張大千與敦煌壁畫

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1976 / 8月



敦煌石窟壁畫為我國北魏隋唐之際的美術寶庫。光緒二十六年,傳出窟中有唐宋以前經卷的發現,因而名聞中外。抗戰時期,國畫大師張大千先生遠赴敦煌,往來於鳴沙、三危之間,從事臨摹莫高窟、榆林窟等古壁畫的工作,將近三年之久,而使敦煌盛名更熾。張大千先生回憶說,他在敦煌臨摹壁畫有兩百七十餘件,因為攜帶不便,僅僅只拿回來數十件小幅作品。

民國五十七年,張大千先生為響應中華文化復興運動,慨然將所僅存的壁畫摹本六十一幅及莫高窟拓片一件,悉數捐贈國立故宮博物院,其中計有北魏、西魏、隋、唐、五代、宋各朝代的佛、菩薩、羅漢、比丘、飛天、伎樂、供養人、藻井等作品。張大千先生認為,敦煌壁畫是集中古美術史之大成,代表北魏至元代一千年間我國美術的發展。他覺得能有機會臨摹它們,使他對壁畫本身的衍變、歷代官製服飾、稱謂、碑拓、彩塑和建築,都有了更多的瞭解。同時,政府也由於他的臨摹工作,設立了國立敦煌藝術研究所,使得國人才普遍地注意到敦煌壁畫的文化價值。

〔圖片說明〕

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張大千先生在歷史博物館演講敦煌壁畫。

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(上)榆林窟第十九窟盛唐畫竹林大士像六十一號。

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(右)莫高窟一百五十二窟晚唐畫瓔珞大士像五十八號。

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莫高窟一百五十五窟晚唐畫天童像五十七號。

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左:敦煌西小佛洞武周時畫釋迦像一舖六十四號。

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右:八十四窟西魏釋迦像六十六號。

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下:右圖下方細節。

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榆林窟第九窟宋人畫羅漢像五十三種。

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榆林窟供養人天公主李氏像。

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EN

Art from the Tunhuang Caves


The Buddhist Murals in the Tunhuang caves of Kansu Province are art treasures that date back to the period of the 4th to 7th centuries. They have internationally known since 1900, when Buddhist scriptures were reportedly found in these caves. During the period of anti-Japanese War, famed artist Chang Dai-ch'ien went to Tunhuang, where he copied the murals in Mokao Cave, Yulin Cave and other caverns for three years. This made the Tunhuang murals even more famous. As Chang recalls, he copied more than 270 murals but escaped with only 61 of the copies from the mainland.

In 1968, Chang contributed all his mural copies and one piece of stone rubbing to the National Palace Museum, to show his support for the Chinese Cultural Renaissance Movement. From these copies, we can see the different portrayals of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, arhats and Buddhist monks (bodhisattvas are defined as compassionate beings considered future Buddhas, and arhats as monks who have attained nirvana). They also show styles of dancing from the North Wei, West Wei, and Sui dynasty until Tang dynasty. In Chang's opinion, the Tunhuang paintings are outstanding artistic works of the Chinese medieval age. They reveal Chinese art development from North Wei to the Yuan dynasty. He said that, through copying these murals, he obtained a better understanding of the costumes and titles of different dynasties, stone rubbings, color paintings and the styles of architecture. The ROC government has set up National Tunhuang Art Institute to help the people to understand the cultural value of the Tunhuang murals.

[Picture Caption]

Chang Dai-ch'ien speaking at the National Palace Museum

(Above) The Goddess of Mercy, No.61

(Right) The Goddess of Mercy, No.58

(Left) Portrait of angel, No.57

Left: Portrait of Sakya, No.64

Right: Portrait of Sakya, No.66

Bottom: Some details of the portrait at right

53 arhat portraits of the Sung dynasty

Princess Li, the sponsor of Yulin Caves

 

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