羨人享成功滋味,豈知背後用功之深--外交部次長錢復

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1981 / 9月

文‧官麗嘉 圖‧李影


我們中國人相信:「人才為中興之本」,是的,國家各方面的建設與發展,固然需要多種條件的配合,但尤需要各級人才參與擘劃與執行。自由中國台灣近年來快速的進步,是一有目共睹的事實;大量進用青年才俊,讓學有專長的年輕人,得以在各個崗位上發揮所學與所長,實乃最重要的原因之一。外交部政務次長錢復,一直被大家視作青年才俊中的代表型人物,他擔任公職廿年來,已卓著聲名。但是恐怕很少人知道,在工作表現的背後,他曾下了多少心血與苦功,才使得自己能適任每一個職位,並掙得長官、同僚、社會大眾與國際友人的肯定與尊重。


外表嚴肅,心態也嚴肅

許多人都說,錢次長是位得天獨厚的人,他有許多地方令人豔羨不已,諸如:良好的家世、優秀的學歷、翩翩的儀表、過人的智慧、驚人的記憶力……,以及美麗嫻慧的妻子、可愛的兒女、仕途坦順、前途遠大……等等。

錢次長當然知道有人在這麼說他,人前人後他自己也聽到不少,但他多半只是淡然一笑,說聲:「過獎了。」或是「如此溢美,真是不敢當。」這也就是說,他總能持穩著自己生活與工作的步調,外人的評論,從不會影響他分毫。

他自稱是個「嚴肅」的人,或許他指的不只是不苟言笑、舉止莊重而已,而是一種內在的嚴肅感,是整個人生觀很嚴肅,包括了:生活、求學、工作和修養等多方面——他一直以勤懇、敬謹的態度面對任何事,包括生命中的每一階段和生活中的每一個面。

這也就是為什麼他自認是一個內向、拘謹的人,卻能在各種不同的場合之中,或侃侃而談、或對答如流、或據理力爭,都表現得恰如其分,令人不由得要擊節讚賞。那種沉穩、睿智、雍容大度的風範,正是一位出色的外交家所應有的特質。

幼時極為內向,未具神童之相

錢次長於民國廿四年時出生於北平,是家中三兄弟中的老三。四歲時,進入上海覺民小學附設幼稚園就讀。但當年因為太內向、害羞,無法和同學們打成一片,對於校內教習也不太有反應,因此在老師的建議下,就輟學回家了。

五歲時進小學,情況略有改進。但錢次長回顧當年,想來想去,說想不出自己小時候有何值得一提之處。他說:「想當年確實乏善可陳,我在班上不是特別優秀、突出的模範生,但是很守規矩、盡本分。成績嘛,大約總在中上吧!」

錢次長的祖父當年是上海特區法院的院長,父親錢思亮老先生,曾擔任過國立台灣大學的校長,目前仍為中央研究院的院長。許多人在知道錢次長的家世之後,會想當然爾地以為,錢次長在踏入政界之後的一帆風順,恐怕是與他良好的背景有關。

錢次長說:「要說絕對沒有關係,恐怕是矯情了。但是,有關係的,應該是家庭環境對我個人的人格、性情、以及求學與做事的方法有好的陶養;對於職位的升遷與否,其實並沒有什麼影響。當年我從美國得了博士學位回來,曾經在家賦閒了半年之久,心情十分苦悶,父親始終不肯出面幫我找工作,一切都要我自己來!」

當年父親在內地做事,錢次長三兄弟與母親及祖父母住在上海租界區內。老人家非常疼愛孫子,在生活的照顧上無微不至,但教養也十分嚴格。錢復很小即隨著兩位哥哥跟家中聘來的教席先生讀古書。當年他年齡最小,所以成績不如二位哥哥。但良好的啟蒙教育,對終生都有好的影響。

家庭環境產生極好的陶養

其次是家中人來人往的父執輩,多半是有學問、有地位的社會俊彥,他們的風度、談吐,以及彼此之間有深度的討論,對孩子們也會產生潛移默化之效。

再有就是家中一向有著豐富的藏書,以及祖父和父親愛好閱讀的習慣,使得孩提時期的錢復也深受影響,常喜歡學大人翻書、看書。即使多半是囫圇吞棗,看得久、看得多了,漸漸就會發現書本之中有一個豐富、廣大、迷人的世界,而也就愈來愈喜歡徜徉其中。

小時候錢復對祖父十分親近與敬愛,但是祖父卻為日本人陰謀刺殺,小小年紀的他因此痛心、忿恨不已。他回憶說:「當年我們住在上海租界裡,在我們的國土中有所謂的租界、特區,似乎形成了另一個小世界;接著有日本人的無理入侵,使得中國大陸遍地峰火,但日本人卻儘量不侵擾特區;日本人想控制特區法院,祖父不理他們,日人於是威脅利誘齊來,祖父始終不為所屈,最後因此慘遭被刺的命運……,凡此種種,使得我幼小的心靈產生極大的困惑,依稀已能感覺出有許多不合理的地方,應該加以改進。我們中國人應該要尊嚴地活著,不該受這種無理、卑屈的待遇……。」

錢復因此喜歡閱讀有關歷史的圖書,愈讀愈是痛心,恨不得自己趕快長大,恨不得能挺身出來,為我們國家爭取更多公平的待遇。

民國卅八年二月,錢復舉家遷台,當時他已在大陸上念完了初中。來台後,就住在台北,進入建國中學高中部就讀。

年齡漸長,有了自己的主張

甚至在高中時代,錢復仍自認並不突出,但學業成績已自「中上」進步到了「優等」。大約是人長大了,各方面的發展益趨成熟。在求學與閱讀之餘,他已能確定自己的興趣與性向,當時他已立志從政,他希望在政界貢獻一己之力,甚至將幼時困惑不解、氣忿難平,以為不合理、不公平的種種現象,也能經由自己的努力,理出一個頭緒來,設法做一點「澄清」的工作。

