重回舊好茶

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1993 / 2月

文‧鄭元慶 圖‧鄭元慶


一般人基於經濟、教育、醫療等因素的考慮,總想搬到都市堜~住。但是對魯凱族好茶村民而言,有人卻反其道而行,考慮重回交通不便、物質缺乏的山區舊部落生活。為什麼?


屏東縣瑪家山地文化園區,是個著名的觀光旅遊勝地,也是體會台灣九個原住民族群(原住民)文化的好地方。順著園區道路前行,經甲種山地管制哨後約半個小時,即可到達位於南隘寮溪畔的「新」好茶村。

原為河川地的新好茶,是因舊好茶地處偏僻,居民對外交通不便,以致在醫療、教育、經濟各方面水準與平地人民相距太大。為了改善生活,舊好茶村民在民國六十三年的村民大會中通過遷村計畫。六十七年正式奉准遷往南隘寮溪下游,距水門十一公里處新好茶現住處,住宅面積約有七公頃,並於六十八年完成遷村行動。

搬遷下來沒多久,卻因瑪家水庫將要興建,新好茶位於集水區內,無法再居住,使得居民不知何去何從。在一年多前,舊好茶村被內政部列為二級古蹟,乃引燃起他們重回舊好茶的信念。

積極推動重回舊好茶活動的魯凱族人邱金士回憶,在新好茶和水門之間的道路未開通前,從舊好茶出水門,行走山路上山要六個小時,下山時間則減半。

在路上的交通時間,對生病的族人是最大的問題,往往會因延誤就醫而使病情加重,甚至不治。

艱難歸鄉路

搬遷之後,確實解決了醫療困境。但在融入社會的同時,也和其他山村一樣,產生了更多的問題。

以人口外流而言,根據好茶派出所主管柯啟林統計,好茶村有一百一十八戶,戶籍人口四百卅人。但因族人紛紛往外地求學工作,平日村內人口不到一百,以老人小孩居多。去年,好茶國小就因人數太少而廢校;外出工作求學的族人只有在豐年祭和長假期時才會回來。

可是出外工作或求學的族人,由於身處陌生環境,經常適應不良,造成更大的壓力。

現年四十九歲,半輩子在平地求學、生活、工作的邱金士以切身的經驗舉例:如原住民與一般人求職競爭,除非是十分優秀,非你莫屬,否則在只有一個名額的情況下,通常會選擇一般人。

有人懷疑邱金士是否因為在都市無法生存而想逃避上山,才大力鼓吹重回舊好茶。事實並非如此。邱金士在教會學校念書直到大學畢業,主修企管的他,辭職前已是會計部門主管;而且在通往三地門的主要通衢水門街上還有棟透天店面,是他在平地打拚多年的成果,日子過得還很不錯。

辭職後邱金士在家堭M心寫作,他要將多年來的生活經驗與在都市工作的感受,用文字表達。此外,他也到處訪問族中老人,記錄有關的掌故,並為舊好茶各家族作家譜。

邱金士回鄉的舉動,招到家人反對是必然之事,但為何他還是選擇了這條艱難的歸鄉路?

心動不如行動

從現實層面來看,「當地確非久居之地」,邱金士表示。因為瑪家水庫早晚要建,現在的好茶村一定會被淹沒。這種即將無根的危機意識,經常籠罩族人的心。

依據魯凱老人家的經驗,當一條河流旁的檳榔樹長大到如腰般粗大的時候,洪水的週期即將來臨。知道這傳說的人,看到新好茶地形,再以瑪家將建水庫的事情相印證,淹沒之說,竟然不謀而合。

根據上述各項原因,邱金士認為心動不如行動,就開始遊說族人。當他提到重回舊好茶的想法時,老人家都心有戚戚焉,反應較為正面;年輕一輩的則稍帶懷疑。也有族人視為荒謬且不可行,怎麼能回到過去生活呢?因為當初遷下來的原因並未消失,問題仍在。

面對交通、醫療、教育等當初遷轉下來的問題,邱金士雖有若干構想,卻未得到多數人的認同,不過他決定用行動來證明他的信念。在去年十月底,邱金士邀集盧朝奉、江得洋等五位好茶村的老人上山,動手整建舊好茶的石板屋。

