革新司法.各方看好——新任司法院長林洋港

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1987 / 6月

文‧林麗雪陳淑美 圖‧聯合報資料中心提供


今年三月,新聞圈盛傳當時的行政院副院長林洋港將有異動。

 

不久,傳聞便成真。四月八日,執政黨中央常務委員會通過他調升司法院長的提案。四月十六日,監察院同意蔣經國總統的提名案,林洋港正式被任命新職。

 

在這期間,素以「敢說話、有擔當」著稱的「阿港伯」,自是新聞記者追逐的對象。他也一一接受傳播媒體訪問,暢談司法革新,並表示:「事情很有可為。」

 

五月一日,林洋港正式就任新職;此後,他對新聞界反而躲躲閃閃,一再婉拒採訪。

 

一向被認為是「新聞界朋友」的「阿港伯」那裡去了?莫非是怕曝光過度?


「絕對不是這樣」,林洋港接受本刊訪問時指出,剛被提名的時候,他本來也「躲」記者。「那時還未正式上任,怎敢輕易發言;但深入一想,都不發言又恐怕大眾認為,總統提名林洋港是很大的錯誤——好像我對司法問題一竅不通,只好壯著膽子向大家報告了。」

「但現在必須等到深入瞭解,能夠言之有物,才可公開發言」,他說。

是誰「捧出」林洋港?

有人認為從政者最忌過度曝光。

「我不在乎這些」,林洋港表示,他的曝光都不是自己「求」來的;「但是各界要我發表意見,我絕不規避。」

「況且,新聞界是最好的公關,假如沒有他們的報導,我自己刊登廣告,還不知道要花多少錢呢!」豪爽的阿港伯笑著說。

新聞界厚愛阿港伯,其來有自。

「鄉下人林洋港誠懇篤實負責」——這是民國六十五年,「阿港伯」接掌台北市長時的報紙標題。

二年後,媒體又以「省議會屢起風波林洋港——擺平,化暴戾為祥和足見功力深厚」來肯定他在省主席任內的作為。

一位跑政治路線的記者指出,過去在「黨外」人士聲勢最「高張」時,林洋港是黨內外最出鋒頭的人物;因為他擅於辯論、說理,只要一站出來,就辯得人心服口服,大呼過癮。

去年十二月廿四日,執政黨蔣經國主席在中常會中指示,司法工作必須大力革新。這是去年繼宣佈即將解除戒嚴、開放組黨等一連串政治革新後,執政黨的再一次重要起步。也就在那時,政治圈有了林洋港將榮膺要職的傳聞。

傳聞,當然使林洋港備受矚目,但即使沒有傳聞,阿港伯的動向,仍是大眾關切的焦點。

從政資歷最完整

林洋港打從基層做起,廿五歲就開始在公務機關做事,從南投縣政府的課員、課長、秘書,而雲林縣中國國民黨部主任委員、南投縣縣長,一路幹下來,到台灣省政府建設廳長、台北市長、台灣省主席、內政部長、行政院副院長等職,被認為是「當今從政資歷最完整的一位政府首長」。

林洋港在政界所以特出,他的政績是最大的關鍵。

「他深具魄力,若要論起他的作為,可舉出一籮筐」,一名資深記者指出林洋港在擔任建設廳長時,曾規劃自來水的統一經營及健全省農田水利會的組織;在台北市長任內,他堅持推動公車聯營、興建建國南北路高架橋及翡翠水庫等措施;到他就任台灣省主席之際,「『阿港伯』的名聲幾乎無人不知!」

民國六十八年,林洋港奉調台灣省主席,正逢第六屆省議會,是有史以來新任議員、黨外議員最多的一次大會。一開始,廿二席黨外議員,連續演出了「宣誓」、「退席」等風波。

林洋港一上任,面對省議員小自省府組織、大至中央政策的質詢,一點不畏懼。「碰到理性問政的議員,他實事求是、清楚答詢;碰到不理性的議員,他除了回答,還反問回去」,當年跑省政一名記者回憶。

