「福爾摩沙」停,聽,看!——郭果六

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1993 / 2月

文‧蔡文婷採訪整理 圖‧卜華志



導遊的工作是介紹台灣,認識台灣也就是他的基本工作。我自己覺得,非得深入之後,才能淺出。例如導覽故宮,如果只有三個小時的逗留,要選擇哪些大類、那些文物,才能把握故宮的精髓?像是仰韶文化的文物,你必須知道大陸近四十年又找出了一千多穴,因此不宜將太多時間花在這個展覽室,而且解說上也要參考大陸研究資料。至於瓷器,尤其是青花,故宮的館藏質量無疑是世界第一了,你當然應該多費一點心思與口舌來介紹。而像翠玉白菜、多寶格這些新奇有趣的藏品,也值得推薦。對所有導遊而言,故宮都是一門硬學問,也是一輩子學習的地方。如果沒花工夫去研讀資料,了解它的來龍去脈,就容易在外國遊客前貽笑大方。

民國七十二年,通過交通部觀光局的導游資格考試,之後接受為期三周的職前訓練,開始導遊生涯。第一次帶團結束,所做的第一件事,是到重慶南路買了一本「台灣通史」。雖然,現在看來台灣通史的勘誤和原書一樣厚,然而不搞清台灣的歷史脈絡,你就真的無法認識台灣。

來華旅客,大多不是專程來玩,而還會去香港、大陸等地,停留時間不過三、五天。在有限的時間內,一些路程太遠或觀光內容不夠豐富的地方都不在行程之內;還有當地是否有高級飯店等硬體設備,也使得一些旅遊點被割捨。所剩的也就是那些屈指可數的名勝古蹟。像是台北市附近的故宮博物院、中正紀念堂、龍山寺、烏來,或東部太魯閣,中部日月潭,台南安平古堡等。

日月潭是天然的嗎?

來到龍山寺,這是一座二百五十多年的老廟,不過廟容重建於民國九年,望著寺廟的精雕細刻,我會先分析中國寺廟建築的特色,大致分屋頂、樑柱、台基三部分,他們聽了就不會眼花撩亂,不知該看些什麼。一入大廳,看到人們擲茭杯、燒紙錢,對於中國人可以用二片小木片便得到神的明喻,可以很清楚地體會出不同的宗教觀。如果再問為什麼龍山寺這麼興盛?那就得由北台灣開發史講起:萬華如何和大陸做生意而致富,而所屬淡水廳又遠在走路費時二天的新竹,在公權力不彰的背景下,才成就了龍山寺成為當時萬華的政、經、宗教中心,這由後殿石柱上的對聯可以印證。

外國人士對台灣可能瞭解不多,由於一切都是新經驗,往往提出許多我們所忽略的問題。像是到了日月潭,當他們被湖光山色所吸引時,我就不在一旁嘮叨。遊完湖,立刻就有人問我,「這個湖如何形成?它是不是一個人工湖?」說起來十分煞風景,日月潭的確是個人工湖。民國廿三年時,日本人築起水壩、鑿穿山壁,引入旁邊河水,日月潭才有了今日水深卅公尺的規模,面積也較原來增加了百分之七十。

此外,像是太魯閣如何形成?林安泰古厝,怎麼不見廁所?房子上為何會有水塔?佛像造型為何都差不多?問題五花八門,導遊的功課要下得不夠,是很容易被考倒的。

閒話家常

在觀光點看得較片面,車上的時間,可以說些較全面性概念或家常性話題。例如在中部橫貫公路,起了霧,時速往往只有卅公里,沿途除了山還是山,正好可以見山說山。

我們的面積不過三萬六千平方公里,放在世界地圖上還不太好找,然而高於三千公尺的山有二百多座,第一高峰達三九五二公尺,這可就非常爭氣了,地理形態豐富下,各類稀有動植物數量也特別驚人……,外國遊客聽了往往忍不住哇——啊的讚嘆起來。我很樂意以自己所知來增加遊客對風物的領略,我所接觸的很多外國人,對台灣的了解僅止於「MIT」產品,想像中台灣只有一排排大煙囪,看到了秀麗的山水,常有不虛此行的感受。

