南投行日記

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1987 / 6月

文‧蕭容慧 圖‧鐘永和


在風景區,常會聽到這樣的聲音:「拍快點好嗎?後面還有人等著!」現代人愈來愈重視休閒生活,也有餘暇、餘力到處旅遊。每逢假日,世界各地的知名風景幾乎都有人滿之患,也有的地方太過人工雕琢,往往乘興而去,敗興而歸。

 

有「美麗之島」之稱的台灣,還有不少開發較晚、養在深閨人未識,而遊蹤較少的風景區,仍保有自然、原始之美。

 

本刊將逐期介紹這些旅遊勝地。本期報導南投縣開幕不久的九族文化村,及即將開幕的林淵石雕公園等地。


四月卅日星期四大晴天

出發前,南投的友人很誇張地警告:「春天到南投,必須小心——萬一樂而忘返,我可不負責任!」

乍聽之下,覺得真是老王賣瓜,仔細想想,果真有點道理。此地有太多的風景據點,處處可玩、處處是誘惑;對遊人而言,不事先計畫好,難保不會「迷途」,尤其在風光明媚的春天。

南投縣觀光指南信心十足地這麼寫著:「境內玉山高、溪頭涼、濁水長、霧社壯、日月潭中波盪漾、合歡山上現朝陽,處處青山綠水,風景如畫,真是一個美麗的地方。」

還有,鹿谷茶、竹山筍、埔里的米粉和紹興酒……,也都讓人不得不聞香下馬。

基於必須如期歸營,我們只選擇幾個較新的據點:九族文化村、林淵石雕公園……等,免得貪多嚼不爛。

和同事從台北坐車到草屯,等待友人的接應。由於友人對南投太熟了,我們笑他是「地頭蛇」;由他開車帶路,放心得很。

豔陽高照,友人很不好意思地搔搔頭:「真是抱歉,太陽太大,讓你們曬!」殊不知我們這些從台北來的「城市土包子」,最嚮往的就是溫暖的太陽呵!

一路上,油桐樹伴我們迆邐而行。油桐在春天開著乳白色的花,遠遠望去,彷佛飄雪停落在枝椏上,當地人為它取了個詩意的名字——五月雪。到了秋天,葉色轉黃,落英繽紛,更是迷人。

九族文化村在南投縣魚池鄉,佔地六十二公頃,和知名度極高的日月潭是鄰居。

這個在去年七月開放的文化村,內有台灣土著民族,包括雅美、阿美、泰雅、賽夏、鄒、布農、卑南、魯凱、排灣等九族的部落景觀。聽說一開幕,就把這二年略顯疲態的南投觀光事業給炒熱了。

剛到這堙A入目即是一座歐洲的宮廷花園,猛然還真的搞不清身在何處。如茵碧草中點綴著水紅、鵝黃、粉橘的花毯,還有義大利羅馬式雕像、噴泉、鐘樓。最有意思的是一座仿巴洛克式建築的「水沙連麗宮」,這是一座餐廳,形制是歐式建築,名字卻極富鄉土味——水沙連,正是日月潭地方的舊名。聽說本來取名叫「凱薩琳」,後來因洋味太濃,怕不倫不類,乾脆改名。

友人自我安慰:「無魚蝦也好,不能到歐洲,來這娷鉰鄐]是好的啦!」有人還調侃,在這堜蝐i「到此一遊」的照片,人家鐵以為你到過歐洲。

在麗宮吃了一客特產的香菇飯,滋味挺不錯的。養足精神正好上路。閒散地踱步蕩出了歐洲花園,步入山地村,從「歐洲」一下進入拙樸原始的山地,恍如「出國」。

指南上註明九族文化村的人行步道全程一八六五公尺,既對這數字沒啥概念,就很勇猛地出發了。

三百多年前,漢族還沒大量遷到台灣時,台灣土著的分佈區域遍及台灣全島和蘭嶼;其中目前已完全漢化的平埔族,原來是住在西海岸平原和蘭陽平原。而所謂的高山族則大多住在山區。