經過五天的工作,就地取材,先將國寶級雕刻師力大古的住宅恢復舊觀,並另外修建好四戶住宅。

這些矗立在舊好茶的石板屋,它們看過好茶族人的生老病死、喜怒哀樂,如今多數雖已傾圮,但不容置疑的是它們的確有過光輝的歷史。

站在舊好茶的石板屋前舉目前望,北大武山高高在上,東方為霧頭山,並隔南隘寮溪與排灣族筏灣部落遙遙相望。

雲豹的故鄉

相傳好茶部落的始祖普拉奴洋是個出色的獵人,約在六百年前,從台東帶著一隻雲豹溯溪翻山來到霧頭山和北大武山一帶狩獵。雲豹在舊好茶聚落後方兩百公尺處瀑布下的水潭邊不肯離去,普拉奴洋才發現該處真是個好的居住處所。隨後他即回台東帶領親友來此定居,繁衍成部落。

基於這種傳說,好茶族人一向將雲豹奉為神獸,不得獵殺。至於那方水潭,因攸關居民飲水,族人都確實遵守保持潔淨的原則。這個源於井步山的小瀑布,因而成為其他部落欽羨的天賜之禮。

從好茶到舊好茶路程約五公里,順著山勢蜿蜒曲折上行。以全程而言,前後段較平坦,中段落差極大,較難行走。其間有三個休息地點,最後一個位於懸崖之上,旁有棵紅櫸木,樹下整齊排著幾層石板椅。

往昔,紅櫸木區是舊好茶門戶,也是魯凱族好茶與排灣族筏灣兩部落征戰中重要的險地。在此處,可以將山下情景和敵人動靜一覽無遺。因地利之便,此地易守難攻。據說,古時候獵得筏灣和馬兒村排灣族人的首級,一定要掛在該樹上,警示敵人切勿輕舉妄動。

此外,紅櫸木區在好茶文化中扮演重要的地位。它就像中國往昔的「亭」。當族人要下山工作或求學當兵,或外出一段長時間,親朋好友都會送到此地。另外如迎娶嫁到好茶的外地新娘,或是歡迎貴賓好友,也都在此。換言之,舊好茶的歷史,紅櫸木最為瞭解。

獲致外來助力

舊好茶莊在鼎盛時期,是一強大部落,前清及日據時期都沒受到太多外力的干擾。當它人口日增,又與現代文明接觸後,人口逐漸外移。民國五十到五十八年間,共遷出八十餘戶。

在民國六十八年遷村之後,山上建築因無人照顧而日漸毀損,目前,舊好茶已無人居住。

對於失去舊好茶的魯凱族人而言,同時也等於失去了自我。因此當邱金士提出重回舊好茶的行動後,得到不少熱心保存原住民文化人士的認同與協助。

其中有位執著於魯凱文化的攝影師王有邦,已經花了一年時間,追蹤拍攝舊好茶部落石板屋及一草一木。並曾在去年八月好茶豐年祭活動之中,以圖片展示舊好茶景況,並配以文字解說,希望喚起村民的認同。

山地文化協會會長洪國勝,則經常帶領朋友及對山地文化有興趣者前往舊好茶參觀。希望藉著身歷其境的感覺,擴大一般人對多元文化的興趣。

以宣揚山地文化為主要訴求的刊物「原報」,更經常為文鼓吹這項行動。又因原報的發行人趙貴忠本身就出生於舊好茶,也是舊好茶國小的末代學生,對這個點子當然十分支持,並曾在去年底於舊好茶舉辦「魯凱營」。有不少魯凱年輕人在三天的活動堙A對原屬自己的文化,有更深刻的瞭解。