立定目標,接著要做周全的準備。錢復平時仍愛讀有關歷史、傳記一類的書,並常向叔叔伯伯們請益。高中畢業,他如願考進了台大的政治系。

進入台大之後,自我的建立與發展又進入一個新階段,此時不再是「乏善可陳」了。因為立志從事政治工作,錢復心中瞭解,自己不應再持有內向、拘謹的性情。政治工作一定需要與人交往,而且應該要具備組織、領導的能力,並且遇事要能有迅捷、正確的反應。而這些,光是埋頭讀書,並不能有所增益。

錢復當時雖年輕,已十分懂得「凡事豫則立」的道理。他有意地參加校內與校際間的各種課外活動,並且一直本著認真、負責的態度,在各種活動中迭有傑出的表現,成了校園中的活躍分子。

當年他參加了多種社團,熱心地參與活動,並且和幾個同學合辦了一份綜合性的校內刊物,定名為「這一代」。並經常被選作學校代表,參加外國學生來華訪問所舉行的國際青年座談會。四十四年時,他當選校內學生代聯會的主席。同年暑假,他為青年反共救國團所選派,參加了青年出國訪問團,以三個月的時間,訪問了中東、西歐、美國等地。

注重自我訓練,養成了敬業樂群的性情

這許多的課外活動與出國旅行訪問,使得他結交了很多朋友,增加了很多書本中所沒有的知識,也擴大了生活的視野,訓練了良好的反應能力,更培養出一種敬業樂群的性情。

四十五年時他自台大畢業,參加外交人員高考及格。接著去服預備軍官役一年七個月。期滿退役後,獲得老師饒大衛博士為他申請的美國亞洲協會所贈一年的研究獎學金。

於是在四十七年秋季進入美國耶魯大學的國際關係研究所,主修國際關係與外交史。在耶魯大學已有多年沒有中國留學生研究政治了,因為學校安排的課程非常嚴格,社會科學所包涵的範圍又極廣,加上語文的障礙、歷史文化背景的不同,亞洲學生很少有人能吃得消。

錢復仍是以一貫勤懇、敬謹的態度來面對留學生涯的挑戰,並加上更多的毅力。除了上課時間,他總是把自己關在圖書館裡。耶大圖書館從早上八點開放,晚上十點關門,他一向是開門時即進去,關門了才出來。在圖書館中,他博覽群籍,閱讀了許多古今中外的學術名著。當然也有不太有興趣或看不太懂的,但他從不輕言放棄,總是勉強自己靜下心來好好讀完,因為他相信「開卷有益」,也相信「所有的知識、學問都是觸類旁通的」——無論多艱深的書,好好讀下去,一定會有益處的。這其間自然得下許多的苦功,如今回憶起來,錢復說:「所有的功夫都沒有白費!功夫下得愈深的,獲益即愈多。有些當年讀得吃力、咬緊牙奮鬥過一番的功課,至今廿多年,仍記憶猶新!」

讀書研究專心致志,三年得博士學位

對於教授所指定的參考書,自然更是努力研讀,並做成詳細的心得報告。此外,對於與所學有關的書籍,諸如:歷史、政治、經濟、法律、國際組織等各方面最新的知識與權威的批評,也都多方涉獵,並作扎記。

一年過後,教授們通知他,根據他的表現,可以毋須修完碩士學位,即可逕行攻讀博士。同時他也獲得了下一學年的獎學金。接著兩年研讀終了,他在十六門功課中,有八門獲得九十五分至一百分的榮譽成績,另八門得到八十五分至九十四分的優異成績,通過了博士資格考試。

民國五十年九月,他提交了博士論文,教授會議審查通過,錢復榮獲博士學位。有四所大學(包括耶大)和一所國際研究機構,願意聘他任職。但他完全不予考慮,因為他早已立定志向,回國服務——要為澄清國際間混沌的情況,為爭取國家公平合理的待遇,盡上一己之力。他於五十年十月時返台。

對於這個決定,錢復特別強調,「在我讀書、做人和做事的每一個情境中,我個人是很少率性而行的。不僅不會由著自己的性情,而且常常勉強自己,勉強自己要能往遠處看,往大處看。如果是為了要達成某一個目標,那麼在過程中的自我犧牲與嚴格鍛鍊,都是必要的。如果是為了顧全大局,那個人的喜怒愛憎或恩怨情仇,便都不值一提。」

因此,當年如果留在國外工作,個人的學術地位與經濟環境也許都能大有可觀,但他不會考慮,因為,他的大目標是要加入國家政治工作的行列。

有心與同學交遊、論辯

也因此他在耶大念書時,雖然那樣認真努力,幾乎全天候地埋在書堆堙A但每到吃飯時間,他一定離開圖書館,鄭重其事地去法學院餐廳進餐。

每天一定要去法學院餐廳正式吃兩頓飯,是大有道理在的。其一,是錢復一直相信健康是發展事業的重要本錢,必須要有好的體魄和旺盛的活力,才能經得起繁劇。所以他一向注意飲食與運動。在飲食方面,他力求做到:定時、定量與營養。而法學院餐廳是耶大辦得最好的學生餐廳,供應價廉物美的各式菜餚,所以他一定要在那兒好好地吃飯,以補充體力。

其二,則是為了要去和同學們聊聊天。聊天?乍聽之下令人不解,在那樣用功苦讀的情況下,還願意花時間去聊天?原來錢復初赴美時,覺得自己的聽力和閱讀力都沒有什麼問題,但是說話卻不大行,這一點他決心盡早改善。他要求自己將英文要能說得辭能達意之外,還要能流暢與優雅。當然這得靠平時多加訓練。