但現存的台灣土著民族,稱他們為「高山族」也不盡正確,因為九族中,阿美和卑南居於東部平原,雅美則住在海上的蘭嶼,可是大家都喊習慣了,一時也改不過來。

九族文化村的部落景觀、佈局設置和家屋建築,由於經過學者專家的考證,頗具真實感。

雅美族是第一村。他們群居在背山面海的山坡地,各家住宅緊密連接。主屋沿著微傾的山坡建築,依坡度挖成階梯式的地面。有趣的是,由於他們把挖出的土放在四周,所以遠遠的看,只能看到屋頂,其他都不見了。這房子躲避敵人倒是很實用。

房舍四周用卵石砌成石牆,牆上就是可行走的道路。牆壁石縫攀爬著翠碧的越橘葉蔓榕,姿態綽約,使粗獷原始的景觀憑添幾分溫柔。

泰雅族人尚武好戰,過去為了復仇或立功,有獵頭的習慣。基本上,一個「血親集團」,一定有一個「首棚」(骨頭架),有的用石板疊起,有的用木架,首級從右到左按新舊排列,年代久遠的白骨就用網袋吊掛在屋簷下。阿彌陀佛,還好在這堨L們沒真的掛起來,要不然……。

賽夏族是山區各族中人口最少、分佈範圍最狹窄的一族,有名的「矮人祭」就是賽夏族才有的祭典。

住家多半以竹材為主。住家落成時,主人要召集建屋者和親友舉行建築祭祀。宴會在黃昏舉行,大家聚在室內。好玩的是,主人必須以酒、米飯和豬肉,向「主樑」告祭,呼請祖靈來饗用。

其實,每個族都各有特色,可是「族繁不及備載」,只好挑幾個來說了。

魯凱族在原始藝術的表現上,十分出色。女人善於織布與編籃,男士則擅長木雕。聽說木雕技術高明的匠人,在部落最受尊重。

據傳排灣人的祖先是由百步蛇所生的,所以他們將百步蛇的圖案視為祖靈的象徵,舉凡家屋的簷柱、門扉,或是身上的刺青、衣服的刺繡或其他器物,處處是蛇。

而排灣族的木雕和織繡也令人有驚豔之感,色彩比魯凱族更為豐富、多變化。

坐在頭目所住的家中納涼,一邊觀看牆上的雕刻,有戰士、武器、牛、馬、百步蛇……,遙想當年叱吒風雲的情景,有點遺憾自己沒有躬逢其盛。

走走停停,有些部落的住屋娷\著幾塊石頭,令人納悶,後來才知道,高山族在冬天把石頭加熱,供在室內取暖之用。不知情的人,還當它是小朋友的小石椅哪。有的屋子堭噩袺~骨,這我不怕;但是野獸的首級,可就令人心毛毛的。

九族村裡,硬體建設很有一套,可惜軟體較弱。本來以為在各族村落可看到族人生活的情形,事實上只有一、二族有幾位老人家在編織或刺繡,其他就付諸闕如。聽負責規劃的人說,山胞目前生活改善了,過著「現代的」生活,想聘請他們來村內過「原始」生活,不太容易。而住屋內的器物也不太多,挺可惜的。

各族雖有解說牌,但不夠詳細。幸好手上有本介紹九族的冊子,按圖索驥,才比較清楚。

在陽光下走完全程,流了不少汗。又看了一場山地歌舞表演和雷射噴泉秀。算一算,在這堳搕F四、五個小時。

晚上住在埔里朋友家,是他在南山溪旁的「小別墅」,典型的三合院。夜涼如水,蟲聲唧唧,還有天花板壁虎的吱吱聲,伴我入夢。

五月一日星期五又是大晴天

昨夜睡得好極了,一覺到天明。從小別墅上路回埔里,路經一個古色古香的「埔里藝之村」,決定下車一探究竟。這地區有個好聽的地名——鳥踏坑。

令人驚訝的是,庭園埵鹿J刻家朱銘的作品「人間」和「太極」;而堶悸疑戴灡i的正是朱銘的青銅雕刻和水墨畫。二樓畫廊則是畫家鄧雪峰的花鳥展。沒想到山腳下竟是「臥虎藏龍」,久聞埔里藝文風氣盛,果然名不虛傳。

主人招待我們喝「山粉圓」,熱騰騰的,甜而不膩,咕嚕嚕地一吞下肚,很過癮。山粉圓不是真的粉圓,它是一種野生植物的籽,風乾後要食用時,開水一沖就行了,聽說還可以治肝病。

藝之村還兼賣南投名產和一些民俗的小玩意兒。我看中了一隻竹蜻蜓,當下在門口玩了起來。不過只敢偷偷玩,免得人家真的笑我是城市土包子。

後來想想,在這種地方還拘泥,未免太不灑脫了吧!