為了籌措整修的經費,邱金士和趙貴忠印製「重建舊好茶」T恤義賣,希望在政府未正式撥款前,能先修建若干石板屋。

生存是最大難題

相較於上述人士的熱心,好茶居民的態度卻比較保留。其實這也難怪,因為敲邊鼓的總是局外人,他們不像村民一樣,需面臨重回舊好茶之後的生計問題。

這也是邱金士在遊說村民時,最無法解答的問題,總不能要村民去喝西北風吧!當然更不可能回到原始生活。

邱金士表示,在平地生活了十幾年,族人學到不少文明事物,這對未來回到山上後的生活很有幫助。上山並不一定要過著原始般的生活,而是要用過去十幾年在平地的生活經驗,綜合祖先的傳統,讓日子過得比現在更好。

至於居民要如何才能有收入呢?打獵已不可行。邱金士認為或許可利用山坡地,種植高經濟價值作物。有位日本農業專家曾表示,當地土質適合種咖啡,有收成或可解決經濟問題。

他也想到,居民若能做些手工藝品銷售,亦是增加收入之法。

研究舊好茶文化廿五年的屏東師範學院高業榮副教授,對這個點子卻持較保留態度。他表示,以藝術的觀點而言,山地手工藝品或藝術並沒那麼好,目前蓬勃發展的情況,是人們同情弱勢者的表象。如果拿他們和非洲、峇里島、南美洲等外國原始藝術相比,還差一大截。

這一代的雕刻師不比老的好,在文化面臨轉變時,技藝的傳承也呈現青黃不接的情況。但是現在冒出頭的匠師,未必有這種覺悟,對自己作品好壞的鑑賞力不足,總以為刻條百步蛇,別人就會買。若一般人的同情心消失,後果將不堪設想。

保存石板屋文化

其實要想讓手工藝有出路,最好能轉換成現代生活中實用的工藝品,例如木雕可以作成壁飾或煙灰缸等用品。在織布方面,魯凱族的素面布料也可改進花樣,作成桌布、壁毯。

以行的問題而言,目前已修築了一段產業道路,未來政府將續編預算修建,待這條路完成後已可解決了重回舊好茶的一半問題。有人以為道路也不應直通舊好茶,最好只修築到某處,要人們再步行一段路才能到達目的地,以免造成太多外來的污染。

列名為二級古蹟之後,舊好茶有了名正言順的保存依據。

目前最重要的是整修保護石板屋,從高業榮副教授在民國五十六年所繪的舊好茶家屋分佈情況來看,由於是依山形而建,整個聚落十分壯觀;但卻很難在短時間讓外人摸清路徑和住宅間的關係。

這種帶有防衛性的群屋,使敵人很難入侵。此為其特色之一。

石板堆砌而成的家屋約只一公尺高,面陽處為門窗的啟閉方向,冬暖夏涼是其另一大特色。

邱金士除了自掏腰包整修完成五間石板屋之外,未來重建的先期工程,他則鎖定部落北方原屬二頭目安木蘭家屋附近的房舍,包括石板屋的整建,周圍道路的整理,原有木雕及石雕的修復等。

目前遭遇較大的問題是,村長古增秀還在此畜養羊群。羊兒不知保護二級古蹟,隨處踐踏石板屋,使得原本無人居的舊址遭致更嚴重的破壞。

這些整建的規劃,將由台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所負責。高業榮建議,規劃時要考慮到執行的可行性,更應落實對當地文化、生活的了解,才有成功希望。

而依據邱金士的構想,為了在生活上取得較大的便利,擬以改良式石板屋呈現給族人,以吸引更多的族人回鄉居住,至於整建的費用,政府也將編列預算支付。

保存活的文化

有人以為,回歸部落的勇氣及理想是個好起步,讓村民有較強的歸屬感。尤其是一些在都市工作,常受挫折或無法適應的都市山胞應該會支持。

比較重要的是,如何在具體行動與未來生活的考量中,落實這種歸屬感。如果踏出這一步,卻又無具體作法,反可能造成傷害,因為這終究是台灣山地各族群首度進行的構想和行動。

重回舊好茶可能不難,但困難不在於路途遠近,而在於搬遷之後如何繼續生活下去,並與社會融合。如果一些相關措施及公共設施都能繼續進行,或許這個曾被多數人認為是走回頭路的構想,有它實現的一天。