例如有一回,某位議員質詢山地問題,談到政府要加速改善山胞生活,讓山胞自立自強,以脫掉長期的「包袱」。林洋港立即反駁「包袱」一詞有商榷餘地;他認為,只要是中華民國的國民,我們政府都不會把他視為「包袱」。

此外,他以「磨刀」來比喻民意代表的質詢,要恰到好處;以「健康的牛」是毛多的牛,來形容法令多如牛毛,並沒有什麼不好等;至今都讓人記憶深刻。

會聊天、有酒量、富幽默感

林洋港是南投人,一口台灣國語講得讓人打心眼裡喜歡,他待人寬厚熱情,不擺官架子。據說他到現在還時常交代公館警衛,碰到打赤腳的鄉下人來找他時,千萬不要攔阻。很多記者認為,跟「阿港伯」聊天很「爽」;「有什麼說什麼,絕不打官腔,讓人覺得輕鬆自在」,時報新聞週刊國內組主任吳戈卿說。

除此之外,林洋港的酒量也讓人印象深刻。與他熟稔的朋友都知道,「阿港伯」喝酒是喝「表面張力」的——形容酒倒滿後,還浮出酒杯杯緣,這樣的酒量也讓他交了不少朋友。

「阿港伯」還深富幽默感。

他從內政部長調任行政院副院長不久,有位新聞界的朋友笑問:「副院長,照理我該恭賀你;但是,我卻不知道你是不是『明升暗降』?」林洋港笑答:「明明是升了,你卻偏偏說我暗降,叫我回家怎麼向太太交代?」

司法院「動」了

林洋港獲得司法院院長提名後,就有許多朋友打電話、寫信或親自上門,提出他們對司法革新的看法。

五月一日,司法院舉行新舊任院長交接典禮,面對著近三百位司法院的同僚,林洋港以鏗鏘有力的聲調,向大家說明他的初步構想:(一)端正司法風氣,維護司法信譽;(二)加強利民便民的措施;(三)改變法官的工作條件;(四)以求新求變的心情來面對司法制度。

「四端看來問題甚大,簡單地說,卻可歸結於制度及風紀操守兩個範疇」,林洋港說:「制度的改進牽涉到研究及經費的支持;風紀操守,則完全操之在我,不假外求。」

口說無憑,到了五月五日,林洋港在獲得總統約見後,簽報了五位特任官的人事調動案;八日,在司法院例行的「擴大業務會報」中,對迭遭爭議的「兩階段分案辦法」、「判決書送閱制度」提出討論,當天下午與學者專家面對面座談後,決定將兩案交由全體推事票決;十日,拔擢地方法院三名院長;十八日,指示訂定公平合理的人事考核辦法。

「這些措施,對一向保守、甚少與外界溝通的司法院來說,都是創舉」,一位記者指出。

魅力來自認同感

「阿港伯」果然有政治魅力。

儘管林洋港一再謙稱「魅力」是新聞界朋友對他的「美言」,他還是認為「魅力」其實只是一種「認同感」。

他表示,一個人只要憑藉著智慧、經驗為社會大眾謀幸福,就會被社會大眾接受。林洋港指出他為大家認同可能是因為「服務了社會」。

服務社會當然很好,會不會帶來什麼困擾呢?