接著來到了「木生昆蟲館」,堶戛i示上萬隻的蝴蝶和昆蟲標本。昆蟲館的創始人余木生當年從事昆蟲採集,並製作、收藏標本,發現了頗多新品種。可惜當時是日據時代,都由日人出名發表。光復後,其子余清金繼承衣缽,並發表新種昆蟲,像「木生鳳蝶」、「木生綠小灰」(蝶)、「木生長尾水青蛾」……都是,為祖先揚名的方式可不少,這種也很好。

隔昆蟲館不到一公里,就到了林淵石頭公園。

林淵是南投縣的傳奇性人物,他做夢大概也沒想到,他這個做田人有一天會成為遊客觀光的對象。

雕刻石頭純粹是好玩,沒想到他拙樸帶著幽默的作品被「埔里鄉情」這本地方雜誌報導出來,引起大眾的注目。「相」中他的是雜誌的顧問黃炳鬆。除了欣賞,他還購買他的作品,進而支付「薪水」,讓林淵伯在無後顧之憂的情況下盡興地敲敲打打。

作品一多,黃炳鬆靈機一動,拿出一塊佔地一萬三千坪的地皮,開發成林淵石雕公園,供人觀賞和遊憩。目前公園尚未正式開幕,但已具雛型。大大小小約有千餘件的石猴、石龜、觀世音、秦始皇的太太……,錯落有致地陳設在油桐樹林和草坪上。林間的木架上懸著林淵伯的新作——石魚,當風一吹,石魚隨著搖擺,有意思!他在板岩上雕刻的人物,線條大膽、造型有趣,許多藝術界人士都給予頗高的評價。

至於他的圖畫、刺繡、銲接鐵等其他作品,則另闢展覽館陳列。為了趕在九月開幕,林淵伯賣力地工作,每天拎著一個便當「上班」,風雨無阻。「比少年人還拚命!」黃炳松誇讚。

林淵伯不但會石雕,還擅於講古。對投緣的人,他可是滔滔不絕。對他而言,每一個石雕都有它的故事。他最喜歡講「一隻鳥仔無毛無毛」的故事:有個山洞埵穔菑@群鳥,有天其中一隻躲在旁邊哭泣,原來它身上的毛掉光了。眾鳥看它可憐,都從身上拔一隻羽毛給它。這集禿鳥轉眼間變成百色鳥,比只有九十九種顏色羽毛的鳥王更漂亮。禿鳥很驕傲,自封為鳥王,結果惹惱施贈羽毛的眾鳥,於是又把羽毛拔了回去……。

講著講著,林淵伯笑了起來,很開心的下結論:「所以說,做人也不要太過分!」我問他:「一邊刻石頭,一邊講古,不會受到影響嗎?」他瞄我一眼,一副「你有所不知」的表情:「哎呀,嘴巴在講,又不是手在講!」

雕塑家楊英風曾經問他:「這麼多作品,那件是代表作?」林淵老伯理直氣壯地回答:「每一件都好啊!」

黃炳松認為林淵觀察入微,想像力豐富。對他熟悉的動物,像牛,無論是牙齒、牛角或毛的走向都很清楚。至於「阿拉伯王子」、「觀世音」啦,沒辦法,就要靠想像了。「但是淵伯雕起來一點都不吃力」,在園堣u作的雕刻新秀甘丹說。

中午,我們和林淵在樹蔭下一起吃便當,順便聽他講古。他吃粥配著媳婦幫他醃的鹹豬肉,講得口沫橫飛。飯後他掏出一瓶養樂多,和一包糖球要請我們吃。這是他的飯後甜點,我們怎敢接受?

看他吃得津津有味,很陶醉、滿足的樣子,不禁莞爾。我覺得,到此和七十五歲的老頑童聊天,比看他的作品更值回票價。

離開石雕公園,到日月潭繞了一圈,再往竹山去。晚上下榻竹山。禁不住我們的苦苦哀求,友人開車帶我們到鹿谷鄉購買春茶。鹿谷的凍頂烏龍,不是蓋的!

