史學連線——讓你成為網上司馬遷

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1998 / 10月

文‧李珊



想像一下,當你寫篇文章或公開談話時,引述孔子的高論,結果被人指正出是孟子梁惠王篇的名句時,心情如何?

你是否也常想知道,東西方文明發展的對應時期,比如,佛祖釋迦牟尼與蘇格拉底是同時代的大思想家,埃及豔后則和漢朝呂后差不多年代?

浩瀚如海的歷史文獻資料中,何處可尋?去年入選蕃薯藤百大熱門網站的「史學連線」,是一個學習快速找資料的好地方。

台灣近年來在學術研究、政府、大專院校等機構積極推動文史資料數位化的努力後,如今網際網路上的文史資料幾乎可說是貫通古今、橫跨中外,鉅細靡遺,而在「史學連線」這個連結國內外至少六百個文史相關站台的歷史「總匯站」幾可一窺全貌。 從Bookmark到史學總匯

網站主人劉增貴是中央研究院歷史語言研究所研究員,網站的基本架構原來是他幾年來作研究時收集網路資源的「Bookmark」,鑑於自己找資料時運用國外許多歷史總匯站搜尋資料的便捷,又發現國內雖然不乏文史網站,卻很少類似的「總匯站」,去年初就著手設立一個專門網站,擴大內容,把不同類型、功能的網站分類整理。

進入「史學連線」,赫然發現總目洋洋灑灑十五大類,從「史學機構」、「中國史」、「世界史」、「台灣史」、「專史」,到「圖書查詢」、「電子文庫」、「全文檢索」、「搜索引擎」、「史學論壇」等文史資源,幾乎一「網」打盡。

一般來說,網路上目前的文史資料以性質分,可概分為原著典籍資料、研究論述資料、書影圖像資料三大類。第一類網站專門提供原著典籍,如中研院的二十五史、十三經、四書等;第二類專門提供研究論述,如國家圖書館的圖書書目、期刊目次資料等;第三類專提供書影圖像,如國圖的認識中國古書多媒體資料、中研院的文物圖像資料庫。還有一類綜合型的網站,則會選擇主題研究;在其主題內可涵蓋原著全文和論述,如元智大學的紅樓夢資料庫、台大佛學研究中心資料庫。

若以資料庫的功能來區分,也大致可分為三類,第一類只具閱覽功能;第二類有檢索功能,對研究、搜尋資料有革命性的貢獻;第三類有網路討論、教學功能。

因此先瞭解文史重點資料庫或網站的性質十分重要,而從「史學連線」下的「全文檢索」、「電子文庫」、「圖書查詢」三大類目錄下的標題及說明,便可有一個鳥瞰性的概念。

「全文檢索」連結的全部是有檢索功能的資料庫。其中中研院的漢籍全文資料庫規模最為龐大,有一億四千萬字,並具備功能強大的瀚典全文檢索系統(FTMS),輸入一個詞,一、二秒內即可遍查二十五史、十三經、諸子、世說新語、台灣方志等上百種典籍。例如要查「聽其言也,觀其眸子:人焉廋哉!」語出何處,只要在檢索欄輸入這整句話或其中一串字如「觀其眸」,即可在兩秒內找到出自孟子離婁篇。

這個資料庫原本大部份資料檢索須付費使用,中研院已於去年六月針對中小學及大學通識教育的需求,另行摘要,編製了一個「人文資料庫師生版」免費開放供社會大眾使用。以二十五史為例,「本紀」全摘,「世家」、「列傳」以出現在國高中教材的歷史人物為摘錄原則,「志」則全部未摘;十三經以斷句十三經為主;諸子則選出四書、老子、莊子、戰國策等;世說新語、台灣方志則全部未刪;總資料量約五千萬字。