「您說的是人情包袱吧?」對本刊編輯的「暗」題,林洋港立刻「明」問。

「有的,而且很多」,他明白地說,在他每個從政階段都曾碰到請託、關說的困擾。例如,在內政部長任內,曾有朋友請他幫忙,釋放其因案被羈押的弟弟;那個朋友說:「你現在官做得很大,而且全國警察都歸你管,打個電話一定就沒事了。」

「碰到這種事,我的想法是,做人與做事都要有原則,但千萬不能混在一起」,林洋港說:「中國人常說,這個人待人很好,好像他做事就可以隨便。但這是不對的,我沒有應付人情困擾特別高明的方法,我只是告訴自己,要誠實,對就對,不對就不對,不能和稀泥。」

儘管不能和稀泥,但對於請託者的苦衷,他卻能感同身受。「關說是可以理解的」,林洋港表示,民意代表為民服務的項目之一,就是關說。「何況有的關說是怕開庭太匆促,對專業問題不夠熟稔,特別來提醒你注意,可以說是善意的指教,那能不接受呢?至於干涉到制度、審判的關說,那就萬萬不能接受了」,他就事論事分析。

嚴守司法權責

這樣一個富親和性的人,掌理經緯萬端、亟需大刀闊斧改革的司法界,是否會有所衝突?

「我不認為有什麼衝突」,林洋港指出,以前在台北市市長、省府主席、內政部長任內,也不是沒有大刀闊斧地改革過,林洋港說:「過去能,現在當然也能。」

但過去的經驗,現在未必能全盤借用。司法體系向來比較保守,對開創性較強的林洋港而言,如何調適自己、推動改革?

「我想我會嚴守司法院長的法定職務分際,來調適自己的個性」,林洋港說。

至於如何推動院務,林洋港謙稱仍對新職抱著「惶恐」的心情。但他認為:「不管是在行政或司法系統下,甚至於待人處事,道理都是一貫相通。」他一脈相通的原則是「為人誠實、做事實在、待人寬厚」。

「只要嚴守這個原則,不要剛愎自用,大概就不會出大差錯吧!」他說。

為官之道何如?

生長於鄉間,林洋港自稱從小過的是「不去翻土、灑水,蔬菜就不會冒出來;沒有插秧、沒有除草,稻子就不會長得好的日子」。大自然「一分耕耘,一分收穫」的法則,讓他學到了實事求是,也學到了不去投機取巧。這正是他從政的一貫作風。

「若說作官要有特別的『官術』,那我是不承認的!」林洋港認為,盡其在我,一步一腳印,比任何「官術」都有效。

「大家都覺得我說話、做事很直、霸氣很重,又不懂得逢迎。但是長官卻沒有因此不喜歡我,社會大眾也沒有因為這樣討厭我」,林洋港反問:「你們看我不是步步高升了嗎?」

〔圖片說明〕

P.62

在新舊任院長交接典禮上,林洋港接過司法院官印,也接下了一個重責大任。左為前任院長黃少谷,中間為監交人總統府資政張寶樹。

P.63

親和力強是阿港伯的特色之一。(鐘永和攝)

P.64

民國六十八年八月,林洋港到南投縣竹山鎮勘察因草嶺潭崩潰而受損的道路、橋樑。

P.64

在省府主席任內偷空返鄉探親,林洋港歡喜地與孫執輩們在自家田埵X影。(林洋港提供)

P.65

阿港伯喝起酒來是海量,這使他結交到許多朋友。

P.66

林洋港的家居照。四代同堂,其樂融融。(林洋港提供)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

A New Advocate for Judicial Reform

Jackie Chen and Sophia Lin /photos courtesy of United Daily News /tr. by Karen Chung


On April 8, 1987, the Standing Committee of the Kuomintang Central Committee approved President Chiang Ching-kuo's nomination of Vice Premier Lin Yang-Kang for the office of President of the Judicial Yuan. High-level personnel shuffles are always a focus of public attention, and this one particularly so.

Lin Yang-Kang is known for his "guts" to say what he thinks, and as a consequence, news reporters always press him as far as they can with probing questions. And he delivers. Once, when asked how reform of the Judicial Yuan should be gone about, he replied: "I don't understand much about what is past, but I take full responsibility for what happens in the future."

Some say that politicians often worry about overexposure by the media.

"I don't worry about that," Lin replied, "I don't make a special effort to seek out media exposure, but I certainly don't run away when asked to give my thoughts on an issue."