五月二日星期六晴

昨天被蚊子叮得要死,早上不免抱怨。友人代表地方父老向我賠罪:「我們這堸A子最熱情,只要有客人來就會這樣!」這叫「熱情」嗎?簡直是欺生。

向竹山有名的建築「敦本堂」出發。由於是私人住宅,不開放參觀,因此託友人打交道,得以進入。主人很友善地迎我們入內參觀,並以凍頂烏龍茶招待。

根據調查,目前仍留存的台灣傳統民宅並不多,像霧峰林宅、摘星山莊、南港闕宅、彰化陳宅、新竹鄭進士第、竹山敦本堂……,都成了珍貴的歷史「教材」。

「敦本堂」是竹山士紳林月汀的住宅,落成至今約八十年。它雖然沒有「摘星山莊」華麗的磚刻,但其木作卻十分出色。各式傢具、格扇的雕工無不精緻繁複;而它的維護和保存,也是中部其他民宅所不能及。為此,台北市建築師公會特別南下測繪和調查,整理後出了一本專輯,為歷史作見證。

庭院深深,幽靜中只有鳥聲啁啾。我們在古宅穿梭,動作小心,深怕驚擾這分難得的寧謐。

敦本堂是台灣標準的四合院型態,屬閩南式建築風格。主人輕輕推門,我們看到了入口門廳太師壁上、名聞遐邇的「富貴玉堂春」雕飾。

壁的檻牆以上做成內外兩層不同的木雕:室內這面雕著八仙慶壽、琴棋書畫的圖案;室外則以細條窗櫺組成「富貴玉堂春」五個字,四個角落再由蝙蝠銜住,外樞均呈斜萬字紋。

陽光被鏤空的木雕篩成細碎的金線,我坐在廳內黝黑油亮的水煙床上看呀看,覺得闖入了時光隧道。

在第二進稍間子孫廊上的琉璃花磚八角窗和紅磚斗砌牆面,也是本省磚工的代表作之一,同事拿著萊卡的照相機潰瞳潰嬰a猛拍,深怕錯過精彩畫面。

除了觀看木作雕飾,敦本堂的字畫也值得一看。正廳中柱對聯是「敦誼明倫即此是敬宗尊祖,本修德立如斯乃孝子賢孫」,字字句句盡是先人對子孫的提醒和叮嚀。而「夜雨竹窗問語,難得名花勝開」寫的是閒情。我想,現代人個性多煩躁,要是能住在這種屋子,情緒當能安穩不少。

告別主人,車子往竹山大鞍里駛去。為的是到新開發不久的孟宗竹林去作「竹林浴」。大鞍里里長蔡承威慇勤待客,並帶我們挖筍尋寶去。

竹林內,竹葉飄落滿地,踩在上面軟軟的,很舒服。陽光柔柔的,風也柔柔的。吸吸芬多精,神清氣爽,好像真的洗了一次澡。

轉眼之間,蔡里長已經挖了不少筍。「是這季最後的一批了!」他說我們運氣不錯,我也覺得自己是「闊嘴吃四方」。

吃了一頓竹筍大餐,下山去也。友人帶我們到幾家竹藝品店參觀,又帶隊到果菜市場買竹山聞名的蕃薯。我一口氣買了十斤,準備回家孝敬老爸。

四點多,總算要打道回府了。把友人折騰得差不多,看樣子,不走不行了。玩了幾天,充足了電,回台北應該又是一條龍了。

注意事項:

一、交通:

至九族文化村可在埔里和魚池鄉搭南投客運,每天各有七個班次。自備交通工具(汽車、機車)尤佳。

二、旅程:

第一天中午在埔里午餐,可先繞至鯉魚潭、夢谷瀑布、觀音瀑布玩,再至九族文化村。第三天遊罷竹林,可至瑞龍瀑布遊玩。

三、食宿:

食——盡情享用卡路里不高的竹筍大餐。

宿——日月潭、埔里、竹山都有旅社。日月潭可住青年活動中心。在竹山可至山上住私人經營的竹林山莊。

四、費用:

九族文化村門票成人二百元,軍警學生票一百五十元。

五、其他:

竹山敦本堂不對外開放,如欲進入須先徵求同意。林淵石雕公園預計今年九月開幕,目前可以參觀,但休憩設備尚未齊全。

〔圖片說明〕

P.45

「九族文化村」中排灣族頭目住屋的雕刻。

P.46

(上)山地歌舞熱情、豪放,看得人也想跟著起舞。

P46

(下)沈思的老婦,是九族文化村的「模特兒」,猜猜看她是那一族人?