中研院另一個「史語所中文資料庫」也非常實用,可以全文檢索的資料範圍與人文資料庫不同的有:唐宋明清史書目、明清檔案、紅樓夢、唐詩三百首、漢樂府等。

元智大學的「網路展書讀」也是以全文檢索功能見長的重點站,資料庫包括各朝代詩、詞、曲及紅樓夢等。特色是可以提供分欄檢索──作者、詩題、詩句、綜合檢索等幾欄。舉例來說,要查蘇軾的詩作中有關茶的詩句,先到宋詩的查詢頁,若用詩句檢索,將會得到所有宋詩人的相關詩句,但若用綜合檢索──作者欄輸入「蘇軾」、詩句欄輸入「茶」,就可找全蘇軾所有品茗說茶的詩五十首;若還想看某首詩的全文,在詩題項目上點一下,就可看到。

台大佛學研究中心的資料庫,也是文史連線中的熱門網站,該中心研究主題包括佛教哲學、歷史、文學、藝術,文獻資料則橫跨國內外,是目前佛教資料庫中最完備者,可做佛學書目、期刊原文檢索,並有多種語文佛典原文,漢文部份還可做檢索。

☆ ☆ ☆

「電子文庫」連結的中西古籍及研究書籍的資料庫,都以原著重現見長,較受歡迎的有中央大學的中國文學、詩詞資料庫,大陸留美學生所建、收藏相當多大陸文史經典的「新語絲」電子文庫、蒐集西洋史料的大型資料庫「EuroDocs」、古騰堡計畫全文資料庫等。這個部份是當需要查詢某古籍的原文或某人的作品時可以採用的;例如要找魯迅著名小說《徬徨》原文時,可從新語絲文庫去找;找士莎比亞的作品或西洋文學作品時,可到古騰堡資料庫去找。

☆ ☆ ☆

上述「全文檢索」、「電子文庫」項提供了找尋典籍原文、圖片影像的途徑,「圖書查詢」和「期刊雜誌」則是找尋研究論文著作、參考書籍的管道。「圖書查詢」除了連結眾所周知的「國家圖書館全球資訊網」,可做該館館藏書目、期刊論文目錄、新近期刊目次、當代文學影像等十多個資料庫的檢索。查詢方法可以採用書名、作者名、出版時間、關鍵字等多種方式。

即使是較特殊或國家圖書館沒有的書籍,「圖書查詢」功能項下也包羅萬千,提供了非常多選擇,例如若干網路書店有大陸、香港的書目查詢系統;交通大學有中醫藥文獻、國家考試題庫等檢索服務;東南工專有進口書查詢系統。「期刊雜誌」則與國內、外四十多種歷史相關的學術期刊、一般刊物連線。 熟悉搜索引擎,事半功倍

劉增貴發現他的網站論壇中最常被提出來的問題就是「哪裡可以找到某某資料?」「史學連線」的搜尋管道眾多,除了上述依功能分類的搜尋途徑外,不少剛開始做學期報告或論文者根本不知相關資料如書名、論文題目,那該怎麼辦呢?劉增貴建議,先從搜尋引擎下手,「史學連線」即可導引進入「搜尋工具」,其中最適合文史研究者入門的,大概就是中正大學開發的GAIS搜尋引擎,中文版稱作「蓋世引擎」,特色是可檢索WWW網站和所有網頁內容及國內BBS討論區的文章,他建立「史學連線」總匯網站也得力於GAIS。GAIS(蓋世)的查詢語言較重要的,除了大家都知道的設定關鍵字外,還包括「布林運算式」、「多項目查詢」以供縮小或擴大查詢範圍。例如要查胡適與五四運動的關係,可用布林運算的「and」功能,輸入「胡適 & 五四」;要查蔣中正的資料中有關二二八事件的部份則可用多項目查詢的「,」、「+、-」功能,輸入「蔣中正, 蔣介石, 蔣公, +二二八」。

鑑於搜尋引擎的重要性,劉增貴還整理了一個「搜索引擎」的類別提供連線。除了蓋世外,其他引擎還包括哇塞、奇摩、蕃薯藤、Alta Vista等。「搜索引擎」下還連節了「台灣BBS討論群組詳細列表」,其中有關歷史的有二區,從中可略窺網友關心的歷史相關話題。

☆ ☆ ☆

「史學論壇」選項提供一般人自由討論有關歷史的任何問題,劉增貴表示目前討論的情況頗為熱烈,有不少年輕的研究生會對民眾問題提出解答,他期許更多學有專精的歷史學者多上網,把自己的研究成果與大眾分享,也接受大眾刺激增廣自己的研究角度。他計畫在今年十月把網上相關的歷史論壇進一步整合,並做議題分類,增加參考價值。