而法學院餐廳因為辦得好,生意最旺,經常聚有各國的留美學生。他們來自不同的國家,有各種不同的背景與思想體系,再加上當地的美國學生,大家常喜歡在一起討論問題,或者抬抬槓。各種不同的思想、觀念,也就在餐廳裡交換、溝通,有心人即能因此增加許多的新知識或新觀念。

錢復來自外國人眼中頗具神秘感的古老中國,加上他平時成績好,很受老師的重視,大家都喜歡和他談話,並向他請教中國與台灣的種種。

起初,錢復僅能陳述一些有關中國的事實或現象;漸漸的,他能闡釋某些中國人傳統的觀念;而後,他也能流利自如地與大家談論與辯駁。

他老早想到,自己將來打算從事的工作,勢必要與外國人打交道,知己知彼才能百戰百勝呀。所以他不僅要把英語練好,他還要藉此瞭解不同種族人的思想與觀念。

除了上課、看書之外,每天要花三至五個小時滔滔不絕,他特別說明:「其實當年我並不很喜歡與那麼多人交往、談話,我最喜歡自個兒埋首於書堆之中;或是靜靜地思索問題,甚至玄思冥想一番。但是為了理想與抱負的實現,我總是勉強自己,勉強自己去聽、去說。而這番勉強的功夫也沒有白下,不僅是語文的能力增進了,還學到了許許多多書本上所沒有的知識。」

在這樣忙碌、緊湊的日子裡,每逢星期假日,他還要照例去買一份紐約時報的合訂本。厚厚一大疊紙板,他一向從頭讀到尾,什麼都讀,各種內容都不錯過,藉此調劑一下緊繃的心絃,也吸收了各種各樣的知識。

始料未及,學成回國後賦閒半年

然而,縱使做了這樣周全的準備,錢復在回國之後,一時仍沒有找到合意的工作。他說:「當年自然是比較難一點,國家各方面的建設不似當今這樣發展,各公私機構所能提供的職位比如今要少得太多了。」

他是一心想進外交部工作的,出國前已考過外交人員高考了,但外交部一時沒有缺,他雖已是博士,也徒喚奈何。爸爸也不肯運用關係幫幫忙,並且對他說:「年輕人一切要靠自己。都讀到博士了,應該不必還要爸爸幫忙找事吧?自己來,稍安勿躁,會找得著的。」

真個稍安勿躁,懷抱著滿腔熱誠回來,在家一待就是半年,恐怕會很懊喪吧?「當然免不了會有點著急、懊惱,但絕不至於灰心、失望。我不是那樣情緒化的人。我一向要求自己冷靜、沉著、理智地面對任何問題,在國外讀書時的風光,我不會還兀自陶醉著帶回來,認為大家也得禮遇我三分。實際情況是相當困難,我就耐心等吧。」

耐心等待之外,他每天仍然用功讀書。經過多年的自我訓練,讀書已成為一種習慣,已成為生活中重要的一部分了。

然後他在五十一年二月時進入國立政治大學教了一個月書。三月時,外交部通知他有缺了,便如願以償地進入外交部工作。

剛進入外交部時,補的是薦任十二級的專員缺。大家都替他抱屈,因為一般大學畢業考過高考的就是這個職等,而錢復是耶大的博士哩!他自己卻絲毫不以為忤,總覺得年輕人既然有心報國,在職位和待遇上就不必太計較。何況他對自己的學養、智慧、能力和工作的熱誠,深具信心。不要計較眼前,要往長遠看——他這樣勉勵自己。

從基層幹起,身為博士亦無怨尤

他是個說得到,即做得到的人。剛進外交部時,幹的盡是些基層工作。別人似乎不怎麼注意他得有耶大的博士學位。他自己麼,當然也不能去提醒別人注意,而且,得特別的謙和、勤奮,免得別人會以為他有博士學位而自以為了不起。

事實上,博士學位確實也不見得管用。尤其是處理基層工作時,最需要的是仔細、縝密與耐心。所有的豪性壯志、抱負理想暫且擱在一邊,他耐著性子,努力把自己該做的事做到最好。

至於該做的事,倒真是不少,包括:公文書的草擬與往還,談話與會議的紀錄與整理,與有關單位的聯絡事項,為長官準備備忘錄……等等,每天埋首案牘,寫個不停。這些工作真磨人心神,是吧?

「不,我並不這麼想。我知道有很多年輕人怕寫公文,更不喜歡公事要經層層批核,甚至認為文書來往有害效率,我卻從不這麼認為。寫公文是一種磨練,我一向要求自己文意要清楚,措辭要簡潔流暢,字跡也得工整清晰。要知道國家與家庭不一樣,家裡頭有什麼事說過了就算數,就是忘了說也誤不了什麼大事。但國家可不同,國事應該條理分明,一切要有憑有據。人在執筆時通常比說話時要冷靜、週到些,下筆為文通常比交談來得穩妥,亦可給有關單位較多的時間思考,長官可據此作較正確和有利的研判。機關文書是很重要的,將來都是國家的歷史文件,所以態度絕對不可輕忽,要非常慎重、負責地去處理。所以當年我寫公文時,都是不憚其煩地用鋼筆或毛筆,因為原子筆過段時間會褪色模糊,而鋼筆與毛筆就不會。」在這段期間他還經常抽空閱讀舊卷,期能瞭解許多事件的始未,並能盡速進入情況。

一個機關裡來了新人,開始時總是大家好奇議論的對象。以錢復的家世和學位,更易引起別人品頭論足。他當然知道這一點,只有更加的任勞任怨與埋頭苦幹。日子一久,長官、同事都接納了他,也肯定了他。

