從美援到世界麵包冠軍

台灣飲食風貌變更
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2019 / 3月

文‧陳群芳 圖‧林格立


你今天早餐吃什麼?燒餅油條還是漢堡三明治?或是在便利商店匆忙買了麵包?直到1960年代,台灣人的早餐還是以清粥或米飯搭配簡單的菜色為主,如今卻截然不同。究竟是誰或甚麼事件改變了台灣的飲食風貌?讓我們來一探究竟。

 


 

過去台灣以農業為主,勞力密集的工作型態,加上盛產稻米,「米飯」一直是台灣人三餐重要的主食。對老一輩的人來說,吃飯才有飽足感,麵食只是宵夜,或是餐與餐之間充飢的點心,但這一切在美援之後有了變化。

1948年美國國會通過《援外法案》,將中華民國納入美援的受惠國。法案中規定,援助經費的10%需投入農村復興建設工作,為此中華民國與美國共同成立了「中國農村復興聯合委員會」(簡稱「農復會」)。此一特殊的單位,主導了當時美國提供的援助,對台灣農業帶來重大影響。

擴大養豬規模

二次世界大戰後,美國積極出口自產的農作物,加上當時全世界都嚮往美國的生活方式,以美國作為現代化發展的指標,認為多吃肉能讓身體營養、長得高大。深諳戰後農業與土地改革研究的台北糧食協進會執行長劉志偉表示,美國在此前提下,透過協助其他國家發展畜牧業,搭配美國提供的技術,以玉米為主的飼料及配方,讓彼此互利的策略,影響了台灣養豬業的發展。

過去台灣農村的養豬型態多為儲蓄型飼養,一戶豢養35頭桃園種的黑豬。此豬種的特色是能夠忍受很差的生活條件,因此能適應農戶以自家種的地瓜、剩飯餿水為主的飼養方式,但也因為營養來源不穩定所以長的慢,大約需養18個月才能發育成熟。若要作為小孩學費、嫁妝之用大約要從一年半前開始養起,屆時才能將豬隻賣掉換取現金。

農復會為協助農村經濟發展,擴大農戶的家庭副業,在美國的協助下,1963年起率先在屏東試辦綜合養豬計畫,讓農戶改養以藍瑞斯、約克夏、杜洛克三種品種雜交的LYD白豬。若完全以飼料作為營養來源,僅需約6個月即可成熟,大幅縮短養育時間。

農復會指導農民搭建豬舍、提供貸款讓農民購買豬隻與飼料,並指導農民如何將飼料搭配地瓜使用,一步步改善養豬的環境與技術。隨著豬種的改良與飼料配方的引進,每戶農民養豬的數量也從試辦計畫的20頭逐漸擴大。1970年代起台灣養豬業開始蓬勃發展,相應的飼料廠、動物用藥廠也接續興起,台灣飼養的豬隻不僅能提供國內所需,更具備外銷的實力,在1996年還曾是全球第二大豬肉出口國,為台灣賺進許多外匯。

「麵麵」俱到

美援提供借貸資金、武器、技術人員、農產品等,其中印有中美合作字樣的麵粉袋,更是許多人共同的記憶。

為解決戰後糧食不足,以及國民政府遷徙所帶來的大批人口,美援麵粉便是時代下的產物。當時在聯華實業創辦人苗育秀的建議下,台灣區生產事業管理委員會副主委尹仲容向美方協調,改以直輸的方式進口小麥。美國除欣然同意,另提供製粉機器供台灣發展麵粉工業,許多台灣的麵粉廠也就一間間開了起來。

但台灣人的飲食向來以米飯為主,生產麵粉必須要活用才能有後續效益。於是在1962年,由農復會、美援會及台灣麵粉工業同業公會共同出資成立的「台灣區麵麥食品推廣委員會」因而誕生。在台北和台中舉辦麵食示範表演會,將水餃、小籠包、蔥油餅、刀削麵等麵食介紹給民眾。

經濟不那麼富裕的年代,家戶鮮少外食,街上也不像現在餐館林立,讓掌管家中餐食的媽媽們學習麵點的製作才是比較有效的策略。所以委員會設立了麵麥食品巡迴講習小組,招募一批熟悉麵食製作的女性,並將她們培訓為專業講師,到各機關團體教授中式麵食的製作與技巧。

