日據時期的營業寫真館

:::

1993 / 2月

文‧取材自簡永彬「尋找台灣攝影文化的歷史座標」



台灣攝影史依時代社會的轉換,大致有四個階段:

一、日據時期的營業寫真館(——一九四五)。

二、業餘攝影家的濫觴(本土第一代攝影家,一九二○——一九五○)

三、寫實主義攝影(本土第二代攝影家,一九五○——一九七五)

四、當代攝影家的確立(本土第三代攝影家,一九七五——)

而日據時期的營業寫真館,可說是台灣攝影文化發展的活水源頭。

一般說來,在攝影術尚未登陸台灣之前,由唐山傳承而來的「畫像館」,是大眾留存父母、長輩影像的唯一途徑。

雖然早在一八五○年代,已有列強在爭奪殖民地時,記錄了台灣的影像,而其後又有外國傳教士以相機拍攝本地的奇風異俗,但直到台灣淪入日本帝國的版圖,「攝影術」才真正在台灣人的身上「醱酵」。

日本為了培育高等攝影人才,自一九一五年起先後成立寫真科系與學校,其中,成立於一九二九年的「東洋寫真學校」,是日本東洋寫真工業株式會社為了培育攝影工業人才及營養寫真師而設立的學校,也是我台籍人士入學最多的學校。學校的修業年限為半年,預備科三個月、本科三個月。

自一九二○年代開始,前前後後有上百人赴東瀛「取經」,為習得一技之長。而到日留學或習藝者,多半以將來經營寫真館或賣器材為主要考慮。

除了赴日留學、當學徒,在台灣到日人所開設的店媥Ы嚏A也是台籍寫真師的一條出路,從拜師到出師,需時約三年四個月。

另方面,由於日本逐漸走向文化商品化、資訊傳播發達、廣告活動蓬勃的時代,也帶動了「藝術寫真」在質的變革。一時間營業寫真館,競爭日熾。

這時,習得一身本事的台籍寫真師紛紛回鄉,各立門戶,一些好手青出於藍,甚至搶走不少日籍寫真館的生意。

台灣早期寫真師拍照的風格,也大致延續畫像時代的構圖:不甚講究背景的變化——頂多是一張太師椅上端坐著道貌岸然的人物,後面放置簡單的花草盆景。

在一九二○至一九四五年之間,大致呈現下列幾種影像風格:光源的運用日趨成熟、修整底片技術的靈活運用、特殊技巧的開發……等。

以光源的運用而言,早期多以太陽光的走向來捕捉肖像的定影,而此期的寫真館除了以天井玻璃裝置來控制自然光源外,另外以半透明布或黑布,調節光源。因此攝影風格多偏向中間層次豐富的「軟調」。

修整底片,可說是日據寫真館生意好壞的關鍵。除了修整皺紋、膚質,還有「開眼」(閉眼修成睜眼)、「去換背景」等技術。即使市井小民,也能經過修片,在照片上穿金戴銀,一派富貴。

在特殊技巧的開發上,雙重曝光、三重曝光,正是當時流行的特殊技巧,一個人二、三種打扮,利用曝光出現在同一張相片中,戲劇性的安排,滿足了一般人「一人雙影」的心理。

「寫真油繪」、「寫真彩繪」也是這時期的時尚,利用油性和水性顏料人工著色,以彌補彩色照片不普及的缺憾。

在這段時期,另有一個有趣的現象。由於日軍管制甚嚴,凡是山川水景、軍事要塞,甚至向下斜四十五度的拍攝,都要經憲兵司令部的審查,因此普通人很難自由拍攝。此時,營業寫真館或寫真材料屋,遂成為攝影愛好者聚集、互換心得的重鎮,開啟了台灣業餘攝影家的濫觴。

〔圖片說明〕

P.33

「附加背景圖描」的技術,是直接在玻璃乾版的乳劑層上,描繪類似背景的效果,這是留日時期修整底片的必學課程之一。(紀秀茂攝.簡永彬提供)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Portrait of a Profession--Photography in the Japnese Occupation Era

Sunny Hsiao based extensively on material from Chien Yung-pin's In Search of the History of Taiwan's Photography Culture /tr. by Phil Newell


According to the judgement of Chien Yung-pin, author of the book In search of the History of Taiwan's Photographic Culture, following the transformation of society, there have been four main stages in the history of photography in Taiwan:

(1) The professional portrait school of the Japanese Occupation Era (which ended in 1945), (2) The spread of amateur photography, or the first generation of Taiwanized photography (1920--1950), (3) Realist photography, or the second generation of Taiwanized photography (1950--1975), and (4) The establishment of contemporary photography, or the third generation of Taiwanized photography (1975--present).