當時兼任行政院長的陳誠副總統,也聽說了他在外交部已有沉穩、幹練的能名,就要他去兼任院長秘書一職。大約有四年時間,他跟隨在自律甚嚴、任事極勤的陳誠副總統身邊,默默地觀察與吸收,不僅學習、效法長輩做人處事的方法,也對國家整體事務有了進一步的瞭解。

隨侍蔣公,得到很多啟發

陳副總統故去之後,在偶然的機緣下,又有人推薦他去擔任先總統蔣公的英文秘書,這也是他畢生難忘的一段經歷。

隨侍蔣公身邊共有十年,錢次長說:「這十年當中,我追隨的時間非常多。在擔任翻譯工作方面,有時一天多達四、五次。如今回憶起來,我覺得自己真是很幸運,能在一位偉人身邊跟隨了這麼久。這十年當中,經常能接觸到蔣公、其他許多的國之大老、與很多外國的領袖人物,從這些大人物的言談之中,我因耳濡目染,學到了很多東西,也得到了很多啟發。」

錢次長以為,這十年對他日後的待人處事也有很大的影響。其中印象最深刻的,是蔣公當時雖年事已高,卻一直有著旺盛的學習精神,他除了手不釋卷之外,並時時注意吸收新知識與新觀念,常常託人自國外帶各種新書回來,自己讀,也要身邊的人讀。大家都知道總統蔣公最喜歡勸人多讀書,卻不知他老人家一生勤讀不輟,勸人讀的書,自己都仔細讀過了,為期能跟得上時代的進步。

錢次長說,在蔣公要他閱讀的眾多圖書之中,其中有一本「勝海舟傳」是印象最深的。原來這本日文書在日本也絕版了,蔣公特別要人到日本的圖書館把這本書影印了來。初接到這本書的影本,他注意到是古日文寫的,與中文相通之處甚多,閱讀並無多大困難。

一頁一頁讀下去,發現這是一個十九世紀中葉、日本明治維新時一位將軍勝海舟的故事。當時他是主張「開國論」最有名望的人,曾學過蘭學(指有關荷蘭的航海、天文、工業等的學問,有如當年的現代科學),思想相當開明進步。

勿固步自封與堅忍不拔

勝海舟曾奉命率領一隊木造艦隊,前往美國報聘。當年由於船隻構造不堅,缺乏動力,又沒有現代化的航海儀器,一路行來極為艱苦。但儘管風浪侵襲,船上水手怨聲載道,勝海舟一直咬緊牙關、堅毅不拔,最後終於到達了美國的舊金山。

初讀之下,錢復瞭解了這個故事的始末,卻沒有特殊的領會。想來想去想不通,為什麼蔣公千里迢迢設法取得這本書要他讀呢?

於是他一讀再讀,反覆思索推敲,最後他終於想通了。當蔣公問及他有關這本書的讀後感時,他從容作答:勝海舟雖生在十九世紀,但他當年已有了追求現代化的認知,他極力反對閉關自守、固步自封,並鼓吹學習西洋的工業技術與科學方法。時至今日也是一樣,他國有比我們強的地方,我們就應該承認,並且虛心向他們學習。在競爭激烈的現代,敝帚自珍和閉門造車都是行不通的。其次,勝海舟率一隊木船赴美,客觀條件那麼差,海上環境又那麼險惡,但他發揮了無比的勇氣與毅力,終能完成國家所交付的任務。我們今天為國效命也是一樣,無論在任何情境之下,都應不屈不撓地設法完成使命。

蔣公聽完,欣然點頭。他老人家對屬下、後輩的教誨與關愛,就在這一點一滴之中可見深意。除此而外,錢次長又提到蔣公經常提倡辦事應用現代化的科學方法,他主張儘量採用機器以代人力。在當年很多人不能領會蔣公的用意,而今我國公私機構處理事務均已走向電腦化,大家拚命研究以電腦代替人力的方法,實不能不服蔣公的洞燭機先。

雖未外調服務,卻並不隔閡

由於跟隨蔣公擔任翻譯工作,使得他必須經常處於「待命」狀態,也因此雖在外交部工作多年,卻一直沒有外放。這大約也是外交部中少數的一個特例。

在部內勤謹、認真的工作中,錢復逐漸展露鋒芒,他自專員升至科長,接著是副司長、司長、新聞局長,而後又回到外交部擔任次長。

常有人問他,從未外放到國外的使領館中擔任外交官,會不會因此對國外的情況比較隔閡?在推動外交工作時,會不會因此而有所偏失?

「我也害怕會有這種現象,所以只要有同事回國述職,我一定幾次三番向他們請教,設法瞭解當地的情況。如有機會出國,事先不僅要多作準備,要先對當地有個概括的認識;到達之後,也要多看、多問、多聽,期得更進一步深入的瞭解。」

錢次長在出國訪問或開會時,不僅事先一定要做週全的準備,一天活動結束回到旅館,四處去走走逛逛應該是無可厚非的事,但錢次長多半選擇待在旅館中「用功」,或批閱公事、或撰寫報告、或研究地圖、或閱讀有關此行的各種背景資料……。因為這樣,第二天展開拜會活動或參加會議時,他往往能表現得比別人更從容、篤定與言之有物,令人不得不刮目相看。

如今錢次長年齡已長,職位也高升了,他仍然和往常一樣的愛讀書,每天要看卅幾份報紙,每個月要看一百多份期刊。而且並非擇要而讀,除了政治、外交、軍事、經濟等要聞外,即使是婦女、家庭生活、小說、藝術、電影等,他也讀得津津有味,因為他相信「開卷有益」,至今未移。

要讀得多,就會讀得快

曾經有人在旁觀察過他的閱讀速度,發現快的驚人。想必是很快,否則那讀得完那許多報章雜誌呢?不知錢次長是否受過速讀訓練?