「台灣史」其中有二個重要資料庫是中研院的「台灣研究網路化」及台大圖書館館藏台灣文史資料全文檢索資料庫。中研院的資料庫是九六年起為期三年的主題計畫,包括歷史年表、考古、工具書、英文書目、社會變遷統計調查資料庫等,部份資料庫可做線上檢索;台大圖書館的全文檢索資料庫內容包括伊能嘉矩文庫、淡新檔案等。

除了此二大型網站,「台灣史」蒐羅的內容,從原住民、客家文史資料、古蹟巡禮、二二八事件、台灣文學作品、台灣戲曲有聲資料庫到番社采風圖,琳瑯滿目,還包括一類專為中小學老師蒐集的鄉土教學網頁。要進入「史學連線」可由蕃薯藤中「人文」之「歷史」目錄中進入,或由中研院網站的「史語所」進入。首頁中有南極星軟體免費下載處,安裝此軟體,可將簡體字版轉換為繁體字版,並可瀏覽日文、韓文站台。網址:http://saturn.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~liutk/shih

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EN

"History Links" Turns You into an Online Sima Qian

Coral Lee /tr. by Scott Williams


Imagine for a moment that while writ-ing an article or talking in a public venue, you show your erudition with a quote from Confucius only to have someone point out that what you have quoted is, in fact, Mengzi's "King Liang Hui." How would you feel?

Do you often wonder about the contemporaneous development of Western and Eastern civilization? For example, did you know that the Buddha and Socrates lived in the same era, as did Cleopatra and the Han dynasty's Empress Lu?

How does one go about searching among the existing mountains of historical documents and data? The History Links website (www.saturn.ihp. sinica. edu.tw/~liutk/shih/), which was named one of YamWeb Navigator's top 100 websites last year, might be a good place to start.

At the impetus of colleges, universities, research institutions and the government, Taiwan has digitized a great deal of literary and historical data over the last several years. Now, information available on the Internet brings together the ancient and the modern, China and the outside world. There is a tremendous amount of data available, and at History Links, which contains links to some 600 websites around the world, you can find it all. From bookmarks to a website

Liu Tseng-kui, a research associate at the Academia Sinica's Institute of History and Philology, created History Links' basic structure out of his personal collection of website bookmarks, accumulated over years of combing overseas websites for historical data for his research. In the course of his research, Liu discovered that while there was no dearth of literary and historical websites in Taiwan, there were few online collections of links to such sites. He therefore assembled his own site last year, dividing his vast collection of bookmarks into categories.

Accessing History Links, one is stunned by the number and variety of these categories. From "Institutions Studying History" to "Chinese History," "Taiwanese History," and "World History" to "Electronic Databases of Literature" and "Search Engines," there are a total of 15 categories of links, all "caught in one net."

In general, there are three types of literary and historical websites on the Internet: those that contain primary sources, those that provide write-ups of research and those that offer digitized images. The primary-source type is exemplified by the Academia Sinica's website, which provides access to items such as the Twenty-five Histories (Sishiwu Shi), the Thirteen Classics (Shisan Jing) and the Four Books (Si Shu). The second type of site focuses on research reports. An example is the site hosted by the National Central Library which provides information such as its card catalogue and an index of periodicals. The third variety of site contains digitized images. Examples of this variety of website include another site hosted by the National Central Library which contains a multimedia archive of ancient Chinese texts and the Academia Sinica's Database of Images of Cultural Artifacts. There are also comprehensive sites, which house both primary source materials and write-ups of research on some particular topic. Examples of this variety of website include Yuan-Ze University's Dream of the Red Chamber database and the database of the Center for Buddhist Studies at National Taiwan University.

If databases are categorized based on their features, there are again basically three kinds: those which only allow visitors to read data, those which have search capabilities (a revolutionary contribution to research) and those which provide space for online discussions.

