為台北市民的營養和口福打算的——社子與竹子湖蔬菜區

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1979 / 9月

文‧偉琪 圖‧曉夢


在寸土寸金的台北市,若要闢出園地種植作物,實在不是簡單的事。因此台北市民的食用所需,大都是由外地運銷而來,售價受到運費的影響,鮮度也因長途運輸而打了折扣。尤其是蔬菜,每當颱風過境前後,價格往往居高不下,使得台北市民大感不便。台北市政府建設局有鑑於此,特將士林區的社子與陽明山竹子湖一帶,闢為「蔬菜專業區」,輔導菜農以最進步的方法耕作經營,出產質佳量多的新鮮蔬菜。這不僅增益了台北居民食方面的福祉,亦使得菜農以較前輕省的勞作,獲得更多的收入。


為台北市民的口福打算

當你乘車來到士林社子或陽明山竹子湖一帶,一畦畦排列整齊,綠意盎然的菜圃映入眼簾,淡綠、鮮綠、墨綠交雜錯綜,莖肥葉大的作物迎風搖曳,顯得生氣蓬勃,令人精神不覺為之一振。這兒是台北市政府特別為台北市民開闢的「蔬菜專業區」。

過去,台北市的蔬菜大都來自中南部,不但價格受到運費影響,鮮度也因長途運輸而大打折扣。逢到颱風過境,交通運輸困難,市場上的蔬菜更是奇貨可居,價錢比起肉類來,有過之而無不及。

為了解決這個問題,民國六十一年起,台北市政府建設局非常慎重的選擇了兩塊土地,開闢為「蔬菜專業區」。士林社子地區福安、富安、中洲三個里的土質是早期沖積層,非常肥沃,地下水也很豐富,適合種植菠菜、芹菜、小白菜、萵苣等葉菜類,而且本來就有許多菜農居住當地。陽明山竹子湖高居在海拔一千多公尺高山的山腰上,終年寒冷潮濕,適合種植甘藍菜、結球白菜、胡瓜、甜椒、蕃茄等高冷蔬菜。

新鮮又腴美

這兩片蔬菜專業區的總面積約有三百多公頃,採用的是機械化、科學化的種植方式,使蔬菜長得多、長得快、長得肥,一年四季都可供應台北市民新鮮質佳的蔬菜。到目前為止,台北市二百萬人口所需的蔬菜已有四分之一以上來自士林社子和陽明山竹子湖,雖然還無法達到完全自給自足的地步,但在平衡蔬菜供需,減少對中南部的倚賴,厥功至偉。

種植蔬菜首先必須整地,把泥土翻鬆,好播種。蔬菜專業區的農戶都是使用曳引機來翻土,然而,如果每一家都買個價值新台幣六十萬元的大型曳引機擺在家堙A一年只用上幾次,實在不划算。而且每家菜圃的菜種不同,種植的時間也不同,不需要同時翻土,於是由市政府補助兩地農會各購買一部大型曳引機,借給菜農輪流使用。操縱曳引機非常簡單,只要坐在駕駛座上,把握好方向盤,一天就可以輕鬆愉快的翻三公頃以上的土地。

利用大、小曳引機協助耕種

此外,幾乎家家都有小型的曳引機,俗稱為「鐵牛」。鐵牛有雙重用途,裝在板車上,就成為三輪動力運貨車,可以用來運種籽、肥料或收成的蔬菜。單獨的鐵牛則可用來做播種前一刻的再度鬆土工作,雖然必須用手推,但鐵牛肚內的馬達動力很強,只要控制好龍頭,毫不費力的就可把田地翻得又鬆又軟,正好適合播種,既方便、效率又高,遠非「真牛」可及。

施肥和灑水是蔬菜成長的關鍵,農會隨時供應菜農價格穩定而合理的化學肥料。

陽明山竹子湖一帶終年潮濕,不需要操心灌溉的問題。至於士林社子地區,建設局頗花了一番心思,幫助菜農興建了自動灌溉設備。這個設備有兩種形式,一種是接管式,需要灑水時,就把管子從水源接到噴水柱,把開關一開就行了;另一種是固定式,水管埋在地下,在水源處設一個加壓站,同時控制好幾十個噴水柱。黃昏時分,是灑水最適當的時候,開關一開幾十個噴水柱一起噴水,迎著夕陽,灑出一大片迷迷濛濛、銀光閃閃的水網,成為一個迷人的美景。

