減肥吃什麼

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1989 / 2月

文‧林麗雪



什麼是熱量?

我們把油放在杯子堙A再浸入一條蕊,蕊的上端點火後,被吸上來的油就會燃燒而產生「熱」和「光」。油在空氣中燃燒後產生高熱,而在身體內脂肪燃燒(氧化)的速度就慢很多,卻同樣會產生「熱」,讓我們身體維持攝氏卅七度的體溫,也讓我們的器官運動以及肢體活動。

熱量的單位稱卡洛里(大卡),一卡洛里的熱量可以使一公升水的溫度升高攝氏一度,不論動物性或植物性油脂,一公克的脂肪可以產生九大卡熱量,而澱粉、糖等碳水化合物和蛋白質只能產生四大卡熱量。

如果要減肥,必需少攝取多油脂的食品,如奶油蛋糕、肥肉、炸雞等;但也不能都不吃,因為吃些脂肪比較不會餓。

醣類在身體內很容易轉變為脂肪,又容易吃得過多,所以也需要控制,不過,假如完全不吃醣類,肥胖者體內很多脂肪的新陳代謝會不正常,而引起銅酸症,對腎、肝有不利的影響。

低熱量的食物如何選擇:

△相等重量,但是所含熱量較少的食物;也就是說,供應同樣熱量,而能吃較多的食物,比較有飽食感。例如以低熱量沙拉醬、高纖低脂餅干代替沙拉醬、丹麥餅干,喝脫脂牛奶、健怡可樂而不喝全脂奶、可樂。

△油脂及糖份含量少的,也就是不要吃太甜、油膩的食物,如起士麵包、奶油蛋糕、蜜汁火腿。

△水份含量多的,如新鮮的蔬菜、水果,無糖豆漿等。

△纖維質含量多的,如竹筍,芹菜等蔬果或者以糙米飯、胚芽飯代替白米飯,以全麥麵包取代白麵包。

△吃起來比較麻煩,吃不多又花時間的食物,如吃多骨的肉類——翅膀、腳等部位,吃新鮮水果,而不喝果汁。

△不為人體消化吸收的無熱量食物,如洋菜。

△少吃鹽,鹹的東西越吃越想吃。

△避免蘸汁的食物。這些醬汁往往含有大量的油脂、醬油、鹽、糖、澱粉,會增加許多熱量。

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EN

Eating Right to Lose Weight

Sophia Lin /tr. by Phil Newell


What is a calorie?

Like fat in a fire, the calories in our body generate heat when "burned off" (oxidized), though much more slowly. The "heat" allows us to maintain body temperature at 37℃ and allows normal organ and body functions.

The measure of the heat is called a "calorie." One calorie can raise the temperature of one liter of water one degree Celsius. One gram of plant or animal fat can generate nine calories of heat. The same amount of starch, sugar, or protein can only generate four calories.

To reduce weight, one must reduce food with oily fat, like cake, fried eggs, and so on. However, one can't eat none at all, for after eating a little fat one won't be so hungry.

Carbohydrates easily turn to fat in the body, so these must be controlled. But if you skip them entirely, the body's fat will not normally replace itself, with bad effects for the kidneys and liver.

How to choose low calorie foods:

△Equivalent weight--find foods that are the same in weight, but lower in calories, rather than reducing the intake of fatty foods; this will leave you feeling fuller (e.g. consume the same volume of skim milk rather than drink less whole milk).

△Avoid sweets and oily food.

△Foods with high water content are better--vegetables, fruit, sugarless sovbean milk.

-High fiber is better--bamboo, celery, germinated (instead of white) rice, whole wheat (instead of white) bread.

△Foods that are tough to eat, like meat with a lot of bones, are better. Eat fresh fruit rather than drink fruit juice.

△Eat foods without calories which can't be digested, such as agar.

△Eat less salt; salty things sharpen your appetite.

△Avoid foods with sauce; they often con tain sugar, starch, salt . . . in short, lots of calories.

 

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