推銷和平的胡佛研究所

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1989 / 8月

文‧張靜茹 圖‧鄭元慶



車由寬闊、筆直的棕櫚樹大道開進史丹福大學,在農莊式、低平建築為主的校園中,首先映入眼簾的卻是磚紅色圓屋頂,像座鐘塔般的史丹福地標——胡佛塔。

它是史大校內最高的建築,也是研究近代歷史學者非來不可,和目前世界研究近代政治、社會、經濟發展的重鎮之一的「胡佛研究所」所在地。

研究「戰爭與和平」

胡佛研究所是史丹福校友、也是美國第卅一任總統胡佛,在一九一九年所成立。當時第一次世界大戰剛結束,他便發起成立這個專門以大戰為主題,探討人類為何會有如此悲劇發生,與如何追求和平的研究所。

一開始,胡佛研究所就利用胡佛的贈款和史大提供的經費,收集許多有關大戰的各種史料;胡佛也號召有心人士收集相關資料送至此地收藏。

資料累積愈多,除吸引很多人來此閱讀、參考和做研究,許多知名人士、政府官員、學者也自願贈送自己擁有的珍貴資料,如此不再僅限於一次大戰的史料。如今,一次大戰、二次大戰到今天,只要是世界政治、經濟、社會改變,和凡有助於瞭解戰爭真相、追求民主、和平過程的史料,都成了胡佛研究所收集的對象。

資料愈多,研究題材愈廣,研究部門也在不同時候一一成立。目前已分為北美、拉丁美洲、西歐、非洲和中東、東亞、蘇聯與東歐六個小組,各組下又設有圖書館專門收集史料。

由延安「救」出史料

其中東亞所最初就因為要研究中國對日抗戰與政治發展而成立。

一九四五年,史丹福地理系畢業的胡佛研究所所長Harold H. Fisher與新婚妻子到大陸度蜜月,同時觀察戰後的中國。當時大陸內部還不安定,他為了深入民間瞭解,到河北開平煤礦開採中心採訪……,回來後,便決定設立研究中國動亂的東亞所。

在抗戰結束前,史丹福大學就有一位教授Shenck在日本做地質、地理的調查,大戰一結束,他就近到了中國,每天奔跑於舊書攤,收集各種史料和卅、四十年代的文學作品。當時剛抗戰勝利,物價極便宜,他便一袋袋、一箱箱的大量收購,拜託美國海軍運輸艦幫忙運回美國。

大陸內亂時,史丹福校友Mary Wright與其先生,也在北平拚命收集書籍,大陸撤退之際,她還坐美國軍機、馬車進入延安,「救」出了幾十噸有關中共發展的史料。

直到今天,中國的出版品仍是東亞所圖書館收集的對象;台灣日據時代的出版品,包括許多以日文寫成的書籍在此也收藏甚豐。

「當我們決定一個收藏和研究目標後,會盡可能到全球各地、利用各種管道用『掃』的,希望能找到這段期間的所有出版物,世界各地也都有人在幫我們收集」,東亞圖書館研究員張富美表示,東亞圖書館也一直在收集和台灣民主化過程有關的重要資料。

研究近代中國重鎮

目前東亞所也收購日本史料,但館內廿五萬冊書籍中,仍有百分之六十五是有關中國的藏書。此外,雜誌期刊、海報、幻燈片、錄音帶的數量也極可觀。

「許多東西雖然粗糙,卻非常原始和有價值」,東亞圖書館館長馬諾孟指出。比方最近整理出一批由延安來的原版木炭畫,其中一部分是裸體畫,一部分則是勞動者艱苦工作的畫作,簽名者為「王鈞初」,研究所花費許多時間、使用不少方法,終於查出確有此人,原名胡蠻,但已去世。

他們發現,胡蠻是極少數在加入共產黨之前,曾到日本學畫而畫風受西方影響很深的一位畫家。「但他在回中國後,卻專門畫勞動畫」,張富美有如說故事般敘述,胡蠻的遺孀不知他還有作品流落異國,而其中的裸體畫,更成為他僅存與其他畫作題材完全不同的作品。

像這樣的東西,還有許多,都等著專家整理,「還不知會發現什麼『值錢』的東西」,張富美表示。

「大戰時,史迪威將軍在南中國和緬甸寫的日記本也收藏在此」,馬諾孟說,東亞圖書館已成為研究卅、四十年代中國很重要的一個地方。

把中國「一分為二」?