It is thus important to know of what type a database or site is. The titles of the "Full Text Search," "Electronic Databases of Literature" and "Book Look-up" categories on the History Links site and their brief descriptions give visitors an overview of the links they contain.

All the links in the "Full Text Search" category connect to searchable databases. The largest of these is the Academia Sinica's Chinese documents database, which contains 140 million words of data and has a powerful full-text search engine. With this engine, you can simultaneously search more than one hundred classics, including the Twenty-five Histories and the Thirteen Classics, for occurrences of one particular word or phrase. For example, if you want to find the origin of the sentence "If you listen to someone's words and watch their eyes, how can they hide anything from you?" all you have to do is enter all or part of it into the search line. In two seconds, the search engine returns the "Li Lou" chapter of Mengzi.

Originally, a portion of this archive was available only on a fee basis. However, in order to meet the needs of Taiwan's educational system, the Aca-demia Sinica last year gathered some portions of this archive together into the "Humanities Database for Students and Teachers" which is available to the public free of charge. Taking the Twenty-five Histories as an example, all of the "Emperors" section is available online, as well as those portions of the "Imperial Court" and "Famous Persons" sections which form a part of the island's high-school curriculum. None of the "Geography" section is available yet. A punctuated version of the Thirteen Classics is online, as well as other selected texts including the Four Books, Laozi, Chuangzi and the Zhanguo Ce. All of the New Account of Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu) and the Taiwan Local Gazeeters (Taiwan Fangzhi) are also available on the site, making for a total of some 50 million words to which the public has access.

The Chinese-language database of the Academia Sinica's Institute of History and Philology is also very useful. This full-text-searchable archive differs from the humanities database in that it contains a catalogue of Tang, Song, Ming and Qing history books, Han dynasty yuefu poems, the Three Character Classic (San Zi Jing), The Dream of the Red Chamber, the famous Collection of Three Hundred Tang Poems, and Ming and Qing records.

Yuan-Ze University's "Internet Reading Room" is another important site which has a full-text search engine. The database includes shi-, ci-, and qu-style poems from every dynasty as well as The Dream of the Red Chamber. A special feature of the site is the numerous fields which can be searched-author, title, line and composite searches are all possible. For example, suppose you wanted to find lines from the shi-style poetry of Su Shi which concerned drinking tea. First, you would go to the Song-dynasty shi search page. If you requested lines of poetry about tea, it would return all the lines concerning tea written by Song poets. If you did a composite search, entering Su Shi in the author field and tea in the line field, the engine would return all fifty lines from Su's shi poetry which concerned tea. If you then wanted to see the entire text of a particular poem, you would simply click on the line from that poem and the entire poem would appear.

The database of Taiwan University's Center for Buddhist Studies is another popular website with a historical theme. The main foci of the institute's research include Buddhist philosophy, history, literature and art, and the institute's database includes documents from both China and elsewhere. It is Taiwan's most complete Buddhist archive. Visitors to the site can conduct searches for Buddhist catalogues and periodicals in the original language, but text searches can only be done on Chinese language items.

* * *

The links to the ancient texts and historical research of both East and West on the "Electronic Databases of Literature" page bring new life to these ancient materials. Among the more popular links are: the Academia Sinica's Chinese literature and poetry database; the Xin Yu Si Electronic Library, a site built by mainland Chinese students in the US which includes a great deal of mainland Chinese literature and history; EuroDocs, a large database containing information on Western history; and the Project Gutenberg Index.

The "Electronic Databases of Literature" page contains links to sites which allow a visitor to find data such as an ancient text in the original language or the works of a particular writer. For example, if you wanted to find the text of Lu Xun's Pang Huang, you could search Xin Yu Si's database. If you were looking for the works of Shakespeare or another Western author, you could check the Project Gutenberg site.

* * *

History Links' "Full Text Search" and "Electronic Databases of Literature" pages both provide links which allow visitors to search for original texts and pictures. The "Book Search" and "Periodicals and Magazines" pages, on the other hand, provide visitors with the means to search for research and reference works. In addition to providing a link to the National Library's well-known "Global Information Network," the "Book Search" page allows visitors to search 10 databases at the National Library, including its card catalogue, the tables of contents of research journals, its index of current periodicals and its database of modern literature and images. And you can use any one of several methods to search, including the name of the work, the name of the author, the date of publication or even key words.