You could say that the professional portrait school of the Japanese occupation era was the fountainhead of the development of photography culture in Taiwan.

Generally speaking, before photographic techniques had really gotten a foothold in Taiwan, the "portrait hall" handed down from mainland China had been the only way for the masses to retain images of their parents and elders.

Although as early as the 1850's colonial powers vying to colonize Formosa made a photographic record of Taiwan, and later missionaries used cameras to photograph local customs and practice it was only after the island was made part of the Japanese empire that "technique" really began to "breed" in Taiwanese.

In order to develop highly skilled "daguerreotypes," Japan had established portrait classes and schools beginning in 1915. The Toyo School of Photography, established in 1929 to develop talents for the photography industry and to support portraitists, had the most Taiwan-origin students enrolled of any school. The course was limited to six months, with three months of preparatory curriculum and three of classes on the main subject.

Starting in the 1920s, more than 100 people went to Japan to learn topflight technique. The main consideration of most of those who went to Japan to study or apprentice was to open a portrait studio or sell equipment in the future.

Besides going to Japan to study or learn from a master, another path for Taiwan portraitists was to study in a studio in Taiwan opened by a Japanese photographer. The journey from apprentice to master took about three years and four months.

On another front, the trend in Japan toward the age of cultural commercialization, information dissemination, and widespread advertising brought with it a qualitative change in "artistic portraiture." Competition among professional studios became increasingly intense.

At this time, trained professional Taiwanese masters returned home in droves, with each setting up a shop. Sometimes the Taiwanese students turned out to be better than their Japanese teachers, and they stole quite a bit of business away from the Japanese portrait galleries.

Chien Yung-pin points out that the style adopted in the early period of Taiwan portrait prints essentially followed from the structure of painted portraits, without much thought put into the backgrounds. The most you could get was a dour, dignified looking subject sitting stiffly in a chair, with perhaps a few flower arrangements in the background.

Between 1920 and 1945, the following basic style appeared: the use of lighting became increasingly sophisticated, there was more flexible use of techniques for altering prints, special effects were developed, and so on.

In terms of the use of lighting, in the early period the departure of the sun was utilized to capture the image of dusk. But in this period, besides using patio glass arrangements to control the natural sunlight, portraitists also used semi-transparent cloth or black cloth to modulate the light source. Thus the photography of that time moved mostly toward a "soft style" of moderate-level richness.

In terms of touching up or altering of the film, you could say this was the key to success or failure for a Japanese occupation era studio. Besides taking out the wrinkles and improving skin quality, there were also techniques like "eye-opening" (changing closed eyes into open ones) and "backdrop-switching." Even the most ordinary of citizens could come out in the photo dressed in elegant finery, looking most elevated.

In terms of the development of special techniques, double and triple exposures were the most favored tricks of that age. Having one person appear in the same picture two or three times, with different costume, dramatically arranged, satisfied the desire of the average person to "play several roles."

"Oil portraits" and "watercolor portraits" were also in fashion in this period. Oil or water-based pigments would be applied by hand, to compensate for the fact that color photography was not very prevalent at that time.

At this stage, there was one especially interesting phenomenon. Because the Japanese military imposed strict order, any photography that included topographic features, military bases, or indeed any photo whose field of vision extended downward more than 45 degrees had to be approved by the military police. Thus it was difficult for ordinary people to photograph freely outdoors. As a result portrait studios and equipment shops became the natural gathering places for shutterbugs, leading directly to the diffusion of photography in Taiwan.

[Picture Caption]

p.33

The technique of "added background depiction" involved altering a background directly on the emulsion of the plate glass. Film alteration was one of the required courses for Chen Li-hung when she studied in Japan. (photo by Chi Hsiu-mao, courtesy of Chien Yung-pin)

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!