台灣經驗魅力十足

:::

1989 / 2月

文‧鄭家鐘



行政院長俞國華訪中美洲特使團於一月十九日返抵國門。此行巴哈馬、多明尼加、瓜地馬拉的政府除了官式禮儀極為隆重之外,政要們亦多由衷地對我國政府及俞院長表示了熱烈的「個人友誼」。

由以上三國的實際作為觀察,俞院長這次的訪問成果應屬超過預期的成功。本來,贈勳、拜會、建交這些官式活動,是有其一定的腳本,而且可想而知,形式意義居多,然而,這次的訪問卻豐富了官式活動的意義,無論是我方還是對方,均盡量在官樣形式中拉近個人的親近友誼,這份親近表達形式儘管不一,但結論就是中華民國的確很「罩得住」,而俞院長一板一眼的「英國式紳士」做風,亦贏得西語系、英語系中美洲權貴的敬重。再加上,台灣經濟發展的確「先進」於諸國,而且台灣的發展策略造成高度均富的社會,又是貧富懸殊的中美洲最強烈的對比,我們這個遠來的和尚,對他們來說,絕對是會念經的。

俞國華在迭次與政府首長們會談時,亦重點強調了李總統登輝先生所提出的「台灣經驗」這個名詞,並對我台灣地區與中小企業為主體的彈性經濟體系,廣為向受訪國政經要員推介。俞揆認為中小企業不但是外貿導向經濟維持靈活肆應國際市場變遷的不二法門,也是所得平均、社會安定的最佳處方。

事實上,綜觀此行俞國華言論的重點,他明顯地突出了「以中小企業為主體的彈性經濟」,而這個下層基礎,則恰到好處地支持了「以協助東南亞、加勒比海地區為主體的彈性外交」,因為我們的經貿實質關係,剛好可用本國的中小企業發展經驗來幫助這些地區從事經社改革。由於這層的關係,難怪巴、多、瓜三國的政治領導人,不斷向我表示「仰慕」,盼望「經驗協助」,而我國也確有實力如此做。比方說,以加工出口區而言,瓜國目前修正加工出口區的管理方式,就是接受我國專家的指導。巴哈馬、多明尼加發展電訊相關事業,包括消費性電子產品等,我們的多樣化技術能力及企業規模又是他們最有可能仿效的對象,這些實際利益的交流,才是真正使外交彈性加大的關鍵點。

俞國華以財經專家出身,有十幾年央行總裁經驗,對台灣經濟政策可說出一大套,他以行政最高首長身分訪問這些友邦,自然應付裕如。而俞本人能抓住上述「外交」與「經濟」的雙重性,在外交場合,發揮了經濟實力的「激勵效用」,則很明顯地是有意而成功的一項策略。

自然,外交無定數。儘管這次訪問從個案來看相當成功,但這是官方的層次。由於不同政經體系存在著不同的脈動因素,我國彈性外交之運用,仍須更動態化、靈活化及積極化。

第一、多、瓜兩國因貧富懸殊,軍人仍相當強而有力,社會文盲仍多,實質情況繼續存在,其政府的穩定性仍待考驗。在瓜國,我們與軍方關係甚佳,固為有利條件,惟文人政府的作為殊難逆料,一旦發生經社上的動盪,後果會如何還是值得注意。

第二、推展彈性外交是需要實質利益的配合,但目前駐外單位對國內可資運用的經濟資源,不管是官方的如「海外經濟合作基金」,還是民間的「加勒比海地區投資促進」也好,駐外單位能夠適時用為利器,而不斷深化雙邊關係的,畢竟還是少數。此次俞院長特別提出,我們對後進國的「經援」,是扮演國際社會要角,推展「外向政策」所必須的重點策略,就需要外交與經貿單位的高階層能有更佳的配合。

第三、事實上,很多經貿援助的問題並不在「錢」,而在於「技術」及「人才」,這方面我國在農業技術上做得相當不錯,但若能推廣至中小企業型的工業技術、投資規劃之交流,有時更能贏得比「金錢」更多的友誼,而且亦藉此機會深入「基層」外交扎根於該社會當中。

至於駐外人員的培訓、輪調及待遇,目前尚存在培訓不夠確實,輪調未能增加其前程發展的實力及待遇受幣值變動影響而大起大落等情況,這在外交部貫徹李總統及俞院長外向政策的能力上都是限制因素。決策階層的企圖心,還須有識的外交部長積極配合,才能以最佳編組來執行彈性外交,這就不待贅言了。

總結觀察俞院長特使團的中美洲之行,隨行官員及駐外單位的表現一般說來已屬難能可貴,而外館由於「企業文化」的不同,領導風格有異,在處理重大訪問時會有思慮欠周,配合不夠周密的情事發生,這應該由外交部對外館的實際運作,進行通盤「組織診斷」,以期「經營得法」,相信不只是中美洲外館如此,其他地區亦可做更好的經營。

