良渚玉出走台灣?

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1993 / 11月

文‧陳淑美 圖‧張良綱


在「良渚玉」的出產地,有許多古玉被盜走私出大陸的傳說,同為中國人社會的台灣,被想成最有可能的「終站」。

真相到底如何?


台北鬧區的藝品骨董店裡,亮麗櫥窗裡擺著一般考古現場經常可見的石刀、石斧,和比較細緻的玉珠、a子、玉環等物。店員小姐還笑瞇瞇地說明著,她頸上戴的便是良渚玉,「齊一的形制,顯見是同一個墓葬出土的」,她肯定地說。

良渚玉器中,最令人心儀的是刻有神人獸面紋的玉琮,在文物商店裡,類似的精品並不輕易公開展示。但是,聽說在台灣並不難找到。

「今年三月,高雄賣出一只,兩節的,長度約有八公分,價值新台幣三百萬元」,高雄慶大莊的洪秀玲說。

將這條消息求證於另一位行家,也在作古玉銷售與鑑定的中華文物藝術研究室負責人徐政夫,他睜大眼睛,搖著頭說:「不大可能!」。理由有二:一是價錢太低,二則因為良渚玉琮在台灣,消失已久,它在目前的古董界是有行無市。

一桌子滑稽

但是許多人都說,台灣文物界的確收藏有許多良渚玉,甚至公私立博物館都已買進良渚玉!「鴻禧美術館曾展示過一只新石器時代的玉琮;故宮博物院世界文化展示室裡,有一隻標明良渚時代的玉器,都傳說是近年來買進的」,徐政夫說。

究竟良渚玉流失到台灣有多少?到底誰在收藏?這一類的資訊卻是眾說紛紜,連骨董行家都說,不很確定。

大家都確定的是,市面上有很多偽造品流通。對良渚玉頗有研究的故宮博物院研究員鄧淑蘋就指出,一九八八年,「反山遺址」的發掘報告發表後,事隔半年,台灣就有一模一樣的仿製品出現。

「有一次,有位到大陸旅遊的老太太回來,帶來一袋子據說是良渚時代的玉器要我鑑定。我一看,哪是玉,分明是一桌子塑料呢,一桌子的玉器擺著,對我來說,分明是一桌子滑稽!」鄧淑蘋形容。

台灣是劊子手?

良渚玉的真偽究竟如何分辨?「說起來學問就大了」,玉石專家那志良說,每個時代的器物都有其特徵,像良渚的神人獸面紋,看來跟商周器物常見的饕餮紋雷同,但仔細比對,良渚獸面紋較為古樸,但有兇猛之貌;商周的饕餮則更繁複。類似此等,再配合玉質、器形、紋飾、做工等,就八九不離十了。

在台灣的骨董文物市場,良渚玉始終是搶手貨。洪秀玲指出,新石器時代的玉器,如遼寧紅山、山東龍山文化玉器也有十分精良的,但出土數量極少,更別說流入市場了。而良渚玉,一方面因為其工藝及歷史價值甚高,一方面也因出土數量較多,盜玉者不少,在市場有投資效益,因此爭逐者眾。

許多人認為,中國大陸這幾年文物流失問題嚴重,台灣古董商及收藏者競相購買,難辭其咎。「說得不好聽,大陸近年來盜墓、文物走私情形嚴重,台灣其實是背後的劊子手!」有人這樣認為。

啞巴史料的心願

徐政夫認為,大陸文物流失已有長遠的歷史,買的人也不只台灣一方,「我們要問的是,是不是台灣不買,大陸古物就不出走了?」他認為,玩賞深具藝術價值的古文物,本為人之天性,不可能讓所有的古董和藝術品,都屬於博物館所有。因此適當地開放管道,讓私人收藏家也能參與文物收買,因勢利導,才是真正遏止走失、不破壞文物的方法。

「以同為中國人的立場來看,文物流失到台灣,或許比其他地區更能得到知音呢!」他說。

說得似乎理直氣壯,但就現狀來看,大陸開放管道有限,市場需求又高,整個出土文物似乎還在需求、供給、走私、破壞之間惡性循環。

倘若如台灣文物市場所傳,台灣地區真有良渚玉真品存在,而良渚玉被世人眷顧的代價,是隨之而來無休無止的破壞……說不定它們最想望的歸宿,還是繼續埋藏在地底下,當一些沒有聲音的啞吧史料呢!

〔圖片說明〕

P.53

香港摩囉街玉市,來往尋寶的人很多,細問商家古文物來自何處?幾乎都以大陸考古盛地西安作答。

P.54

摩囉街玉市到處可見良渚玉的仿製品。

P.55

「反山遺址」堙A有民家使用的茅房,聽說搭建使用的磚塊是漢朝的磚頭。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Liangzhu Jade Flies to Taiwan?

Jackie chen /photos courtesy of Vincent Chang /tr. by Brent Heinrich

I in the original home of the Liangzhu relics, rumors are circulating that many pieces of antique jade have been stolen and smuggled out of the country. Word has it that the most likely destination is another Chinese land: Taiwan. What could the real story be?


In a prosperous area of Taipei, the bright, pretty windows of an art and antique store display objects that can often be seen at an archaeological dig, stone daggers, stone axes, and delicate jade jewelry, such as necklaces and rings. The sales girl in the store smilingly gives an introduction. On her neck she wears pieces of Liangzhu jade. "Their shapes are uniform; it's evident that they came from the same tomb," she says with certainty.