不同於現代的付費烹飪課程,講習所需的食材和工具全部由委員會支應,甚至還準備了麵板、擀麵棍,以成本價提供給參與講習的學員,讓她們回家後有器材能實際運用。當時這些娘子軍,只要有團體提出授課的申請,不論地處多偏遠,她們都會帶著笨重的教具上山下海,走遍台灣各地種下麵食文化的種籽。

讓麵包與蛋糕成為日常

中式麵食推廣逐漸步上軌道後,在美國小麥協會的支持下,麵麥食品推廣委員會將觸角延伸至西點麵包。1966年首先透過招考徵選了烘焙講師徐華強與徐貴林,並將他們送到美國烘焙學院(American Institute of Baking)受訓。隔年成立烘焙技術訓練班,由徐華強、徐桂林擔任講師,不僅指導烘焙技術,更將習自美國的烘焙學理、原物料化學特性、營養學等專業知識紮實地傳授給學員。

訓練班學員從初期以烘焙從業人員為主,1970年代起也招收國中或高中職畢業的學生,訓練課程不僅學雜費全免,還提供食宿,5個月課程結束後,安排學員到麵包店實習半年,並提供零用金。當時,許多西點麵包店的師傅都是訓練班的徒子徒孫,麵麥食品推廣委員會現已改制為中華穀類食品工業技術研究所,劉志偉形容就像是台灣烘焙界的哈佛,為台灣的烘焙產業奠定良好的基礎。

就連現在常見的生日蛋糕,也是徐華強在1971年赴美國學習蛋糕裝飾藝術與技巧後,在訓練班開設課程。才讓一個個精緻美麗的蛋糕來到台灣民眾眼前,如今更成為大家慶生時的日常。

走出台灣的烘焙之路

在各界及美國的支持與努力下台灣的麵食文化逐漸開枝散葉,如今街上麵館、麵包店林立,劉志偉笑說:「台灣西點麵包店的密度,幾乎是全世界最高。」台灣人的飲食已與麵食密不可分,隨處都能買到乾麵條,想自己下廚或上館子打牙祭,都不是難事。就連世界麵包大賽的殿堂中,也屢屢看見台灣烘焙人才獲獎的身影。

兩年一屆的Mondial du pain世界麵包大賽,是由法國一群擁有國家頒發最高榮譽工藝首獎的麵包大師(Meilleur Ouvrier de France, MOF)組成的法國麵包大使協會所主辦。比賽進行方式是由一位麵包師傅偕同一名22歲以下的助手,兩人在八個半小時內製作14個大項目、11種口味設計,總共150個麵包。不僅考驗技術,更是創意、體力與默契的展現。協會以宣導烘焙文化與傳承為宗旨,麵包師傅不光技術要好,更要為產業栽培後進,所以不論獲獎與否,每人一生只能參賽一次。最近一屆的冠軍,正是來自台灣的陳耀訓。

為了參加比賽,陳耀訓走訪全台,尋找適合作為國家特色麵包的食材。台灣物產豐饒,四季都有滋味甜美的水果,且果乾製作技術一流;更有許多特色物產,如台灣原生紅藜、部落野生馬告等。經過不斷研發設計,陳耀訓以馬告、鳳梨、大湖草莓乾等,製作出一款款令評審驚艷的麵包,從來自德國、法國、日本、荷蘭等18個國家中贏得冠軍。陳耀訓表示,比賽時透過設計理念的訴說,不只讓國際看見台灣烘焙的實力,更將台灣的農特產帶到世界的舞台。

對於台灣連續兩屆獲得世界麵包大賽冠軍,陳耀訓表示,台灣豐富的物產與創新的能力是我們的優勢。近年來台灣麵包師傅的技術進步,憑著天然的食材,不用靠食品添加物依然能做出鬆軟可口的麵包。師傅們也更用心製作具有特色的麵包,研發融入在地食材的口味,希望讓民眾吃得開心而且安心。為此陳耀訓接受便利超商邀請,開發幾款強調「真食材、無添加」的麵包,讓超商也朝不使用食品添加物邁進,「好的麵包越多人做,才會影響消費者,進而影響整個產業。」陳耀訓期盼地說。