「沒有專門去受過這種訓練。可是我從小愛看書,幾十年來天天不斷地在看,看得多了,速度也就快了。」

如今他也喜歡勸年輕同事或後生小輩多讀書,並且警告不要去「死讀書」。中國有句老話:「學而不思,則罔;思而不學,則殆。」錢次長常喜歡引用這段話,自己也是奉行不渝。他說:「書本中不見得全是有益的知識,我們要訓練自己的腦子會思想、會判斷,把那謬誤的分辨、排斥掉,篩下一些正確有益的存進腦中。我們日積月累地儲存有益的知識,可以使人腦變得像電腦一般,待需用時,相關的知識就自動會輸出來,就可以幫助我們作正確的判斷。」

錢次長以為作為一個稱職的外交官,至少需具備下列各個條件:一、豐富的知識。二、判斷的智慧。三、良好的語文能力。四、遇事冷靜、沉著,作最適當的反應。五、不斷充實自己,使能跟得上時代潮流,並能迎接任何挑戰。

而要具備這五個條件,當然需要不斷的學習、思考、討論及請益,但其基本功夫,還在於閱讀。也就是說,如果自己不肯靜心讀書,打下一個基礎,其他就無法據以達到。他以為閱讀是自我充實的最佳途徑。

錢次長不只學問好,常識也極豐富。他在接見外賓、與外籍人士晤談時,往往能根據對方的姓,說出他們祖籍是那裡。並且對他們國家內的種種,諸如:地理位置、風土民情、名勝古蹟、文化傳統……,都能說得如數家珍,令外賓驚奇不已,並且十分感動,立刻能拉近雙方的距離。這是他平時努力汲取各種知識,待用時一一輸出的明證。而這就是為了做為一位成功的外交家,平時日積月累所下的功夫。

對屬下嚴加督促與磨練,好比琢磨璞玉

聽說錢次長對屬下相當嚴厲,對於犯錯、疏忽者,一定嚴加指責,不予寬容。他自己是極為勤懇、認真的,可以想像,一定無法忍受某些年輕人的飛揚浮燥與辦事輕忽。而長官對屬下的嚴格督促,使他們卻能變為內斂、敬謹、負責,應該也是很好的磨練。關於這一點,他說:

「國勢這樣艱難,我們就是從不犯錯,都不見得能把外交辦得很好,何況還有什麼人為的疏失。既然有心參與這份工作,就一定要虛心、勤懇、認真地去做。年輕人好比一塊塊璞玉,有待琢磨。磨練他們,是為他們好,自然也是為整體好。通常有人犯了錯,我總是把他們找來,為他們指出錯誤,並告訴他可能產生那些壞的影響。我以為任何事都是由小見大、見微知著,人如能訓練自己在小事上認真、細心,遇到大事時才不致手忙腳亂,誤了大局。當然我是儘量要自己態度平和,而立場堅定,如果這樣同事們還是認為我很兇、很嚴,那也沒有辦法了。總之,我絕對是對事不對人。既然選擇為國家做事,就一定要盡心盡力做到最好,我反對有人總是給自己找藉口要人原諒。事先應該多警惕、多用心,不要事後才懊惱、悔恨。如果每個人都犯一點疏失,以為無大礙,加起來會很可怕的,很可能影響了大局。年輕人應該要有這點體認才好。其實對於獎勵我也是很看重的,辦事努力、有好表現的人,我總是一再嘉獎、鼓勵他們。而且他們一定因為自己的好表現而受到重視。我主張賞罰分明,這是一種公平的做法。」

說到做事的仔細與認真,這裡可舉一例:錢次長在擔任新聞局長時,有位同仁負責編輯蔣夫人宋美齡女士所寫的「與包羅廷談話的回憶」,這是一本英文書,有著極高的重要性,負責編輯者自然全力以赴。聽說這位同事曾校對達四、五次之多,但等書樣呈給局長審核時,當時的錢局長硬是又找出了好幾個錯字。

這位同仁自是驚異、敬佩、且慚愧不已。事情傳開了,產生很大的警惕作用,大家在處理出版品時,從此格外仔細、用心,務期不再有任何疏失、犯類似的錯誤。

即席講演是能手,講得紮實、生動

錢次長還有一項大大有名的長處,就是隨時可作即席講演。手中不備講稿,一樣能講得豐富、紮實、生動,究竟有什麼秘訣呢?錢次長說:

「並沒有什麼秘訣。我說過,對有益的知識平時要注意吸收、記取,尤其是與本身工作有關的資料,更要記好了隨時備用。這樣有了基本素材,再針對情況,加些枝葉點綴即可。不帶講稿有個很大的好處,就是可以把視線掃向全場,隨時注意聽眾的反應,而將講話的角度與長度時作各種調整。這樣就比較能掌握全場的氣氛,就不致於惹人嫌了。」不過,「說起來在嚴肅的場合演講,我比較能勝任愉快;某些輕鬆的場合,應該講些幽默有趣的話,我反而比較頭痛。因為我本人生性較為嚴肅,這時就得事先多想想、好好準備一番了。」

無論是出自自然,或是經過一番準備,他總能表現得可圈可點,令人欽敬。

回想前兩年中美斷交時,美國派助理國務卿克里斯多福等一行來華談判。錢次長率領我方官員赴機場迎接,在機場的記者招待會中,錢次長曾發表談話,那剛正不阿的態度、義正辭嚴的措詞、清楚流利的英語,使得千千萬萬電視機前的觀眾看得感佩不已。