〔圖片說明〕

P.34

重回舊好茶之路,艱辛漫長。

P.35

鳥瞰舊好茶全景,中間相思林覆蓋部分為石板屋區。

P.36

新好茶位於河畔,將成為瑪家水庫集水區而被淹沒。

P.37

新好茶人口外移情形嚴重,留在村內的多為老人和小孩。

P.38

紅櫸木區是險要之地,易守難攻,也是出入舊好茶重要門戶。

P.39

古增秀村長飼養的羊群,對保存石板屋有不良的影響。

P.39

列為二級古蹟的舊好茶石板屋多已崩塌,極待整修。

P.40

邱金士一心為重回舊好茶而努力奔走。

P.41

好茶村最後一位雕刻師力大古的作品,仍留存在他的舊好茶故居。

P.41

源於井步山的泉水潔淨甘甜,是天賜好茶的最佳禮物。

P.42

外出工作求學的好茶族人,只在豐年祭和長假期時才會返鄉。

P.43

王有邦長期拍攝舊好茶景物,並於去年好茶豐年祭會場展示,老人們看的津津有味。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Back to the Past

Cheng Yuan-ching /photos courtesy of Cheng Yuan-ching /tr. by Phil Newell

For economic, educational, medical, and other reasons, most people want to move to the city. But for the Rukai aborigines of Haucha Village, some prefer to go against the stream, and want to go back to the hamlet life in the mountains, with its inconvenient communications and material shortages. Why?


The Machia Aboriginal Culture Park in Pingtung County is a famous tourism and recreational spot, and is a good place to understand something about the culture of Taiwan's nine aboriginal peoples. Going forward along the park road, about a half hour after passing through a Type A Restricted Mountain Area checkpoint, you can arrive at the "New" Haucha Village, located on the banks of the Nanyiliao River.

The original reason for New Haucha Village is because Old Haucha was situated in a remote area. Travel outside the village was difficult, leading to too great a gap between the villagers and residents of low-lying areas in terms of access to medical care, education, and economic opportunity. In order to improve their lives, the villagers of Old Haucha passed a plan in the village assembly in 1974 to relocate. In 1978 they received formal permission to move to the downstream portion of the Nanyiliao River at the current location of New Haucha Village, eleven kilometers from Shuimen. The village relocation was completed in 1979.

Not long thereafter, because the Machia Reservoir was going to be built, and New Haucha was within the water accumulation area, it would have been inundated. It just happened that somewhat over a year ago, Old Haucha was listed as a Class II Historic Site, so that the villagers now didn't know where to turn. This inspired the concept of returning to Old Haucha.

Chiu Chin-shih, a Rukai person who has been actively promoting a return to Old Haucha, recalls that before the road between New Haucha and Shuimen had been opened, it took six hours to make the hike up the mountain trail, and about half that coming downhill. The biggest problem was the time spent on the trail for ill people. Often medical treatment would be put off or missed for this reason, so that illnesses worsened or even became incurable.

It's a rough road home:

After moving, this definitely resolved the problem of medical care. But at the same time that they gained access to the outside society, as with many mountain villagers, even more problems were created.

In terms of population outmigration, according to the statistics of Ko Chi-li, director of the Haucha police station, there are 118 households in Haucha, with 430 registered residents. But because the villagers have left in large numbers to pursue work or study opportunities outside, on an average day there are less than 100 people in the hamlet, with most of those being small children or elderly. Last year, the Haucha Primary School was closed because there were so few students. Those who have left for work or study only come back at Harvest Festival or over extended holidays.

But because those who have left find themselves in a strange environment and often adapt poorly, this creates even greater pressures.

Forty-nine-year-old Chiu Chin-shih, who has spent half his life on the plain studying, living, and working, uses his own experience as an example: If an aborigine is competing with someone else for a job, unless one is extremely outstanding and the only one qualified, if it's a situation where only one guy is going to get hired, they won't take the aborigine.

Some people wonder if it's just that Chiu can't cut it in the city and wants to run away back to the mountains, which is why he is loudly urging a return to Old Haucha. That's not in fact the way it is. Chiu studied in denominational schools right through graduation from university. Having studied business administration, before his resignation he was the head of the accounting department. He also had a three-story storefront on Shuimen Street, the main road heading off toward Santimen. These were the fruits of many years of efforts in the plains, and his life was really quite good.