至於俞院長本人,他在國內常遭受一些不同政治力量譏評為保守、太過僵硬,此固然是有道理的,但在海外,他銀行家形象及一絲不苟的作風,卻是極受歡迎的品牌定位。可以說天下沒有所謂完美的政治家,政治家的優點及缺點往往是一體的兩面。至於他個人如何使其在外交的優點,也經過適度的努力變成「內政的資產」,則從觀察中可知,俞院長在做風上,確實想增加一個閣揆的行動彈性。

訪問團中一位資深官員說:「當今黨政軍各股力量均在積極運作,有一位無慾則剛,一板一眼的行政首長,還可維持『和平』的安定政局,換一位雄才大略的強勢首長,或許會引發更多的問題也說不定呢?」這句話不無道理,但在政治「市場」上,一位高位者,也只有兩條路:一條是努力「行銷」自己讓市場接受;一條是儘管有良好品質卻不適合流行而遭淘汰,究應如何抉擇?我們還是對俞院長充滿期許。

(轉載自工商時報元月廿日)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Putting "the Taiwan Experience" to Work

Cheng Chia-chung /tr. by Phil Newell


Premier Yu Kuo-hwa and his delegation returned to the ROC on January 19 after a visit to the Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The group was not only met with impressive formal ceremony, but also local political leaders expressed great "personal friendship" toward the ROC and the Premier.

The results of this visit were more successful than anticipated. The originally planned activities--conferring honors, dinners, the exchange of diplomatic relations-- are naturally significant for their form. Nevertheless, both the ROC side and their counterparts, within these official forms, made efforts to cultivate deeper and closer friendship. And Premier Yu's disciplined "English gentleman" style won the respect of both his English- and Spanish-speaking hosts.

Add to this that the Taiwan development strategy proved of great interest to these nations. This is especially true when the ROC's society with its excellent distribution of wealth is compared to the large gaps between rich and poor in Central America.

Premier Yu emphasized what President Lee Teng-hui calls the "Taiwan Experience" in his talks with government leaders in the countries visited. He promoted the virtues of Taiwan's flexible, small and medium enterprise based economic structure. The Premier believes that this structure is not only the only way to maintain export led growth and adapt to changes in the international market, but is also the best locus of a stable society with an equitable distribution of income.

This small- and medium-sized base also happens to suit perfectly the ROC's "flexible diplomacy focussed mainly on aiding Southeast Asia and the Caribbean area" because Taiwan's development experience with small and medium sized enterprises can be used to help these areas implement economic and social reforms. No wonder leaders in the three countries continually expressed "envy" and hoped for "the aid of experience."

In fact, such aid has already begun. For example, ROC experts provided guidance for Guatemala's revision of its export processing zone management methods. The Bahamas and Dominican Republic can learn from the development of the communications industry in the ROC Such aid is a key to flexible diplomacy.

Based on his experience as economist, central banker, and now the highest ranking official in the executive branch, Premier Yu was able to grasp hold of this economic and diplomatic duality. The use of this economic power in diplomatic occasions was clearly a meaningful and effective strategy.

Naturally, there are no guarantees in diplomacy. Despite the success of this trip, because each country has different political and economic structures, the ROC's flexible diplomacy must become even more dynamic and vibrant.

First, in both Guatemala and the Dominican Republic there are large gaps between rich and poor, illiteracy is high, and the military retains considerable strength. Our relations with the Guatemalan military are excellent, but the achievements of the civilian government are hard to predict. If there is turmoil in society or the economy, the outcome will deserve close attention.

Second, promoting flexible diplomacy means accompanying it with substantive benefits. But our diplomatic units have been able to utilize public (like the "Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund") or private (such as the "Caribbean Area Investment Promotion") economic resources effectively to deepen relations in only a few cases. Premier Yu noted that aid is central to the ROC's playing an important international role; this calls for better coordination between top levels of economic and foreign policy agencies.

Third, many problems of economic aid involve not money but technology and skilled personnel. The ROC has done quite well in the area of agricultural technology; but if it can promote technology exchanges with small and medium enterprises, it can win more friendship and establish deep roots for "base level diplomacy."

As for overseas personnel, training is not yet practical, rotations are not able to increase career potential, and salary has suffered from the appreciation of the NT. These are all limiting factors for implementing the government's "extroverted diplomacy." On this trip, while the performance of diplomats overseas was in general exce arrangements. There is a need for an "organizational review" of practical actions of ROC diplomats. I suspect that it is not only the Central America embassies which are like this.

As for Premier Yu himself, though he is sometimes criticized as "conservative" at home, nevertheless his image as a banker and his careful, thorough work style are welcome attributes abroad. He certainly hopes to be able to use his advantages in diplomacy to increase room for maneuver as premier.

 

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!