過去台灣總是向歐美、日本學習烘焙技術,陳耀訓自己也曾前往日本拜師,深切感受日本的職人精神。去年陳耀訓受日本熊本製粉之邀,不僅成為該品牌第一位海外聯名的烘焙師,麵粉外包裝都印有「陳耀訓使用」字樣,還前往日本舉辦講習會,無疑是對台灣烘焙技術的一種肯定。

今年陳耀訓也獲邀擔任丹麥奶油品牌的代言人,將帶著台灣的烘焙技術與農特產前往菲律賓、馬來西亞、新加坡、越南等國家展示,一同開拓亞洲市場。

因為有前人的努力,美援的物資與技術改變了台灣飲食的風貌。如今仰賴進口小麥的台灣,卻有著令世界驚豔的烘焙人才,台灣的農特產也將伴隨著麵包走向世界,用多元的飲食文化征服眾人的味蕾。

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近期文章

英文

From US Aid to Champion Bakers

Chen Chun-fang /photos courtesy of Jimmy Lin /tr. by Phil Newell

What did you eat for breakfast this morning? Shaobing (baked sesame-seed-coated cake), youtiao (deep-fried breadstick), or perhaps a sandwich? Up until the 1960s, Taiwanese normally ate rice or congee for breakfast, but today things are markedly different. Who or what was it that changed the dietary habits of Taiwanese? Let’s take a look.

 


 

In former times Taiwan’s economy was mainly agricultural, and when you consider that it produced rice in abundance, it’s no surprise that rice was the staple for three meals a day. For the older generation, wheat-based foods were only for midnight snacks or as a pick-me-up when hungry. But all this changed after US aid to Taiwan began.

In 1948 the US Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act, and included the Republic of China among the countries receiving US aid. The act required 10% of aid funds to be invested in rural reconstruction, and to this end the ROC and US established the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction. The JCRR guided the use of American aid at that time and had an enormous impact on agriculture in Taiwan.

Going hog wild for pig-raising

After World War II, the US actively exported its own agricultural products. At that time people across the world also saw the US as setting the standard for modern development, and believed that eating more meat would improve nutrition and help people grow taller and stronger. Ivan Chiwei Liu, CEO of the Food Policy Research Institute, Taipei (FPRi), who is well versed in the postwar history of agriculture and land reform, states that the US influenced the development of the hog-­raising industry in Taiwan through the mutually beneficial strategy of providing technology to assist other countries in developing their livestock industries while supplying corn-based feed.

In the past each household in a Taiwan rural com­mun­ity would typically raise three to five Tao­yuan breed black pigs, feeding them on home-grown sweet potatoes and swill. But they grew very slowly, requiring about 18 months to reach maturity.

In 1963, with the assistance of the US, the JCRR launched a trial hog-raising program in Ping­tung, getting farmers to switch over to “LYD” white hogs (cross-bred from three breeds: the Landrace, the Yorkshire, and the Duroc). When raised entirely on feed, these animals could reach maturity in just six months.

With improved hogs and the introduction of formulated feeds, the number of pigs raised by each of the farming households taking part in the program rose steadily from the trial program figure of 20. Taiwan’s hog-raising industry began to flourish in the 1970s, and hogs raised in Taiwan not only could satisfy domestic demand, they were also of high enough quality, and produced in great enough quantity, to be exported.

Flour power

The US aid program provided financial loans, armaments, technical personnel, agricultural products, and more. Of these, wheat flour bags printed in Chinese with the words “Sino-American Cooperation” are a shared memory for many people.

At that time, following a suggestion by Miao Yu-shiu, founder of the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation, Yin Chung-yung (K.Y. Yin), vice-chairman of the Taiwan Production Board, negotiated with the US to directly import wheat into Taiwan rather than flour. The US not only gladly agreed, they also provided flour making machinery, and flour mills opened one after another in Taiwan.

In 1962 the JCRR, the Council for US Aid, and the Taiwan Flour Mills Association collectively funded the establishment of the Taiwan Wheat Products Promotion Council (TWPPC). They held demonstration events for wheat-based foods, introducing boiled dumplings, steamed dumplings, scallion pancakes, and knife-sliced noodles to the public.

At a time when people rarely went out to eat and the streets were not lined with restaurants as they are today, the most effective strategy for promoting wheat products was to teach mothers responsible for family meals to cook with wheat flour. Therefore the TWPPC set up a mobile instructional team by recruiting a group of women already familiar with making wheat-based foods and training them as instructors to teach the techniques for making Chinese-style wheat products.

