooled in Western scholarship and came to affirm democratic values. During this period he was instructed by Fu Ssu-nien, whose erudition and character he greatly esteemed.

During his long teaching career, Kung also funded and pioneered the production of a black-and-white film, Ceremony: Marriage Customs of the Scholar Class. The project represented a personal breakthrough. Some of his disciples, who actually performed in the film, appeared at the exhibition, where they recounted how it was shot.   

Kung was a master of five traditional calligraphic scripts: kai­shu, (regular script); xing­shu (semi-cursive); cao­shu (cursive); zhuan­shu, (seal script), and li­shu (cler­ical script). He left behind an enormous amount of outstanding calligraphy, which formed an important part of the display.

As the descendant of a sacred ancestor, from childhood Kung was humble and austere. Throughout his life, right­eous­ness, sincerity, self-cultivation and wise management of family life served as his moral guidelines, and he sought to fully express them in his behavior. The scroll featuring four Chinese char­ac­ters by his own hand, “Remain true to one’s word, and show respect for others in one’s actions,” which was on display at the exhibition, is based on a passage in the Analects of Confucius. A motto passed down within the family, it is also an encouragement to future generations.

Amidst the turbulent seas of history, Kung sought to maintain the role of the pure scholar. Even when he was invited to serve in influential posts such as member of the National Assembly, president of the Examination Yuan, advisor to the presidency or Confucian-­descendant-as-diplomat, he adhered to the maintenance of Confucian tradition, and always behaved with impeccable propriety and discretion.

In the period immediately after his relocation to Taiwan, on several occasions he visited Japan, Korea, Europe and the United States to host ceremonies venerating Confucius. In 1984, he held talks with Pope John Paul II, and this meeting of giants from East and West was portrayed as a key moment in 20th- century history.

In late 1948 and early 1949, relics formerly housed in Bei­jing’s Palace Museum and in Nan­jing’s National Central Library and National Central Museum were relocated to Taiwan. When they were stored in the newly built Bei­gou Warehouse at Wu­feng in Tai­chung in 1955, the Kung family’s relics were also placed there. Soon after­ward, the collections were placed under the adminis­tration of the newly created Joint Management Office of the National Palace Museum and Central Museum, and in 1956 Kung Te-­cheng took over as chairman.

During his tenure, Kung fully carried out his responsibilities, cataloguing the relics and chronicling their provenance and history. He arranged for their display in the United States, a momentous event that resulted in American support for the construction of the National Palace Museum at Wai­shuangxi in Tai­pei’s Shi­lin District.

Archetypal purveyor of Confucian learning

The commemorative exhibition on Kung Te-­cheng, jointly sponsored by the Chinese Association of Confucius, Tai­pei City Civil Affairs Bureau, Tai­pei Confucius Temple and National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, encompassed Kung’s entire lifetime.

Kung gave courses on topics such as The Three Book of Rites, bronzeware script, and the bronze ritual vessels of the Yin and Zhou dynasties at tertiary institutions such as National Taiwan University, National Taiwan Normal University, National ­Chung ­Hsing University, Fu Jen Catholic University and Soo­chow University. This strict teacher and affectionate father figure was unanimously cherished by disciples such as Zeng ­Yongyi, ­Zhang Jing­ming, ­Huang Qi­fang and Ye Guo­liang.

Kung treated others with generosity while personally maintaining strict self-discipline. After class, he often invited students who were not well off to dine with him, and ensured that they had a hearty meal. But he himself was extremely frugal, and at times made do with just a man­tou for a meal.

Parting sorrows

When Kung was 69 years old, his eldest son suddenly passed away. As he suffered the intense sorrow of a parent losing a child, Kung recalled a lifetime of hardship, and the shocks and humiliations endured by his forebears. He couldn’t help but grieve and break down in tears in front of his family.

Also on display is Kung’s diary, open to one page of scribbled text that is covered with smeared traces. It chronicles the death of his eldest sister. His emotional devastation need not be stated with words. This couplet, dedicated to the sister from whom he was separated for 42 years before being reunited, fully conveys Kung’s helplessness and turbulent life: I raise a goblet of wine amidst wind and rain / Our hearts separated by ten thousand li.”

Kung Te-­cheng, an authority on the Three Books of Rites, used his life to write history. Yet he quietly persevered in his quest: The scholar must seek to comprehend the Heavens, and endow the people with the principles by which to govern their lives.

Three years after the death of Kung Te-­cheng, his deepest wish was realized by his grandson Kung Tsui-­chang, the 79th senior lineal descendant of Confucius. The latter embarked upon the 1,300-meter-long Sacred Path at the Temple of Confucius in Qufu—last trodden by Kung Te-­cheng more than six decades previously—symbolizing how Confucian philosophy, its traditions of scholarship and virtue unbroken through the centur­ies, continues to resound in the modern age.          

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