In the case of esoteric works or those not in the National Library's collection, "Book Search" has numerous other features which can help. For example, it lists several Internet book stores which are linked to book search systems in mainland China and Hong Kong. You can search for documents pertaining to Chinese medicine and old questions from national examinations via National Chiao Tung University's webpage. And Tung Nan Jr. College of Technology has a search system for imported books.

History Links' "Periodicals and Magazines" page is also well stocked, containing links to more than 40 domestic and foreign academic journals and other periodicals. Know your search engines

Liu Tseng-kui noticed that the most frequently asked question in the chatroom on his website was, "Where can I find X information?" History Links therefore has many ways to search for data besides those mentioned above. Many students who are just beginning their term papers or research do not have information such as book and thesis titles. What can these people do? Liu recommends beginning with a search engine. At History Links, you can go to the "Search Tools" page. Once you arrive here, perhaps the most suitable place to start your historical or literary research is the GAIS (Global Area Information Servers) search engine developed by National Chung Cheng University. A special feature of this engine is that it not only searches for World Wide Web sites, examining all of a site's pages, but that it can also search articles posted on the chat areas of BBSs in Taiwan. Liu says that GAIS was of great help when he was building History Links.

When using GAIS to search, language is very important. Not only can you use the "key words" approach that everyone is familiar with, but also Boolean searches and multi-parameter searches with which you can limit or expand the scope of a search. For example, if you are looking for information about Hu Shih and the May Fourth Movement, using the Boolean "and" function, enter "Hu Shih & May Fourth Movement." If you want to find out something about Chiang Kai-shek and the 2-28 Incident, you might use functions such as "+," "-" and "," entering "(Chiang Kai-shek, Jiang Jieshi,CKS) + 228 Incident."

Liu's inclusion of a "Search Engines" page at History Links reflects the importance of these engines. In addition to GAIS, other engines on this page include WhatSite.com, Kimo.com, YamWeb Navigator and Alta Vista. The "Search Engines" page also contains a link to the "Detailed Listing of Taiwan's BBS Discussion Groups," which includes two such groups which involve history. A visit to either will provide you with a glimpse what sort of historical questions are of interest to people online.

* * *

The "History Chatroom" page provides ordinary people with a place where they can discuss any question related to history. Liu says that the discussions tend to be passionate, with many young graduate students offering up their views and solutions to questions involving society at large. He hopes that more scholars of history will begin visiting the site more often, too, sharing the results of their research with the public and using the stimulation of the public to broaden their own research perspective. In October, Liu plans to further organize his chatroom, increasing its utility by dividing it into sections based on topic.

The "Taiwanese History" page has links to two major databases: Academia Sinica's "Taiwan Research Online" and the National Taiwan University Library's (NTUL) full-text-searchable database of works on Taiwanese history and culture. Academia Sinica began implementing its three-year database plan in 1996. The plan calls for the establishment of an online year-by-year history, archaeological, reference work, English texts and surveys databases, some of which will be searchable online. The NTUL database includes the archives of Japanese historian Ino Yoshinori and data on the aboriginal plains tribes.

In addition to these two large sites, the "Taiwanese History" page at History Links also includes links to databases containing information on everything from Taiwan's aboriginal cultures, Hakka history, historical relics and the 2-28 Incident to Taiwanese literary works, Taiwanese opera (a site which includes samples of music) and pictures of aboriginal artifacts. There is even a link to a site which provides educational materials on Taiwan to primary- and middle-school teachers.

You can get to History Links via the "History" page under the "Humanities" page at HiSearch Yam. Or you can access it by going to the Academia Sinica's homepage, then choosing the Institute of History and Philology. Once you get there to History Links' homepage you will see a button marked "Download simplified Chinese and Japanese and Korean website [viewing] software." This program (NJWin) is shareware provided by NJStar Software, which translates simplified Chinese characters into complex ones and vice versa, as well as allowing netsurfers to view Japanese and Korean language websites.

Web address: http://saturn.ihp.sinica. edu.tw/~liutk/shih

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