外交人員出不了英雄

談及此事,錢次長感慨萬千地說:「在那種情況下,我所說的話或可代表大多數國人的心聲。但是我心裡很清楚,那絕不是我個人去求表現的場合。我的措詞,一定要能代表國家的立場,卻不一定是我個人的。」「那天過後,是聽到不少好評,但我一點也高興不起來,而且沉痛無比。中美斷交了,我們擔任外交工作的人都是失敗者,那裡能稱『英雄』!」

在中美斷交之前,衡量各種情勢,我方當然還是希望能保持官方關係,因此在許多時候,外交人員少不得需要委屈求全。錢次長說:「斷交之前,也有人罵我媚外、親美派、沒骨氣的。」

「一般人恐怕都不瞭解外交工作的真義。在外交場合中,不似戰場:不是你勝,就是我敗;不是你進,就是我退。外交工作總是進進退退、勝勝敗敗,無所謂成功、失敗,而是二方面的折衝。外交工作沒有永遠不變的立場,否則就訴諸戰爭了,何須外交?外交上不能堅持有我、無你,因為今日得意揚揚的勝利,很可能埋下仇恨的種籽,造成他日慘痛的失敗。所以說,外交工作是沒有可能產生英雄的,想當英雄,只有去當將軍。」

「因此一位稱職的外交工作者,根本不能有自己的立場,要懂得犧牲自我,時時以無我的心態,關注國家的利益,作對大局有益的反應。」

因應現勢,外交工作時作靈活應變

錢次長因此最反對有人持「弱國無外交」的論點,他說:「外交是一種和平、理性的折衝工作,任何一個國家都需要有外交人員,在國際場合中和平地為自己國家爭取更多的瞭解與支持。」

中華民國如今在國際上處境相當艱難,但外交人員仍是秉持著極大的信心與勇氣努力在工作,並把扭轉劣勢、爭取更多的邦交國,視為一種捨我其誰的使命。而錢次長更有領頭作用,他平時的氣度與幹勁,都足以表現他有著更多的信心與勇氣。這麼強的信心與勇氣究竟從何而來?「中國人有句老話『無慾則剛』,我們正正當當地辦外交,又沒有什麼見不得人的企圖;而我們的國家,也在各方面積極建設、力求進步,一切都蒸蒸日上,有什麼值得我們害羞、軟弱的呢?我們沒有什麼值得自卑之處,大家都緊守崗位、各盡己責,匯集起來就是一股不可搖撼的力量——這樣想透徹了,就自然會有信心、有勇氣。」

如今我國外交工作採取較前靈活的方式,有人名之為「彈性外交」,錢次長解說:「世局不斷在變,時代不斷在進步,所以我們的外交政策不可能一成不變。如今客觀環境改變了,我們自然要因應環境,在外交政策和做法上作若干調整,這是必然的趨勢。」

盼有更多新血加入外交陣營

為要進一步把外交工作做好,為要在國際上有進一步的突破,錢次長經常呼籲有志報國的年輕人加入外交工作的行列,他以為,這是目前較為直接報效國家的途徑之一。

「目前我們的外交工作是做得不夠好,但沒有理由不能改善。我們需要更多的年輕人一起來迎向未來的挑戰。」

他一直是這麼忙,也忙得這麼起勁,所以他興緻勃勃地邀人跟他一起「忙」。他每天要忙著看公文、見外賓、開會、寫文稿,參加晚宴或酒會,又要不定期地出國訪問。無論何時、何地,他都是那樣從容沉穩、神采奕奕。即使在背後為把工作做好所下的種種功夫,也一樣盡心樂意地去做。

他說:「我曾立定志向往這條路走,下了決心就不可三心二意,一定要竭盡全力好好走下去。近廿年來我當然付出了不少,但我收穫的比付出的更多。」

而我們探討和記錄下錢次長求學與工作的歷程中,所付出的種種心血與熱誠,因此也覺得收穫良多。

〔圖片說明〕

P.26

左圖:錢次長雖自認不善言辭,但經過多年自我的嚴格訓練,如今他在言談中,確實字字珠璣,語多啟發。

P.27

右圖:辦公桌上經常卷宗齊眉,錢次長批閱時極為專注、用心,速度因此頗快。

P.28、P.29

圖1:錢次長夫婦陪同來華訪問的斐濟總理馬拉及其男女公子,前往中正紀念堂向先總統蔣公致敬。圖2:錢次長與美國雷根總統的女公子莫玲晤談。圖3:外賓如攜女眷來訪,錢次長夫人田玲玲女士都要協助接待。這是錢夫人與賴索托外長莫拉博夫人會晤的情形。錢夫人目前仍任職中央銀行,平時需兼顧工作與家庭,還得陪伴丈夫參加酬酢場合或出國訪問,她一向都能應付裕如。

P.30、P.31

圖1:錢次長在酒會中,介紹台南市長蘇南成與多明尼加總統古斯曼夫人會晤。圖2:錢次長接見來華訪問的安地卡副議長貝爾德。圖3:錢夫人赴機場給古斯曼夫人送行。錢夫人容貌秀麗、儀態端莊、英語能力強,她作為一位外交官夫人,確實勝任愉快。

P.32

上圖:錢夫人田玲玲女士是政大西語系畢業的,她和錢次長交往多年才攜手步入結婚禮堂。他倆結婚已十八年,育有一兒一女,都十分乖巧優秀。錢夫人嬌美依舊,夫妻倆的感情深篤,是人所豔羨的標準夫妻。下圖:錢次長酷愛閱讀,幾十年來從未改變。晚上回到家裡,他喜歡坐在書桌旁,一燈之下,一卷在握,書中自有廣闊無垠的豐美天地,他以為這種閱讀之樂是無可比擬的。

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EN

Dr. Fredrick F. Chien: Diplomat par excellence


The Chinese believe that talented people are the basis of national revival. Among those who have contributed the most to national development is an outstanding standard-bearer, Dr. Fredrick F. Chien, vice minister of foreign affairs. Many people both inside and outside the Republic of China have come to admire the political skills he has shown over the past 20 years, but few know how much his achievements have cost him in terms of hard work and perseverance. He has truly earned his current good reputation, and the respect of associates and Chinese and foreign friends.