After resigning, Chiu stayed at home to concentrate on writing. He wants to express his feelings and ideas about his life experience and work in the city over these many years through words. Moreover, he went all over to visit tribal elders, recording relevant stories, and made up a genealogy for every family in Old Haucha.

Chiu's decision to return to the village naturally drew opposition from his family, so why did he choose to stick to this difficult path?

Thought is not as good as deed:

At the practical level, the location is certainly not one for long term residence, says Chiu. Because the Machia Reservoir is going to be built sooner or later, the existing Haucha Village will inevitably be submerged. This creates a pervasive sense of panic that often sweeps through the psyches of the residents.

Based on the experiences of Lukai elders, when a betel nut tree by the side of the river grows to be about the same width as a waistline, the time of flooding is approaching. Those who know this legend look at the topography of New Haucha Village and look at the affair of the construction of the Machia Reservoir as a reflection of this. It seems that the legend of inundation fits right in.

For the above reasons, Chiu feels that psychological reaction is not as good as physical action, and he began lobbying the villagers. When he raised the idea of going back to Old Haucha, most of the older people responded positively, but the younger generation remained a bit skeptical. Some even considered the idea absurd and impracticable--how could we go back to our former existence? This is because the original motives for moving had not disappeared, and former problems still existed.

Faced with problems of transport, medicine, education, and so on that prompted the relocation in the first place, although Chiu has a few ideas, he has by no means won acceptance from the majority. But he plans to let his actions provide proof for his convictions. At the end of October of last year, Chiu invited five Haucha elders, including Lu Chao-feng and Chiang Teh-yang, up the mountain to rebuild a stone-walled Old Haucha home. After five days of effort, using local materials, they first restored to original condition the home of sculptor Li-ta-ku, himself a national treasure, and also repaired four other residences.

These stone houses have been standing in Old Haucha for these many years, watching the lives of the Haucha villagers as they passed from birth to adulthood to sickness to death. Today most of them have already collapsed, but it is incontestable that they have had glorious histories.

Looking forward as one stands in front of a stone home in Haucha, North Tawu Mountain rises impressively, while Wu-tou Mountain is to the east; you can see far off in the distance the Nanyiliao River and the Fawan village of the Paiwan aborigines.

Old hometown of the Formosan Clouded Leopard:

The fabled founder of Haucha Village, Puranuyan, was an exceptional hunter. About six hundred years ago he traveled with a clouded leopard from Taitung upstream and across the mountains to the belt between Wutou Mountain and North Tawu Mountain to go hunting. The leopard wouldn't leave an area along a small lake just below a waterfall about 200 meters from the site of what became Old Haucha. It was only then that Puranuyan discovered what an excellent location it was for habitation. Later he returned to Taitung and brought his friends and relatives back to settle, and they prospered into a tribal village.

Based on this legend, the people of Haucha have always seen the clouded leopard as a sacred animal that cannot be hunted. As for the lake behind the village, because it is connected to the village's drinking water, the residents adhere to the principle of maintaining its purity. The small waterfall which originates from Chingpu Mountain has thus become a natural endowment much envied by other tribes.

The road from Haucha to Old Haucha is about five kilometers, winding along as it follows the mountainous terrain. The front and last sections are relatively flat, but the differences in altitude are more severe in the middle section, so hiking it is difficult. There are three rest stops along the way, with the last on an overhanging cliff, at the side of which is a red elm with an orderly rank of multi-layered stones to sit on underneath.

In former days, the red elm area was the gateway to Haucha, and was a strategically important area much fought over between the Rukai people of Haucha and the neighboring Paiwan aborigines. Standing amidst the red elms, one can take in at a glance the entire situation below the mountain any movements of the enemy. The nature of the terrain is easily defensible. It is said that in ancient times the heads of Paiwan from Fawan and Maer Villages that had been hunted down would invariably be hung from that tree as a warning to the enemy not to start any trouble.