The most enchanting kind of Liangzhu jade is the tsung, carved with gods and beast faces. Such refined antiques are not easily displayed in paraphernalia shops, but rumor has it that in Taiwan they are not so terribly hard to find.

"In March of this year in Kaohsiung, one was sold for NT$3,000,000. It was divided in two sections, about eight centimeters long," said Hung Hsiou-ling of Ching Dah Chuang antique store in Kaohsiung.

Jeff Hsu specializes in the sale and appraisal of jade. When asked to verify this news, his eyes widened and he shook his head, saying, "That's not very likely!" He gives two reasons First, the price is too low. Second, Liangzhu tsungs have already disappeared in Taiwan, in today's antique circles, it is in demand but simply not available.

A tableful of ridiculousness:

Nevertheless, many people claim that a lot of Liangzhu jade is in the hands of Taiwanese collectors. Even public and private museums have bought Liangzhu jade. "The Chang Foundation has exhibited tsungs from the neolithic era. In a special exhibit on world culture, the National Palace Museum has a display of Liangzhu era jade. Both are said to have been purchased in recent years," Hsu Cheng-fu says.

How much of the missing Liangzhu jade has ended up in Taiwan? And who is collecting it? This kind of information is a matter of opinion. Even professional antique experts say that they are not sure.

What everyone is certain of is that is that the market is flooded with fakes. National Palace Museum Researcher Teng Shu-ping, who has carried out a good deal of research on Liangzhu jade, recalls that about half a year after the report on the Fanshan ruins was published in 1988, many identical counterfeits appeared in Taiwan.

Teng Shu-ping relates, "One time an elderly lady came back from travels in the mainland with a whole bag full of supposed Liangzhu era jade objects that she asked me to appraise. As soon as I saw them, it was clear to me that they were plastic. A tableful of presumed jade! To me, it was a tableful of ridiculousness!"

Is Taiwan criminal?

How, then, can one verify the authenticity of Liangzhu jade? "It's a very technical issue," explains jade expert Na Chi-liang. The objects of art from every era have their own special characteristics. The gods and animal face patterns of Liangzhu art is similar to the Taotie, a legendary beast often seen in statues of the Shang and Chou dynasties. But upon a more precise comparison, the beast faces of Liangzhu works appear more rustic and simple; they purvey a feeling of fierceness. The Taotie of the Shang and Chou are more intricate. Such comparisons should also take into consideration the quality of the jade, the shape of the object, the patterns carved into it and the craftsmanship; then one can be well informed of the authenticity.

In Taiwan's antique market, Liangzhu jade is a thoroughly hot item. Hung Hsiou-ling states that some neolithic jade pieces have already appeared, for instance from the Hungshan culture of Liaoning or the Lungshan culture of Shandong, and their quality is quite superb. However, the amount available is extremely small, so that none of them reaches the commercial markets. One aspect of Liangzhu jade is that its craftsmanship and historical value are both quite high. Another aspect is that the number of artifacts is relatively great, so there are many jade thieves digging them up. For this reason there is a chance to make a return on one's investment in the marketplace, so a great scramble is underway for these items.

Many people feel that in the last few years the loss of cultural artifacts in mainland China has become very serious. Taiwan's antique traders and collectors, who are busy fighting each other to buy them, can hardly be excused from responsibility. Said one observer, "If I can speak bluntly, the mainlanders are robbing graves of their treasures and smuggling them away, and the situation is bad. In reality, though, it is Taiwan that is behind it all committing the crime."

A wish for silent history:

In Jeff Hsu's opinion, the loss of mainland China's cultural treasures has already had a long history. It is not only those from Taiwan who are buying them. "What we should ask is, if Taiwan does not buy mainland artifacts, will that mean that they won't disappear?" He believes that enjoying the deep beauty and value of antiques is an inherent part of human nature. It is impossible for every antique and object of art to be stored in a museum. Because of this, it is appropriate to open up channels and let private collectors participate in the purchase of artifacts, giving judicious guidance according to circumstances. That is the proper method for stopping the disappearance and damage of relics.

"And from the perspective of Chinese people, if the artifacts flow to Taiwan, perhaps they will be better appreciated than if other regions of the world obtained them," he says.

Such a statement is quite proper and reasonable on the surface. Nevertheless, in terms of present circumstances, the open channels in the mainland have their limit, and the demand of the market is high. All of their artifacts are still trapped in a cycle of demand, supply, smuggling and ruin.

It is often purported in the jade markets that objects of authentic Liangzhu jade exist in Taiwan, and the price of the adoration placed upon them is their unceasing destruction. If this is so, who is to say that the final resting place they long for the most is not the very soil that they came from, where they can be silent pieces of history?

[Picture Caption]

p.53

In Hong Kong's Cat Street jade market, many people come to hunt treasure. If you ask the traders where these relics come from, nearly all will answer, from archaeologically plentiful Xi'an.

p.54

In Hong Kong's Cat Street jade market, counterfeit Liangzhu jade can be seen everywhere.

p.55

In the Fanshan ruins is a public toilet. Rumor has it that the bricks used to build it came from the Han dynasty.

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