而走過學校,他們會問教育制度,你可以回答一句「美式制度」,也可以從科舉制度講到今天的聯考壓力。一入台北,會問為什麼機車那麼多?的確,台灣地區每百人平均四十六人有機車,原因除了經濟力,這和我們的冬天不致冷到不能騎車、工作地點離家也不會太遠,還有都市停車的不容易都有關。至於為什麼這麼亂?我回答,我們有買車能力,但是還沒有開車文化,開車的人往往缺乏較體貼的心態來禮讓行人,這是觀念問題。

旅遊的行程,是遊客和旅行社之間的協定,導遊並不安排行程。這些平時的交談,可以使遊客較客觀地了解台灣,感受不同文化的差異,而不至於只是很浮面地獵豔或流於刻板印象。

認識台灣,得去閩南

我常會建議旅行社,市區觀光除了故宮,也能排入孔廟或林安泰古厝。因為西方人大多聽過孔夫子,卻往往以為孔夫子是我們的至上天神。到了孔廟,引導他們去看,怎麼廟中沒有和尚、尼姑?而從牆上照片可以看到市長主持祭典,廟內有孔家七代祖先的牌位,至今他的七十七代子孫仍受國家奉祿……,他們可以感受出儒學在中國的重要。再相較於一巷之隔的保安宮,那就很容易分出國人對孔夫子的敬祀和對保生大帝的求拜截然不同。

而林安泰古厝是一幢民宅,正廳屋頂最高、地位最尊,用來擺祖先牌位,廳堂的高低顯示出生活中的倫序觀念,我想這比去講解漳州瓜筒和泉州瓜筒有何不同,可以說得更多。我常覺得對於外國觀光客而言,走一趟林安泰古厝的意義是不下於故宮博物院的。這其中還包括了我對自己國家的一點私心,總說我們是文化古國,來到林安泰,我可以告訴他們這是政府刻意遷建而保存下來的,我們的文化不只是過去而已。

我是民國卅八年在台灣出生的江蘇人,目前我最大的希望是去閩南看一看,要了解自己,要認識台灣,得去那兒找源頭。我想知道泉州安海鄉的龍山寺是什麼樣子?白礁鄉民眾怎麼拜保生大帝?或許,只要和當地人閒聊,泡上一壺老人茶,有一樣的動作、一樣的杯子就可以了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.110

「牌坊,是舊時中國社會的一種教化工具,應該立於繁華市街。這個急公好義坊會立於新公園,是因為道路拓寬而被遷建於此」,資深導遊郭果六向外國旅客介紹古跡。

P.111

藏品豐富的國立故宮博物院,是外國旅客和國人都不會錯過的觀光點。

P.112

曾有位日本旅客因食道靜脈瘤大量出血,導遊黃金榮畫圖解說,以六位團員作成手擔架,及時送醫得救,贏得旅客的感激。(黃金榮提供)

P.113

風景名勝之外,節慶活動更能展現我們的文化習俗,圖為中元節台北燈會實況。(邱瑞金攝)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Formosa Through the Mind's Eye--Giovanni Kuo

edited by Ventine Tsai /photos courtesy of Pu Hua-chih /tr. by Phil Newell


The work of a guide is to introduce Taiwan, so knowing Taiwan is the basic job requirement. I feel that you can only do a proper summary job of it, superficial as that may be, after possessing a deep understanding yourself. Take for example a tour to the National Palace Museum. If you've only got three hours, what categories and what works should you choose to show the cream of the collection? Take for example Yang-Shao Culture. You have to know that more than 1000 caves have been discovered in the mainland in the past 40 years, but you can't spend too much time in just that display area, and you've got to consult mainland reference materials to explain the items. As for porcelain, especially blue decorated porcelain, undoubtedly the collection at the National Palace Museum is the finest in the world in terms of both quantity and quality. Of course you should put a little effort into introducing it. Unusual and interesting holdings like the "green and white jade cabbage" carvings and the jewellry boxes are also worth recommending. For any guide the National Palace Museum it a true test of your ability, a place that takes a lifetime to master. And if you don't know your stuff, you might make a fool of yourself in front of foreign guests.