不僅東亞所,每個小組圖書館也都有不少這樣的珍貴史料。比方蘇俄與東歐圖書館,就存有不少蘇俄十月革命領袖林楊斯基的文章。

「這是當時有人知道蘇俄即將革命,這些書將會被查禁,偷偷運送出來,再轉送到此的」,胡佛研究所公共事務中心主任RonaldJ. Getz說,有許多來自義大利、日本……世界各國的學者、記者都到此借用這一批資料,探討蘇俄的革命歷程。

「人權鬥士索忍尼辛也利用蘇俄圖書館史料做研究」,Getz說,索忍尼辛是此地的榮譽研究員。

由於要收集的資料太多,研究所也會與其他研究中心合作。例如目前東亞圖書館就和柏克萊大學東亞所合作,把中國一分為二,長江以北省分的報紙、年鑑、文史等資料由胡佛研究所收集,長江以南的則由柏克萊典藏,如此可以把錢大量集中在某一範圍,做更深入的收藏。

「和平」的推銷中心

珍貴的史料,吸引許多知名學者來此做研究,胡佛研究所聘請的專任研究員,也都是在該領域赫赫有名,或者是該地區有興趣來做研究的人,比方我國就有不少學者曾在東亞所做研究。

研究員平時研究時勢,發表對世界局勢看法的文章,國際上有任何和政治有關的大事發生,媒體也會爭相詢問他們的意見,有如意見領袖。如此也使許多名人自願做此地的榮譽研究員,已退休的前任美國總統雷根即為一例。

由於胡佛研究所的研究目標,是以瞭解戰爭真相以消弭戰亂、追求世界和平為主,此地聘請來的研究員也都有極強的意識型態,和明顯的政治立場,「可以說比較反共和右派」,史丹福歷史博士范毅軍說,它也是美國共和黨的智囊團。

也因此有人認為他們態度較保守,「最近就有一些史丹福大學師生起來抗議,認為胡佛研究所的言論不能代表史丹福的立場」,張富美說。

但不管如何,胡佛研究所以追求人類「和平」為研究宗旨,卻是任誰也無法反對的;而他所收集到的資料,更是不管「左派、右派」的學者都有興趣的。

〔圖片說明〕

P.137

(上)東亞圖書館集有許多珍貴的中國史料。

P.137

(下)研究人類世界為何有那麼多戰爭,和追求和平是胡佛研究所的宗旨。

P.138

蘇俄民主鬥士索忍尼辛是此地的榮譽研究員。(胡佛研究所提供)

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近期文章

EN

War and Peace at the Hoover Institution

Chang Chin-ju /photos courtesy of Arthur Cheng /tr. by Phil Newell


The Hoover Institution was established in 1919 by Stanford alumnus and later America's 31st president, Herbert Hoover. At that time the First World War had just ended, and he decided to establish this specialized institution to explore why these kinds of tragedies occur in the world and how mankind seeks peace.

In the beginning, the institution was funded by money provided by Hoover and by Stanford University, and collected all kinds of historical materials related to the Great War. Hoover also called on interested persons to collect related data and send it on to the center.

Aside from attracting people for reading and research, many government officials, famous persons and scholars sent their own precious materials. Now, whether from the world wars or contemporary, any data related to world political, economic, or social change, that can help in understanding the truth about war, the pursuit of democracy, or the process of peace, is a worthy object for collection.

The more materials there are, the broader the research topics. Consequently, different research departments were established. Currently there are six: North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Africa and the Middle East, East Asia, and the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Each group has a special library.

The East Asia Department was established to study China's War of Resistance against Japan and its political development. At the end of the war, a Stanford professor went to China, where he scoured the bookstalls and collected all kinds of historical materials and literature from the 30's and 40's. Then prices were low; he bought crate after crate of books and begged the U.S. Navy to take them back to the U.S.

When the mainland was in the midst of civil war, Stanford graduate Mary Wright and her husband furiously collected books in Peking. At the time of the retreat from the mainland, she took an American naval aircraft to Yen'an to save several tons of historical materials on the development of Chinese communism.

Today, the East Asian library still collects Chinese language materials. It has a vast collection of materials published in Taiwan during the Japanese occupation, including Japanese language books. While materials on Japan are also collected, 65% of the 250,000 volumes are related to China. Besides these, there are masses of periodicals, posters, slides, and audio tapes.

"A lot of things are quite rough, but they are extremely original and valuable," notes Dr. Ramon H. Myers, curator-scholar of the East Asian Collection. For example, recently they arranged a group of original charcoal drawings from Yen'an, including nudes and portraits of workers. They tracked down the artist after a lot of time, but he had already died. His wife didn't even know he had works existin the country. There are a lot of things like this waiting to be put into order.

Historical materials have attracted a lot of famous scholars. The institution's special fellows are all renowned in their fields. Researchers ordinarily study current events and express their views in articles on the world situation. When there is a major political event anywhere in the world, they are opinion leaders sought out by the media. This makes it appealing to be honorable fellows; former President Reagan has such a status.

In general, the researchers invited there all have strong ideologies and clear political positions. "You can say, relatively anticommunist and right wing," says Fan Yi-chun, a history Ph.D. at Stanford. It acts as a think tank for the Republican Party. Some students and faculty have protested, arguing that the institution's positions cannot represent Stanford.

Whatever the case, no one can oppose the goal of pursuing peace. And the materials it collects have great interest, regardless of whether one is right wing or left wing.

[Picture Caption]

(Above) The East Asia collection has many precious materials on Chinese history.

(Below) Understanding why mankind has wars and wants peace is the goal of the Hoover Institution.

Soviet author Alexander Solzhenitsyn is an honorary research fellow at t he center. (photo courtesy of the Hoover Institute)

 

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