Further, the red elm forest plays an important part in Haucha culture. It is like a "pavilion" in old China. When villagers wanted to go down the mountain to work, study, or do their military service, or to stay away for a long period of time, friends and family would accompany them to and send them off at this point. Also, welcoming of brides who had married into the village or greeting of honored visitors would also take place here. In other words, the red elm know the history of Old Haucha better than anyone.

Winning outside support:

When Old Haucha was at its peak, it was a strong village which wasn't much interfered with by either the Ching dynasty or the Japanese occupiers. After its population rose, and it came into contact with modern civilization, the population began to steadily outmigrate. More than 80 households pulled out between 1961 and 1969.

After the relocation of the village in 1979, the structures on the mountain deteriorated for want of anyone to care for them, and now no one at all remains in Old Haucha.

For the Rukai aborigines who have lost Old Haucha, this has been like losing themselves at thesame time, which is cause for much regret. Thus after Chiu Chin-shih proposed moving back to the old homestead, he got sympathy and support from many people who are enthusiastic about preserving aboriginal culture.

Among these was Wang You-pang, a photographer who works in Rukai culture. He has already spent more than a year photographing all the stone homes and every tree and blade of grass in Old Haucha. Last August, during the Harvest Festival celebrations in Haucha, he presented a visual exhibit of the condition of Old Haucha, accompanied by textual explanation, in hopes of inspiring identification with this place among the villagers.

Hung Kuo-sheng, director of the Aboriginal Culture Association, often takes friends and those interested in the culture of Taiwan's original inhabitants to Old Haucha to look around. He hopes to broaden the interests of the general public in diversified culture through the sensations experienced on the spot.

The periodical Aboriginal Report, whose main appeal is for the survival of aboriginal culture, devotes even more regular encouragement to this movement. And the magazine's publisher, Chao Kui-chung, himself comes from Old Haucha, and was one of the last students to graduate from Haucha Primary school, he is naturally very supportive of this idea. Moreover, last year he held "Rukai Camp" in Old Haucha. In the three days of activities, many young Rukai developed a deeper understanding of the culture that was their own.

In order to raise funding for restoration and repairs. Chiu and Chao printed up "Rebuild Old Haucha" T-shirts and sold them, hoping to repair a few old stone houses before the government formally approves funding.

Surviving is the hardest part:

In contrast to the passion of these people, the attitude of Haucha residents is rather reserved. Actually there's nothing strange about it. Those beating the drum most loudly are outsiders, who, unlike the villagers, don't have to worry about how to make a go of it after returning to Old Haucha.

This is the question that Chiu had no way to deal with in lobbying the villagers--you can't ask the villagers to live off the northwest wind! Still less would they want to return to their pre-modern lifestyles.

Chiu states that after more than a decade of living in touch with the world of the plains, the villagers have learned much about modern civilization. This could be of great help in life after returning to the mountains in the future. You don't have to live a primitive existence just because it's the mountains. Instead people should take the experience they have acquired over the past decade plus, integrate it with the traditions of their ancestors, and thus live even better than they do now.

But how would the villagers get income? Hunting is already impracticable. Chiu suggests that perhaps valuable cash crops could be planted on the mountain slopes. For example, as a Japanese agricultural specialist has noted, the soil is suitable for planting coffee beans, and perhaps harvests could resolve economic difficulties.

He has also thought that if the villagers could make and sell handicrafts, this would be another way to increase incomes.

Associate professor Kao Yeh-jung of National Pingtung Teachers College, who has researched Old Haucha culture for 25 years, has a more cautious attitude toward this point. He states that from the point of view of the arts, the handicrafts and art work of the local aborigines is not all that outstanding, and, even though selling well, are more a symbol of sympathy for the weak and poor. If you compare them with the art work of the people of Africa, Bali, Latin America, or other places, they are still quite a ways behind.

This generation of sculptors is not up to the standards of the last, and in this period of cultural transformation there is already a situation of techniques not being successfully passed along. But carvers now emerging don't necessarily comprehend this. They have no real capacity to judge the merit of their own work, and think that they just have to chip out a centipede and people will buy it. If people lose their sense of sympathy, the results would be disastrous.