In 1983, having passed the exam given by the Tourism Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communication to certify my qualifications, and after a three week training course, I began my official life as a guide. After the initial tour that I led had ended, the first thing I did was to go to the bookstores on Chungking South Road to buy A Comprehensive History of Taiwan. Although it seems that today the addendum and correction of errors is as large as the original, anyway if you don't get Taiwan's history straight, then you really have no way of knowing this place.

Nobody stands around grading you:

Most visitors have not come exclusively to visit Taiwan, and usually will also go to Hongkong or mainland China, with the stopover being no more than three to five days. In this limited time, some places that are too distant or which don't have enough by way of tourist resources are just left off the agenda. And some places are axed for very pragmatic reasons, like not having a high class tourist hotel or other facilities. What's left are only a handful of famous tourist attractions, like the National Palace Museum, the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, the Lungshan Temple, and the Wulai aboriginal village, all around Taipei, or Taroko Gorge in eastern Taiwan, Sun Moon Lake in the central part, or the Anping Dutch fortress in Tainan.

Coming to the Lungshan Temple, this is a 250-year-old temple, though it was renovated in 1920. Facing the exquisite and detailed carvings, I first explain the special features of Chinese traditional architecture, broadly divided into the roof, the pillars, and the foundation. When the tour members hear it this way, they won't just to overwhelmed by the dazzling detail, without knowing where they should look. Upon entering the main hall, they see people throwing two crescent-shaped blocks of wood, or burning paper money. From seeing how it is the Chinese people are able to understand the will of the gods using two small bits of wood, they can really comprehend what it is to have a different conception of religion. And if they ask why Lungshan Temple is so successful and crowded? Then you have to come at it from the history of the development of northern Taiwan- how the Wanhua district where the temple is located got wealthy through trade with the mainland. And with the nearest administrative center for what was then called the Tamsui District a two-day walk away in Hsinchu, with little public authority radiating from there, you explain how Lungshan Temple thus became the political, economic, and religious center for what was then Wanhua. This can all be verified from the couplets on the pillars in the rear hall.

Is Sun Moon Lake really natural?

It's likely foreign guests don't know all that much about Taiwan. Because everything is a new experience, they often raise questions that we might overlook ourselves. For instance, when we get to Sun Moon Lake, when they are seduced by the mountains and the reflections off the lake, I don't hang around chattering away. After one tour of the lake was complete, one visitor asked, "How was this lake formed? Is it a man-made lake?" This question really ruined the moment for me, as Sun Moon Lake is indeed a man-made body of water. In 1936, the Japanese who then occupied Formosa built a dam and then cut through the mountains, bringing in the water from the nearby river. That's the only way Sun Moon Lake got to its current depth of 30 meters plus a 70% increase in area over the original pond there.

Further, you get all kinds of questions like: How was Taroko Gorge formed? Why is there no bathroom in the old Lin An-tai home? Why are there water tanks on the roofs of the houses? Why are all the Buddha statues roughly the same design? If a guide hasn't done his homework, it's very easy to not get a passing grade.

Small talk:

Though things at the tourist sights tend to be very focused, while in the bus you can talk about some more comprehensive ideas or about daily life. For example, along the central cross-island highway, when there is fog, speeds are often only 30 kilometers per hour. There's nothing on the route but mountains and more mountains. Fortunately you can look at them and talk about them at the same time.

Taiwan's area is a mere 36,000 square kilometers, and it's not very easy to find on a map of the world. Yet there are more than 200 mountains over 3,000 meters, with the highest being 3,952 meters; that's extremely impressive. Given the richness of the topography, the number of varieties of unique plant and animal species is also startling. Foreign visitors often can't help ooh-ing and aah-ing in praise when they hear. I'm really happy to use what I know to increase the understanding visitors have of the things they see. For many of the foreigners I meet, their comprehension of this place stops at "Made in Taiwan" products. In their imaginations Taiwan is just row upon row of smokestacks. When they see the beautiful scenery, they feel like the trip has been worth it.

