社會教育發展的新方向

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1989 / 3月

文‧楊國賜 圖‧林鑫



一元復始,萬象更新。廿世紀的八十年代,人類已邁向教育變革的新時代,這個時代充滿著希望與光明的遠景。我國為繼續謀求經濟快速成長,促進社會進步,開發人力資源,繁衍文化和啟迪民智,期能早日躋身於現代化國家的行列,必須積極進行各項教育革新,倡導終身教育的理念,以促進我國邁向全民教育的新境界。時值新年伊始,試提我國社會教育發展的新方向,供關心教育興革的人士參考。

第一、社會教育制度義務化:未來的社會,逐漸走向教育性的社會,所以人民接受社會教育,歐美先進國家幾乎已成為必然的義務。當前我們推展社會教育,宜特別強調配合「政治—經濟—社會—文化」的整體發展與更新,尤須及早建立義務社會教育的制度——「社會教育,人人有份」的觀念。因此,政府當局應負起積極的「義務」,興辦社會教育,以加強人民義務接受社會教育的效能。

第二、社會教育功能獨立化:一般人提及社會教育,常以為它是正規學校教育的補充,或改進社會生活的輔助工具。而事實上,這種補充及輔助的性質已隨時代的改變,逐漸減少其份量,代之而起是逐日增加的獨特功能。在整個經濟發展、社會進步,政治改革及文化更新的過程中,社會教育已佔有不可或缺的地位。

其實,社會及經濟的開發程度愈高,社會教育在整個社會結構中的地位愈顯得重要,其獨特功能也愈為人所認識。今後政府應特別著重具有獨特功能的社會教育工作,如勞工技藝訓練及教育、大學推廣教育、休閒教育等,以利早日建立社會教育體制,才能發揮社會教育的最大功能。

第三、社會工作計畫化:由於社會教育係以實施全民教育及終身教育為宗旨,以致社會教育的內涵至為廣泛,而工作亦相當繁雜。因此,為使社會教育成為一個有目標、有理想、有步驟的完整體系,確實需要擬定一整套的計畫,然後由各單位策訂各項工作重點,分別予以實施,共赴事功。今後我們推展社會教育工作,必須具有整體性,前瞻性、連貫性與可行性,方能擬訂合乎國家建設與社會需要的工作計畫,以奠定未來社會教育有效發展的基礎。

第四、社會教育方式多元化:由於社會教育對象多,範圍廣,宜採用生動活潑多元化的方法,始能發揮功能,產生影響作用。又由於傳播科技的加速進步,利用電視與廣播的優越傳播性能,已成為現代社會教育發展的一個新里程碑。有鑑於此,我們必須突破社會觀念和立法障礙,早日確立空中教育制度,加以推廣普及,使社會教育更能適應未來迫切的需要。

第五、社會教育活動生活化:社會教育的內容應包括人類生活各方面,要能滿足國民生活各方面的需要,民眾才會踴躍參與。近年來,由於經濟的快速成長,提高了人民的生活水準,卻造成物質慾望的橫流,精神文明的淪喪。今後社會教育提供正當休閒娛樂活動的機會外,更應提倡精緻文化,充實人民的精神生活,以豐富人民的生活內涵。

第六、社會教育人員專業化:在分工細密,職業專精的現代社會,學者專家認為,工作的品質是人員素質的反映;沒有好的人員,不會有好的工作表現。因此為謀社會教育工作的有效推展,提高社會教育人員的素質,誠為今後我國社會教育的首要課題。

總之,為了配合我國政治的再革新,經濟的再發展,社會的再進步,與人民受教期望的再提高,現在正是我們積極規劃辦理社會教育的大好時機。今後我國社會教育的推展必須建立正確的觀念,掌握其工作的方向,並以有組織、有計畫,有步驟的方式,協調配合,即早建立社會教育體制,並能聘用社教專業人員,以迎頭趕上的精神,使社會教育工作,推陳出新,配合國家建設的目標,因應社會快速的變遷,以主動、積極創新的作為,期以嶄新的形象,促使社會教育蓬勃發展,以加速推動社會的建設與國家的現代化。

(本文作者為教育部社會教育司司長)

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近期文章

EN

New Directions in the Development of Social Education

Kuo-shih Yang /photos courtesy of Lin Hsin /tr. by Peter Eberly


A new year has begun, a new year and a new beginning. The 1980's have marked a new era in educational reform, an era filled with the prospects of brightness and hope. In order to maintain rapid economic growth, spur social advancement, develop manpower resources, further culture and understanding, and join the ranks of the advanced nations, the ROC must actively carry out educational reform and promote the concept of lifelong education, spurring the nation and its people to a new educational level. As the new year begins, I would like to propose some new directions for the development of social education in our country to serve as a point of reference for those of us concerned with educational reform.

First, the social educational system should be free to all: The society of the future is gradually becoming an educational society, and social education has practically become a necessity for citizens of the advanced countries of Europe and North America. Inpromoting social education we should especially stress coordination with the development and renewal of politics, economics, society, and culture as a whole. In particular, we must establish a system of free social education as early as possible and the concept that everyone has a part in social education.

Second, social education should be independent in function: Most people think of social education as a supplement to regular schooling or as an auxiliary means of enhancing life in society. But in fact, its supplementary and auxiliary nature has gradual ly been replaced by an increasingly distinctive role. Social education occupies an indispensable position in the entire process of economic, social, political, and cultural development. In fact, the higher the level of social and economic development, the more important is the position of social education in the entire social structure and the more its distinctive functions are recognized. The government should particularly emphasize social education with distinctive functions, such as worker technical training, college extension courses, and leisure education, in order to set up a system that will allow social education to give free rein to its functions as early as possible.

Third, social work must be systematically planned: Being aimed at the entire populace and at people of all ages, social education is broad in content and multifarious in the work it entails. As a result, to enable social education to become a complete system with goals, ideals, and steps, a comprehensive set of plans must be drawn up with focal points for each unit and carried out in concert. In promoting social education work, we must have comprehensiveness, vision, coherence, and practicability. Only then can we draw up a work plan that fits the needs of society and the nation's development and lays a foundation for the effective development of social education in the future.

Fourth, the methods of social education must be multiple and diverse: Because it has numerous objects and is broad in scope, social education must use vivid, lively, and diverse methods to achieve its functions and have an effect. Owing to rapid advances in media techniques, utilizing the superior communication abilities of radio and television has become a new milestone in the development of modern social education. In view of this, we must overcome regulatory obstacles and public preconceptions in establishing, promoting, and popularizing an educational system of the airwaves to enable social education to adapt to the pressing needs of the future.

Fifth, social education activities must become a part of daily life: The contents of social education should include all aspects of human life and be able to fulfil the needs of all aspects of citizens' lives; only then will the public actively participate. The rapid economic growth of recent years has raised living standards but has also produced unbridled materialism and a decline in spiritual civilization. In addition to providing opportunities for proper leisure and recreational activities, social education should promote high culture and enrich the people's spiritual lives.

Sixth, social education personnel must become more expert and specialized: In today's modern society of expertise, specialization, and division of labor, the quality of work is a reflection of the quality of personnel; good performance requires good personnel. As a result, raising the quality of social education personnel is truly an important task in seeking the promotion of social education work.

In sum, now is the time for us to actively plan and carry out social education in order to keep pace with further political, economic, and social advances and the public's educational expectations.

 

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