P.47

奇怪吧!這不是歐洲,這堿O南投縣魚池鄉的九族文化村。

P.48

埔里林淵石雕公園正在大興土木。這個石塔是由林淵伯的作品組合而成。

P.48

林淵的新作「總統魚」。

P.49

油桐樹下涼風襲人,一邊休憩,一邊觀賞石雕,讚!

P.50

竹山敦本堂名聞遐邇的「富貴玉堂春」木雕。

P.50

重重疊疊、繁複精緻的立體木雕,在敦本堂觸目可見。

P.51

竹林在風中搖曳,沙沙作響,彷彿在向人低語。

P.52

竹山一家竹藝品店,閒適恬靜,不帶一絲商業氣息。

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EN

Diary of a Trip to Nantou

Sunny Hsiao /photos courtesy of Chung Yung-ho /tr. by Kenneth Boss


April 30 Thursday Sunny and Clear

Before setting out, our Nantou friend gave us an exaggerated warning: "When you come to Nantou in the spring, you must approach it with caution-- otherwise you'll be so enthralled that you may forget to return home, and for this I refuse to take any responsibility whatsoever!"

My first reaction to this statement was that my friend had gone somewhat overboard with his regional loyalties, but after considering more carefully, I decided that there might be reason to his rhyme after all. This area is full of scenic spots; everywhere is a place for recreation, each place with its own allure. If a tourist to this area does not first plan his itinerary with care, there are no guarantees that he won't "lose his way," never to return from whence he came.

As the bright sun beamed down upon us, our friend scratched his head in embarrassment, saying, "I'm really sorry the sun is so hot; you're all going to be baked!" He didn't seem to realize that for us "city bumpkins" out of Taipei, our greatest longing was for nothing other than the warmth of the sun!

Owing to the fact that we were travelling on a tight schedule, we were able to visit only a few of the relatively newer attractions, such as the Formosa Aboriginal Culture Village and the Lin Yuan Stone Sculpture Park, lest we should bite off more than we could chew.

The Formosa Aboriginal Culture Village stands on 62 hectares of land in Yuchih Village of Nantou County, and neighbors the widely renowned Sun Moon Lake. The positioning and layout of the settlements of the various tribes and the construction of the dwellings have all undergone the careful verification of expert scholars, giving the village a sense of accurate realism.

The first settlement is that of the Yamei tribe. Their homes are clustered together on the side of a terraced hill facing the sea, with the mountains behind them. It is an interesting sight, as they have placed the dirt dug up in the terracing around all four sides of their homes, so that from a distance all one can see is their roofs, everything else buried from sight.

Actually, each tribe is possessed of its own unique distinguishing features, but as there are so many of them the best I can do is to select a few for the telling. My favorites are the artwork of the Lukai and P'aiwan tribes.

The P'aiwan tribe is especially outstanding in the area of primitive art. According to tradition, the ancestors of the Lukai people were descended from the "hundred steps snake" (Agkistrodon acutus), so named because it is said that one has time for only one hundred steps between its bite and death. The Lukai tribe has taken the markings of this snake to be symbolic of their forebears. The eaves, pillars, and doors of their homes, the embroidery on their clothing, and even the tattoos on their bodies are therefore all ornamented in its likeness. The wood and stone carvings of the P'aiwan tribe are marvels in themselves. The colors of these are even more richly variegated than those used by the Lukai tribe.

Wandering through the village, I noticed that there were a number of stones placed within the dwellings of some of the tribes, leaving me full of curiosity. It was not until later that I learned that during the winter the tribes living at higher altitudes heat these stones beside a fire, subsequently placing them in their homes as a source of warmth.

May 1 Friday Again, Sunny and Clear

Our route took us past an ancientstyled "Puli Art Center," so we decided to stop the car and take a look. We were surprised to find that the garden contained two works by the sculptor Chu Ming--"The World of Mortals" and "T'ai Chi"--while on display in the inner exhibition hall were none other than Chu Ming's bronze sculptures and water-and-ink paintings. The second floor gallery exhibited the flower-and-bird scrolls of the painter Teng Hsueh-feng.