不再鬧水患

天災和蟲害是農民們最煩惱的兩個問題。士林社子地區三面被基隆河及淡水河環繞,地勢比較低,雖然水源不虞匱乏,但曾造成幾次海水倒灌,使當地菜農損失慘重。建設局有鑑於此,特別向中央申請五千多萬元專款,整修淡水河和基隆河的防波堤,以及菜園的排水設施,自民國六十六年全部完工後,菜農們就徹底擺脫了水患的威脅。

颱風是處於亞熱帶的台灣無法避免的天災,菜農們在建設局的輔導下,也有了防治措施。每當狂風暴雨來襲時,他們就把一畦畦的菜圃,用大型塑膠網覆蓋起來,雖然並不能保護得十分周密,但至少把損失減到最低限度。

在防治蟲害方面,建設局提出「培養天敵」的方法。根據自然循環的原則,一物剋一物,譬如:貓捉老鼠、青蛙吃蚊子,前者就是後者的「天敵」。小菜蛾是蔬菜堻戔`見的害蟲,寄生蜂則專吃小菜蛾,可說是小菜蛾的天敵。建設局輔導菜園設置了寄生蜂繁殖釋放籠多處,養了許多的寄生蜂,在有需要時放出,讓它們負起消滅小菜蛾的責任。

嚴格控制農藥的使用

培養天敵來防治菜蟲,固然很安全,沒有後遺症,可是因數量有限,還無法達到完全撲滅的地步,大部分的菜農仍是使用農藥。有些農藥毒性強,殘留時間長,不適合用在蔬菜上;因為蔬菜的新鮮度非常重要,前一天下午採收,第二天一早就必須上市,如果前一天才噴灑了農藥,而農藥的效力可維持三、四天,危險性即可想而知。蔬菜專業區的菜農,在農會積極輔導下,都已改採低毒性的農藥,藥效能毒死菜蟲,但殘留時間僅有一天,不致危害食用者的健康。

為了徹底排除農藥可能帶給人體的傷害性,建設局特別加強蔬菜專業區安全用藥殘毒測定工作,測定員經常到蔬菜園採取即將收穫的蔬菜做為樣本,帶回建設局,利用局堛煽搰r測定器材,分析菜葉上農藥殘留情形。如果發現超過規定的安全限度,就立刻通知菜農延期採收,以保護食用者的安全。有了這道防線,台北市民就可以毫無顧忌的大快朵頤。

收穫每每超過預期量

由於栽培得當,蔬菜顆顆又肥又大,每次的收穫量總是超過原先的估計。採收時,因人工難求,經常是全家大小一起下菜圃,大家一面談談笑笑,一面手腳俐落的工作著,一個下午就可採收好幾大籮筐的蔬菜。然後以小貨車經產業道路運到批發市場。目前,是由果菜公司代理批發,從中抽取一些佣金。建設局正極力輔導菜農自行建立共同運銷組織,使產銷一元化,不需經過任何中間商,將來這個組織發揮作用後,菜農和消費者都能蒙受其利。

中央並設有「蔬菜生產循環基金」,台北的社子和陽明山蔬菜專業區都經常得到補助。這個基金會並且負有傳授知識的責任,他們每個月召集菜農開一次座談會,菜農們有任何種菜方面的疑難,都可以在會中得到圓滿的解答;平常也不時舉辦一些蔬菜栽培及病蟲害防治的講習會,讓菜農們多吸收新知識、新方法,再應用在自己的菜園堙C

一年八獲,菜農好開心

蔬菜生長時間隨著菜種而不同,有的幾個星期就可以採收,有的必須栽培兩、三個月。大致說來,蔬菜專業區每年的採收次數已由過去的五次增至八次,每戶菜農每個月的收入在二萬元左右。而且由於機械加入生產行列,所需的人力也就愈來愈少。福安里的菜農陳懿墩一直以種菜維生,拿現在和過去作一番比較,他衷心的表示:現在種菜比過去方便、輕鬆得太多了!