Some people attribute his smooth progress in his career to a good family and educational background, and outstanding probity, wisdom and memory. Others point to his happy family life, based on an understanding wife and adorable children. He always laughs away such praise with the words "I do not deserve these compliments." His self-confidence enables him to stick to his principles even in the face of criticism from others.

Dr. Chien admits that he is always serious in his attitude to life, study, work and self-improvement. At every stage of his life, he has always faced problems with a conscientious, austere and respectful attitude. Though he claims he is not an outgoing person who enjoys social life, he has always managed to convey statesman-like attributes such as confidence, intellectual achievement and a regal bearing.

Background: Born in Peiping in 1935, Dr. Chien is the youngest of three brothers. His grandfather was a special court judge in Shanghai. His father is former president of the National Taiwan University and currently heading the Academia Sinica, foremost academic institution in the Republic of China. Dr. Chien says: "While my family background has helped to cultivate my personality, disposition, and methods of study and work, it has had little influence on my promotion. I remember that when I returned from the U.S. with a Ph.D. degree from Yale University, I couldn't find a job for six months. I was discouraged but my father refused to help me out."

During his childhood, Dr. Chien and his two brothers were instructed by a tutor. Since most of his father's associates are leaders in academic and social circles, they set a good example for him. Dr. Chien is widely read, as shown by the collection of books which line the walls of his house.

Dr. Chien's sense of patriotism runs in the family. His grandfather was assassinated when Dr. Chien was a child because of his refusal to go along with a Japanese attempt to control the Chinese court system. This event caused the idea to form in Fredrick's young mind that the Chinese people should live in dignity and fight back against such unreasonable and humiliating treatment as the establishment of foreign settlements and enclaves in his homeland.

By the time his family moved to Tai wan in February 1949, Dr. Chien had completed his junior high school education. During a three-year course at the Chienkuo High School, he resolved to be a diplomat. When he entered the department of political science at the National Taiwan University, he reached a new stage of development. As well as browsing through books on history and legend, Dr. Chien overcame an inborn shyness and modesty by taking part in extracurricular activities, attending seminars, and publishing a journal entitled "Today's Generation" for campus circulation. He also attended seminars for foreign students visiting Tai wan to exchange views with them. In 1955, he was elected chairman of the students' union at the NTU, and visited the Middle East, Europe and the United States in a three-month summer vacation. Through these activities, he was able to meet new friends, increase his knowledge, enlarge his experience, sharpen his receptivity and cultivate a hardworking and team spirit. Immediately after his graduation from the NTU in 1956, he passed the higher civil service examination in diplomatic and consular service. He completed 18 months of military service for reserve officers, and went on to obtain a research scholarship from the Yale School of International Relations in 1959.

Dr. Chien recalls that Yale had admitted few Chinese students up to that time, but he met the challenge with his usual hardworking, studious and per severing spirit. Outside class, he spent most of his time in the Yale library.

Dr. Chien recalls; "All my efforts have been rewarded. Though I found many of the courses hard going, the things I learned are still fresh in my mind 20 years later."

He consulted all the reference books on international relations and diplomacy (his major), and publications on history, politics, law, economics, and international organizations. His outstanding academic performance in his first year won him permission from his professors to take his doctor's degree without first obtaining his master's. In a record two years, he had passed the comprehensive test and was granted a Ph.D. after his thesis was approved. Not surprisingly, he was offered promising jobs by four universities (including Yale), and by an international research laboratory.

But Dr. Chien's mind was set on serving his motherland, and he turned down all the offers. He explained that he always takes the long view. Though he knew he would have high academic status and good pay if he stayed in the United States, he chose to serve his country.

Dr. Chien recalls that during his sojourn at Yale, the time he spent eating twice a day at the dining hall of the school of law was the only leisure he had. But he used it productively by exchanging views with students from different nations and backgrounds. When he first went to the U.S., he knew his reading and listening abilities were good, but that his speaking capability needed to be upgraded. His English improved rapidly as he became accustomed to stating simple facts about China at first, and then moving to the expression of ideas and describing the traditions and ideology of his country. Soon he found he had no problem in discussing and debating subjects in fluent English. Dr. Chien confessed: "I am not an outgoing or socially minded person by nature. I prefer to bury myself in books. But in order to carry out my goals and ideals, I force myself to listen and to talk. In the end, I not only improved my ability to speak English, but I also came to understand the ideology and concepts of different people. This kind of knowledge cannot be gained from books."

Six months after his return to the Republic of China, Dr. Chien was still waiting for a vacancy in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Despite his anxiety to get on with the job, he bided his time patiently. His Ph.D from the Yale did not preclude him from taking the civil service examination like everybody else. But he did not feel frustrated. He felt so confident of his capabilities that he did not care for rank or pay.

Once in harness, Dr. Chien tackled basic problems in a humble and diligent way. All his knowledge, ambitions and ideals were put aside temporarily as he patiently did such chores as writing official memoranda, arranging conference records, doing public relations work and collecting materials for senior officers.