I hadn't dared to imagine that works of such fame would be housed here at the foot of this mountain. I had often heard that the artistic and cultural traditions in Puli were quite strong, apparently this reputation is not merely empty rumor.

Our next stop was the Lin Yuan Stone Sculpture Park. Lin Yuan has today become a figure of almost legendary stature in Nantou County, but I doubt that this farmer ever in his wildest dreams imagined that he would become a primary attraction for tourists in the area. Carving stones purely for amusement, who would have thought that after a report by the local magazine Puli Times, his rough, humorous works would attract the attention of so many people?

One who has taken particular interest in Lin Yuan's work is Huang Ping-sung, who has provided him with a "salary" so that he can work in conditions free of financial worry. As Lin Yuan's works proliferated, Huang Ping-sung was hit with a flash of inspiration. He bought up over four hectares of land and established the Lin Yuan Stone Sculpture Park, providing for tourists both an area for recreation as well as art objects for appreciation.

Lin Yuan is not only adept at stone carving, he is also a first-class storyteller. To his mind, every carving has a story all its own, and when with companionable people he can be an incessant talker. At noon we sat with Lin Yuan in the shade of a tree and ate our lunches while listening to his stories. As he ate his meal of congee with salted pork, which was prepared by his daughter-in-law, specks of saliva flew along with the words from his mouth.

Watching him eat with such relish, so very happily satisfied, I could not help but smile myself. It seemed to me that chatting with this 75-year-old child was even more worth the price of the entrance ticket than the viewing of his sculptures.

May 2 Saturday Clear

We set out for the famous "Tunpen Hall" on Chushan (Bamboo Mountain). Because this is a private residence and is not open to the public, we had to rely on our friend to pull the appropriate strings in order to gain entrance.

Tunpen Hall was built about eighty years ago as the home of Chushan gentleman Lin Yueh-ting. It is built in the traditional fashion of three main wings encompassing a central courtyard, belonging to the Fukienese style of architecture. Besides enjoying the elaborately carved woodwork of the residence, the calligraphy and paintings hung here are also worth a good look. I think, in view of the high strung temperament of modern man, if we were able to reside in this type of traditionally elegant, scholarly setting, our emotional stability would be greatly increased.

After taking leave of our host, we headed off for Ta An Li on Chushan, where we hoped to take a leisurely stroll in the recently opened to the public Meng Tsung Bamboo Forest.

The Ta An Li area administrator Ts'ai Ch'eng-wei received us with much courtesy, and took us out into the forest to dig for bamboo shoots. Within the blink of an eye he had gathered quite a number of shoots. "This is the last haul of the season!" he exclaimed, adding that we were very fortunate to be able to catch it. I felt too that I was very lucky; it seemed that every time I turned around someone was treating me to another delicious delicacy.

Sometime past four o'clock we started thinking about making our way back home. It seemed that we had exhausted our friend just about to the limit, and seeing this, to stay any longer would have been folly. For ourselves, after a few days of recreation in the great outdoors we seemed to be electrified with an excess of energy. Returning to Taipei would be a fresh experience in itself with this renewed vigor of spirit.

[Picture Caption]

Carvings in the home of the chief of the P'aiwan tribe at the Formosa Aboriginal Culture Village.

(Above) The dance of the mountain peoples is full of passion and vigor; onlookers are filled with an urge to join in.

(Below) This old woman deep in thought is a "model" at the Aboriginal Culture Village. Can you guess which tribe she is from?

No, it isn't Europe--it's the Formosa Aboriginal Culture Village of Yuchih Village in Nantou County!

The Lin Yuan Stone Carving Park in Puli is currently under construction. This stone tower is made of the collected works of Lin Yuan.

Lin Yuan's work, "President Fish."

Sitting under a tree in the cool breeze, relaxing and enjoying the stone sculptures- oh, what a feeling!

The elaborately elegant wood carving of the widely renowned Tunpen Hall on Chushan (Bamboo Mountain).

Examples of the many layered, three-dimensional carved woodwork are everywhere to be seen at Tunpen Hall.

The bamboo seems to whisper to you as it sways gently in the breeze.

A quiet, peaceful bamboo crafts shop on Chushan, possessing not a trace of a business atmosphere.

 

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