If you want handicrafts to be a way out, the best way would be to turn to handicrafts which are of use in modern daily living, such as carved wall trimming or ash trays. In terms of weaving, the rough cloth of the Rukai people could be improved and decorated to become tablecloths or tapestries.

Preserving stone house culture:

As for the problem of transportation, today an industrial use road has been built, and in the future the government will set aside funds to repair it. After this road is completed, this will resolve half the problem of getting back and forth to Old Haucha. Some people think the road should not go directly to Old Haucha, and that the best thing would be for it to stop at a certain place so that people would have to walk a ways to get to their destination; this would avoid too much outside pollution.

After being listed as a Class II Historic Site, there is now a formal basis for the preservation of Old Haucha.

Right now the most important task is to restore and preserve the stone houses. From the sketch of the layout of Old Haucha residences made by Professor Kao in 1967, because the construction followed the mountain slope, the effect of the whole village was quite impressive. Moreover, the arrangement of the village made it hard for any stanger to figure out the paths and houses in a short period of time. This defensive cluster made it more difficult for enemies to enter. This is one of the unique characteristics of the village.

The houses, completed by piling up flat stones, are only a meter tall. The doors and windows open in the direction of the rising sun, and another special feature is that they are warm in winter and cool in summer.

Besides the five houses that Chiu Chin-shih paid out of his own pocket to restore, the first stage of restoration work has been determined to be the houses in the neighborhood of the home of second chief An-mu-lan in the north part of the settlement. These include restoration of stone houses, clearing of the trails on all sides, and the repair and recreation of the original wood and stone carving.

Right now the biggest problem seems to be that village mayor Ku Tseng-hsiu is still raising a flock of sheep here. Unfortunately, the sheep are apparently not aware that they are trampling across the stone houses of a Class II Historic Site, so that the uninhabited buildings are suffering even more severe destruction.

These plans for restoration are the responsibility of the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning at National Taiwan University. Kao Yeh-jung has suggested that the problem of feasibility of implementation should be weighed in the planning stage, and the local character should be an even more important consideration, in order for there to be a hope of success.

In Chiu's scheme, in order to make life easier, improved stone houses should be given to the villagers to attract more of them back to take up residence. As for the expense, the government could appropriate funds.

Preserving living culture:

The courage and ideal to return to the old habitat is a good first step, and can give them a stronger sense of belonging. In particular, many young urban aborigines who work in the city and often meet disappointments or cannot adapt well should support this idea. More important is how to realize this sense of belonging in concrete action and considerations of future life. If this first step is made, but there is no concrete action, this could create great harm, because this is, in the final analysis, the first idea and action undertaken by the aborigines.

It is perhaps not difficult to return to Old Haucha, for the challenge is not really in roughness of the road,Instead, it lies in how to keep on living after returning, and how to stay a part of society. If some related measures and infrastructure can continue to move forward, perhaps this idea--which most people see as going back to square one--will have its day of realization.

[Picture Caption]

p.34

The road back to Old Haucha is rough.

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A bird's eye view of Haucha: Part of the area in the middle is the location where traditional stone houses will be reconstructed.

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New Haucha is located along a river, and will be inundated when the Ma-chia Reservoir is buit.

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Population outmigration from New Haucha is serious; most of the people left are small children or the elderly.

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The red elm area was strategically important because it is easily defensible; it is also the gateway to Old Haucha.

p.39

The sheep and goats raised by village mayor Ku Tseng-hsiu are having an adverse effect on the stone houses.

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Most of the old houses in Old Haucha, now listed as a Class II Historic Site, are in ruins and are in desperate need of repair.

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Chiu Chin-shih is devoted to the idea of returning to Old Haucha Village.

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Work of Li-ta-ku, Haucha's last sculptor, can still be found in his former residence in Old Haucha.

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The water originating in Ching-pu Mountain is clear and sweet, the greatest natural gift Haucha enjoys.

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Villagers who have left to find work or pursue their studies only come back over extended holidays or at Harvest Festival.

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Wang You-pang has long been photographing scenes of Haucha. He presented an exhibit at last year's Harvest Festival, attracting the interest of village elders.

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