President Chiang issued a directive on December 24, 1986, concerning the need for major reform of the judicial system. This was to be another step in the series of political reforms begun last year; the first step of this process was moves toward lifting martial law and allowing the formation of new political parties. Lin Yang-kang is now to be one of the major architects of this judicial reform.

Lin Yang-kang "worked his way up from the bottom." He started out as a civil servant in the Nantou County government, and proceeded on to a series of increasingly higher offices, including mayor of Taipei, provincial governor of Taiwan, minister of the interior, and vice premier of the Executive Yuan. What stands out most are his concrete accomplishments and his charisma. As mayor of Taipei, he pushed through the merger of a large number of city bus companies, the building of the Chienkuo Road viaduct, and construction of the Feits'ui Reservoir.

Lin Yang-kang is originally from Nantou County, and speaks Mandarin with a homey Taiwanese accent that puts his listeners at ease. He is a warm and caring person without bureaucratic pretense. He is said to frequently remind the guards at his residence not to turn away barefoot people from the country coming to see him !

Lin Yang-kang is also known for his ability to "hold his liquor" and for his ready sense of humor.

The new Judicial Yuan head is distinguished by his openness and candor, a Chinese "great communicator." Almost as soon as his nomination became public, friends came knocking at his door, or called, or wrote with their ideas and suggestions for judicial reform. At his swearing-in ceremony he made his own priorities clear: 1. to rectify judicial style and atmosphere, and protect the integrity of the judicial process; 2. to strengthen measures to benefit and convenience the people; 3. to change working conditions for judges; and 4. to review the entire judicial system with an eye to implementing innovation and improvement where needed.

On the matter of Lin Yang-kang's "charisma," he modestly says that it is just a kind word that the media have put in for him. He considers the substance of "charisma" to be empathy, and the ability of the people to identify with a public personality and what he stands for. He believes that a leader who uses his knowledge and experience for the public good will be accepted by the people.

One typical aspect of Chinese culture and society that unavoidably spills over into politics is jen ch'ing, or the obligations of personal relationships. When this sensitive matter was alluded to in the interview, Lin replied immediately and candidly that it was indeed a problem. Many times he has been approached by "friends" seeking special treatment or favors. Once, when he was serving as minister of the interior, for example, someone tried to get Lin to authorize the release of a brother being held in police custody. His answer in such cases in an unequivocal "no." Chinese have social obligations to help others, Lin points out, but friendship and business must be clearly separated. One cannot succumb to social pressures and compromise between right and wrong.

But can a person with as much human concern as Lin really make the sweeping changes that are being pushed for in this current wave of reform? Lin doesn't foresee any conflict between the two. "I directed major reforms in the past as mayor, provincial governor, and minister of the interior and I can do it again," he affirms, "even if I have to change my style some what to adapt to the more conservative image of the Judicial Yuan."

Lin Yang-kang grew up under the strict country work ethic that you reap only what you sow, and shuns opportunism. While he readily admits that he has some apprehensions about his new office, he believes that by sticking to his principles of honesty, substantive work, and kindness to others, he should be able to weather any potential storms ahead.

"Well," he concludes, "I got this far, didn't I?"

[Picture Caption]

Lin Yang-kang receives the official seal from his predecessor Huang Shao-ku (left) while Presidential Advisor Chang Pao-shu (center) looks on.

Cordiality is one of the outstanding characteristics, of "Ah Kang-po," a s Lin is affectionately known. (photo by Chung Yung-ho.)

In a stolen moment of leisure from his past role as chairman of the provincial government, Lin takes time for a picture with members of a younger generation. (photo courtesy of Lin Yang-Kang.)

In this photo from August, 1979, Lin is Nantou County caused by the overflow of inspecting the damage to a road and bridge in a mountain lake.

"Ah Kang-po" shares a drink with friends.

Lin enjoys a happy moment at home amidst four generations of his family. (photo courtesy of Lin Yang-kang.)

 

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