"I never regarded these duties as chores. I know many young men detest preparing official papers, and even more so shuffling them from department to department. They argue that too much red tape slows down the proceedings. I never look at it this way. A nation is different from a family. It may not be disastrous if a member of a family breaks his promise. State affairs, however, should be clearly defined and documented. This is so because a man is usually more composed and careful when he is writing than when he is talking. Furthermore, all the departments concerned will have more time to study each case. I am always careful to use a brush or pen to prepare documents, because a ballpoint pen may smudge and fade with the passage of time."

Dr. Chien's really lucky break came when he was recommended to be the English translator for the late President Chiang Kai-shek. The following 10 years were an unforgettable experience. He says: "Sometimes I did oral translation four to five times a day. I was lucky to come into contact with the late President and leaders of many other nations. I was greatly enlightened by listening to their conversations."

He was particularly impressed and moved by the fact that in his old age, the late President still upheld the spirit of learning. To keep up-to-date with the latest knowledge and ideas, he would ask friends to buy new books for him. Inspired by the late President's example, Dr. Chien became familiar with a wide range of literary works.

A book which impressed him particularly was the "Autobiography of Katsu," based on the story of the Shogun Katsu in 19th century Japan. Even though he was living in a closed society, Katsu became an expert in foreign affairs and strongly supported the adoption of scientific and technical knowledge from the West. Though the ships of his day were structurally weak, and he lacked navigational aids, Katsu braved rough seas to cross the Pacific Ocean and reach landfall in the United States. Dr. Chien considers that people today have much to learn from the Shogun's indomitable spirit.

His job as translator to the President precluded him from serving abroad during his early career with the Ministry. He won steady promotion however, from section chief to department director, director-general of the Government Information Office, and finally vice minister of foreign affairs.

Since he observes a strict code of conduct himself, Dr. Chien demands similar devotion to duty from his staff. He apportions blame and praise without fear or favor. Despite his high official status, Dr. Chien still enjoys reading. He browses through more than 30 newspapers each day and more than 100 periodicals each month, covering subjects such as politics, diplomacy, military affairs, the economy, women's affairs and family life, yet still finds time to read novels, and appreciate art and movies. His associates are astounded by the speed with which he reads.

Dr. Chien believes that a competent diplomat must have the following qualities: 1) knowledge and resourcefulness, 2) sufficient wisdom to pass judgment, 3) fluency in languages, 4) ability to respond coolly and appropriately when the circumstances demand and 5) continuous self-fulfilment through keeping up-to-date and accepting all challenges. To acquire these attributes, one must constantly observe, discuss, think carefully, and above all, read.

One of Dr. Chien's greatest gifts is his ability to make impromptu speeches. He says: "There is no secret formula. As long as you keep up-to-date with the latest in formation, you will be able to cope. Al ways watch for audience reaction, and change the content and length of your speech to fit in with the mood of your listeners."

Of all the high points in Dr. Chien's career, none impressed the public as much as his superb performance at a press conference held during the visit of the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher after the break in relations between the United States and the Republic of China. Millions of television viewers were moved by the serious and righteous tone he conveyed in a speech which was delivered in flawless English. Dr. Chien recalls: "That was not my opinion only. I was speaking from the point of view of my country. Though I received warm praise for my speech, my heart was still heavy, since the break in relations seemed to show that all the efforts of diplomats, including myself, had been in vain."

Dr. Chien admitted that many people accused him of being too pro-American before the break in relations. He explained: "The general public does not understand the significance of diplomatic work. It is more of an art than maneuvering on the battlefield. In the process of give and take, you have to act as a buffer between two parties. No position is unchangeable, other-wise people would resort to war too easily. Today's victory may sow the seeds for tomorrow's defeat. That is why all the heroes are in the military, and not in diplomatic service."

He continued: "In my opinion, a diplomat must be unselfish, attentive to the interests of his nation, and able to make an appropriate response. Even a weak country should have diplomats to win support and understanding from international circles in a quiet way. Though the Republic of China is in a difficult position today, it is launching all kinds of development projects. As long as we all stand firm, together we will form a mighty force.

"The changing world situation has caused us to adopt a policy of flexible diplomacy. It is only natural that we modify our diplomatic efforts to fit in with actual circumstances."

Finally, Dr. Chien called on young people to take up the challenging career of being a diplomat. "In the past 20 years, I have expended a lot of sweat and tears, but I believe a fruitful harvest will make it all worthwhile," he said.

[Picture Caption]

Left: Though he claims he is not a good speaker by nature, through years of strict self-discipline, Dr. Chien has become noted for his enlightening conversation. Right: Dr. Chi en concentrates on his work until the task is finished, no matter how large the pile of official papers.

1. Accompanied by Vice Minister Chien and his wife, Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese P. Mara of Fiji and his daughter stand before the statue of President Chiang Kai-shek at the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei. 2. Vice Minister Chien and Maureen Reagan, daughter of the U.S. President, exchange views during a meeting. 3. Julie Tien, Vice Minister Chien's wife, helps to receive guests. In this picture, she is seen conversing with Charles Dube Molopo, minster of foreign affairs of the Kingdom of Lesotho. Julie Tien works at the Central Bank of China as well as looking after the family. She enjoys attending social gatherings and traveling abroad with her husband.

1. Vice minister Chien introduces Tainan Mayor Su Nan-chen to Dominican Republic President Antonio Guzman Fernandez at a party. 2. Dr. Chien receives the Vice Speaker of the Antiguan Congress Vere Bird, Jr. 3. Julie Tien sees off the wife of Dominican Republic President Guzman off at the airport. Handsome, dignified and fluent in English, Mrs. Chien is the capable wife of a top-notch diplomat.

Right: Julie Tien graduated from the department of English of the National Chengchi University. Married 18 years, the couple have two outstanding children and a happy family life. Below: Whenever he has a spare moment, Dr. Chien immerses himself in a book. The rich world of literature is a source of great joy to him.

 

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