〔圖片說明〕

P.22、P.23

左:蔬菜專業區所栽培出的蔬菜菜葉肥大,鮮綠欲滴。上:陽明山竹子湖一帶梯田形的蔬菜專業區,襯著環山翠綠,也是個絕佳的風景區。

P.24、P.25

1.菜農推著鐵牛做播種前的翻土工作。2.菜農開著大型曳引機鬆土,既神氣又輕鬆。3.婦女在農忙時,也全身披掛上陣,幫忙播種。4.士林社子蔬菜專業區的自動噴灑設備。5.美麗的菜花。

P.26、P.27

蔬菜長成後,採收、裝簍、運輸的情形。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Vegetables for Taipei


Despite the heavy concentration of population in Taipei, the authorities have managed to set aside two relatively large areas as vegetable gardens.

In this way, the city has reduced its dependence on supplies from central and southern Taiwan, which are often expensive and lose freshness during transportation. In the event of a typhoon, disruption to the transportation system sometimes makes vegetables more expensive than meat.

To solve this problem, the Bureau of Construction of the Taipei City Government decided to set aside two tracts of land as "special districts for vegetable growing." One is at Shehtze in Shihlin district, and the other around Chutzuhu (Bamboo Lake) in Yangmingshan district.

Covering a total land area of some 300 hectares, these two vegetable gardens are run in a systematic way with full use of mechanical aids. At present, about one fourth of the vegetables supplied to Taipei's two million residents comes from the two areas. Though still unable to reach self-sufficiency in vegetable supplies, Taipei has at least reduced its dependence on distant areas.

At present, there are some 100 farming families engaged in vegetable production, further divided into units each consisting of 15 to 20 farmers, to strengthen organization.

The Taipei City Government provides a subsidy for the farmers' associations in the two areas to buy heavy tractors and other equipment. Each family also has a small sized tractor-truck known locally as an "iron ox." These versatile machines serve either as tractors to plow the fields, or as trucks to transport seedlings, fertilizers and harvested vegetables.

The moist climate in the Bamboo Lake area eliminates the necessity for complex irrigation systems to support the vegetables. In the Shehtze area, however, the Bureau of Construction has helped the farmers to build an automatic irrigation system. Natural disasters and pests are the two biggest problems for vegetable farmers. The Shehtze area is encompassed by the Keelung and Tamsui Rivers, and the terrain is relatively low-lying. Though farmers in the area do not have to worry about water resources, they suffer frequently from the effects of floods, particularly during the typhoon season. The bureau therefore allocated NT$50 million (US$1.5 million) supplied by the Central Government to rebuild dikes along the two rivers. When an additional drainage system was installed in 1977, the farmers in the Shehtze area were completely freed from the threat of floods. In addition, a plastic cover is placed over the gardens when storms threaten the island, to reduce the damage to a minimum.

To control pests, the bureau has urged farmers to raise wasps which prey on harmful insects. Pesticides with less poisonous ingredients are provided to ensure safety for consumers, and vegetables are inspected for remains of pesticides. If the samples are found to be dangerous to health, farmers are advised to delay the harvest.

A fruit and vegetable corporation has been set up to help farmers wholesale their vegetables for a reasonable fee. The bureau is also helping farmers to set up a common sales organization to unify the process of production and sales and cut out the middleman.

A Vegetable Production Distribution Fund set up by the Central Government subsidizes each farming unit to the extent of NT$80,000 (US$2,200) a year. This foundation teaches the farmers the most up-to-date techniques and organizes seminars to help them solve their problems.

At present, income per family on these vegetable farms is about NT$10,100 (US$270) a month. With the lighter workload and increased harvest, farmers are quite satisfied with their way of life.

[Picture Caption]

The green expanse of vegetables (far left), and above, the terraced vegetable gardens around Chutzuhu (Bamboo Lake) in Yangmingshan help to improve the area's scenic beauty.

The farmers use "iron oxen" (far left), and heavy tractors (top) to plow the fields. Women at work, the automatic irrigation system and beautiful vegetable flowers create a simple but beautiful picture.

During the harvest season, farmers gather vegetables in baskets before taking them to the markets.

 

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