套料與葫蘆鼻煙壺

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1981 / 1月



本期為讀者介紹套料鼻煙壺與葫蘆鼻煙壺。

套料鼻煙壺,是把單一色彩的玻璃鼻煙壺,套上別種色彩;可由單色,一層層重疊套上多種色彩。套色之後,利用深淺不同的精細雕鏤,刻畫出各種豔麗多姿的紋飾。康熙時的製品,渾樸簡古;乾隆時製品,則重視刻畫,設色奇異,精雕細琢,看了令人愛不釋手。

左圖是一只五彩套料麒麟吐書鼻煙壺,壺呈扁圓形,高五.六公分,寬三.八公分,厚二.一公分,通體透明紫紅色,套上綠、白二色,一面雕麒麟吐書,襯以山石;一面雕鯉魚噓璧,襯以波濤。

「麒麟吐書」是中國傳統的吉祥圖案之一,從「河圖洛書」變化而來。相傳伏羲氏時,有一隻龍馬馱一幅圖從黃河中浮出,伏羲氏據以繪八卦。大禹時,也有一隻烏龜負載一本書從洛水上岸,大禹根據它疏導洪水。因此後來「河圖洛書」便象徵上天對於得道者吉祥的賜予。

葫蘆鼻煙壺,是在葫蘆成長的過程中,套上內刻圖案的銅模,待它長滿後,打開銅模,便形成如右圖中古樸可愛的葫蘆鼻煙壺。

葫蘆鼻煙壺成功的機會很小,千百個套模的葫蘆當中,成功的往往只有一、二個,所以稀有而珍貴。

乾隆五十八年,英使馬嘎爾尼來華,乾隆皇帝賜贈禮品當中,便有鼻煙壺。給英王的是葫蘆鼻煙壺,馬嘎爾尼得到的是玉鼻煙壺,可見葫蘆鼻煙壺的價值之高了。

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Overlay Glass and Gourd Snuff Bottles


Glass snuff bottles were often made with several colors overlaid on a monochrome base. The pattern was usually refined by carving after the overlay work was completed. The snuff bottle pictured left has a polychrome overlay in the shape of a Chi-lin (auspicious creature in Chinese legend) exhaling a book. The body of the bottle, 2 inches high and l.5 inches wide, is translucent crimson overlaid with white and green glass. The back is decorated with a carp exhaling a piece of jade.

One of the more unusual snuff bottles is this one below made of gourd, which was created by forcing live gourd to grow into a copper mold. The chance of successfully making a bottle in this way is only about one in 500, hence, the rare and precious nature of the piece.

 

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