So long as any group put in a request for instruction, this army of women would carry their heavy teaching gear to any place in Taiwan, no matter how remote, to plant the seeds of wheat-based food culture everywhere across the island.

Bread and cakes become everyday foods

With support from US Wheat Associates, the TWPPC extended its interests to Western-style baked goods. In 1966, they selected baking instructors Xu Hua­qiang and Xu Gui­lin to go to the American Institute of Baking for training. The following year a baking school was set up in Tai­pei, with the two Xus as lecturers. As well as giving instruction in baking techniques, they taught the specialized knowledge they had learned in the US, including baking theory, the chemical properties of ingredi­ents, and nutritional studies.

At that time, the master bakers in many Western-style bakeries in Taiwan were graduates of the baking school or apprentices of graduates. Described by Ivan Liu as the Harvard of Taiwan’s baking world, it laid down an excellent foundation for the island’s baking industry.

Even birthday cakes, which today are commonplace in Taiwan, are the result of a course offered at the baking school by Xu Hua­qiang after he went to the US in 1971 to study cake decoration. Only after this did cakes become routine at birthday celebrations.

A uniquely Taiwanese baking path

Through the support of the US and hard work by all concerned, wheat-based food culture has taken root and spread in Taiwan, and today the streets are lined with noodle shops and bakeries. Master bakers from Taiwan have also repeatedly won prizes at international bread competitions.

The Mondial du Pain (“World Championship of Bread”) contest is held every two years by the Ambassadeurs du Pain (“Ambassadors of Bread”), which was founded by a group of master bakers in France who had been recipients of the Meilleur Ouvrier de France (“France’s Best Worker”) award. The contest is conducted as follows: Each team, comprising a master baker and an assistant aged under 22, must make a total of 150 loaves of bread in 14 categories with 11 flavor designs, within a time limit of eight-and-a-half hours. The champion at the most recent contest, in 2017, was Chen Yao-hsun from Taiwan.

In preparation for the contest, Chen scoured Taiwan for bread-making ingredients with special local character­istics. Taiwan has a rich variety of agricultural produce, including sweet and delicious fruit throughout the year, and first-rate fruit drying technology. There are many unique products, such as djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a.k.a. red quinoa, which is native to Taiwan and is closely related to quinoa. After a long process of development Chen utilized ingredients such as aromatic litsea (Litsea cubeba), pineapple, and dried Dahu strawberries to create breads that dazzled the jury, winning the title against teams from 17 other countries. Chen says that during the competition, through his design concepts he aimed not only to allow the world to see Taiwan’s strong abilities in baking, but also to bring unique agricultural products from Taiwan onto the world stage.

Chen states that Taiwan’s advantages lie in its rich diversity of produce and its creative capabilities. In recent years the skills of master bakers in Taiwan have progressed, and they are able to make soft, delicious bread from natural ingredients without relying on ­additives. Bakers have been studying how to integrate local ingredients into their bread, so that customers can eat with enjoyment and peace of mind. To this end Chen accepted an invitation from a convenience store chain to produce several breads that emphasize “genuine ingredients, no additives,” thus helping the chain to move away from using food additives. “The only way to influence consumers is for more people to make good bread, and this in turn will affect the entire industry,” says Chen, looking to the future.

In the past Taiwan has learned baking techniques from Europe, North America, and Japan. Last year Chen Yao-hsun accepted an offer from Japan’s Ku­ma­moto Flour Milling Company to have his name appear on their products, not only becoming the first overseas baker to enter into this kind of arrangement with the company, but even going to Japan to deliver lectures. This was undoubtedly a vote of confidence in the level of baking skills in Taiwan.

This year Chen was also invited by a Danish butter company to be its spokesperson. He will bring Taiwanese baking techniques and agricultural produce to do demonstrations in the Philippines, Malaysia, Singa­pore, Vietnam, and elsewhere, thereby developing Asian markets.

With the hard work of our forebears, the material and technical aid provided by the US changed Taiwan’s diet­ary habits. Today Taiwan, though it relies on imports for its wheat, possesses talented bakers who have dazzled the world, and special agricultural products from Taiwan have also been made known around the globe through bread. Taiwan’s diverse dietary culture has something to please every palate.

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