Going past a school, they will ask about the education system. You could answer with one sentence, "the American system," or you could talk about everything from the curriculum to the examination pressures of today. When you get to Taipei, they ask why there are so many motorcycles. To be sure, of every hundred people in Taiwan 46 have motorcycles. Besides the economic capability to afford them, this is related to the facts that our winters aren't so cold that it's too chilly to ride your motorbike, that places of work are not very far from places of residence, and that it's not easy to find a parking place in the city. As for why things are so disorderly, I answer that we have the ability to buy cars but lack a car-driving culture, that for instance, drivers are rarely thoughtful enough to give way to pedestrians, and that this is a problem of viewpoint.

The itinerary is decided between the travel agency and the visitors, not made up by the tour guide. These little chats can help visitors have a more objective understanding of Taiwan, and feel what it really means to be in a different culture, rather than just leaving them to superficially search for pretty things or stay stuck in stereotypes.

To know Taiwan, head to southeast coastal China:

I suggest to travel agencies that for city tours, besides the National Palace Museum, they should include the Confucius Temple or the Lin An-tai Historic Residence. This is because most Westerners have heard of Confucius, but often assume that he is our god. When they get to the Con-Tucius Temple and are taken in, they wonder why the temple has no monks and no nuns. And from the walls where they can see photos of the mayor heading up a ceremony, from the memorial tablets of the previous generations of the Kung family [Kung being Confucius' proper Chinese surname prior to its Latinization], and from how today his 77th generation descendants still receive special treatment from the country. . . they can begin to get a feel for the importance of Confucian thinking in China. Then, adding on a comparison with the Bao An Temple, only separated from the Confucius Temple by a small alley, it is easy for visitors to see the marked difference between the respect accorded to Confucius and the prayers and supplications for divine intercession preserved for the Lord Bao Sheng.

Meanwhile the Lin An-tai Historic Residence is a private home. The highest place in the main hall is reserved for the portraits and memorial tablets of ancestors, with the height of the various halls revealing the ethical order of daily life. I think that this says a lot more than a lecture on the differences between Changchow decorative beam joints and Chuanchow decorative beam joints. I often feel that for foreign tourists, a walk through the Lin An-tai home is no less significant than the National Palace Museum. This includes a little bit of selfishness that I feel for our country. You can say that we are a country with an ancient culture, and when you get to the Lin An-tai residence, I can tell them that it has been specially preserved by the government, and that our culture isn't all in the past.

I was born in Taiwan in 1949 of parents from Kiangsu in mainland China. Right now my greatest desire is to go to the southeast coast of China to have a look around, and understand myself. If you want to know Taiwan, you have to find the source there. I would really like to know what the LungshanTemple in Anhai in Chuanchow County in Fukien Province looks like or how the people of Shang-paichiao worship the Lord Bao Sheng. Perhaps, I'll only have to sit with the local people and chat, brewing up a pot of tea, with all the same motions and the same cup, and that will be enough.

[Picture Caption]

p.110

"Arches were an important tool of indoctrination in old Chinese society, set up in prosperous city streets. This one was set up in New Park, but moved here so they could widen the road there. "Senior guide Giovanni Kuo introduces another historic item to foreign guests.

p.111

The National Palace Museum, which houses a rich variety of priceless treasures, is a can't-miss stop for foreigners and locals alike.

p.112

Once a Japanese tourist began bleeding profusely from a tumor, relates guide Huang Chin-jung using pictures, so six tour members got together and carried him off for emergency medical treatment, winning the gratitude of the visitor. (photo courtesy of Huang Chin-lung)

p.113

Famous natural scenery is fine, but festivals are even better for displaying our culture and customs. The photo is of Lantern Festival display in Taipei. (photo by Diago Chiu)

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