汽車跑輸了,飛機呢?——中韓的另一場經濟戰

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1989 / 8月

文‧劉麗真


中華民國的航太工業,是否可能步上汽車、造船工業的後塵,成為「韓國能,我們為什麼不能」的另一個遺憾?


中韓兩國由於經濟發展程度以及外貿策略頗為相似,因此在很多「市場爭奪戰」中,皆扮演「假想敵」的角色,現階段航空工業發展亦不例外。

「目前,我們在整機設計及結構分析、氣動力分析等方面比韓國強,韓國則在製造方面較行」,經濟部工業合作辦事處主任沈正中指出。

他分析,我國因國際地位未受肯定,為了自保國防,必須全力發展軍機,這次經國號戰機的順利升空,便充分展現了我國在設計及系統方面的優勢。韓國則由於聯合國長期派軍駐守南北韓邊界,較無國防上的安全顧慮;即使韓國想要添購軍機加強自己的戰備力,也不會欲購無門。因此,他們是以發展工業的觀點來發展航太工業。同時多年來藉著「對沖貿易」,例了不少製造零組件的經驗。

對沖貿易為那般?

韓國之所以能成功地運用「對沖貿易」,帶動航空工業發展,理由相當簡單。「韓國政府說做就做,政策明確,執行確實」,航發中心計畫組祝如竹博士說。

韓國自一九七六年起開始發展航太工業,除了明訂航太工業為策略性工業,由國務總理親自擔任這個計畫的總負責人外,並於一九八四年頒佈「工業對沖貿易條例」(Offset Rules),利用工業合作為民間飛機工業帶來市場、技術。

所謂「對沖貿易」,應用在航太工業上,就是政府向外國購買飛機時,可要求將貨款的一部分用於技術轉移或採購由本國生產的零組件等。

目前韓國三家主要航太公司——韓航、三星、大宇,都在積極地進行民航機和引擎的零組件製造,其中不少訂單是由工業合作協定得來的。例如大宇參與波音757零組件製造、韓航參與麥道MD-80零組件製造,和三星參與麥道F-X戰機承包等等。

除了以工業合作協定方式為民間企業爭取市場、技術之外,韓國政府為增加民間企業的參與意願,已正式為航空工業擬具融資協助方案,該項方案預計將在今年底完成並實施。

緊緊相扣三連環

顯而易見,擔負策畫、推動與財務支援的政府,承包政府與外商合約、領導工業發展的大企業,以及支應大企業生產所需的衛星廠商,三者之間藉立法與組織緊密連結,已然形成一強有力的航太集團。

反觀我國,儘管擁有整機設計經驗,工程人力豐沛,游資充裕,但卻缺乏一個研擬政策、監督執行的常設機構,目前只有隸屬經建會的「航太工業發展推動小組」擔任幕僚工作,能使的力量有限;同時,面對獎勵投資條例即將廢除的事實,也不見任何其他形式的獎勵措施。

此外,有鑑於日、韓等鄰近國家,成功地運用「對沖貿易」,帶動航太工業發展,我國卻直至去年初,華航與美國簽約購買十架飛機,才首度與美方洽談對沖條件,經過反覆交涉,終於先後與波音、麥道、普惠三家公司簽訂了工業合作協定。

負責規畫、推動工作的經濟部工業合作辦事處,一方面規畫工業合作方案;一方面透過考察、問卷調查等方式,完成「航太工業長程發展計畫」,於六月廿日呈報工業局,轉經建會航太小組審核,預定八月初向主委錢復提報,到時可能出現初步結論;而韓國的「航太工業長程發展計畫」可望在今年完成,如今結果如何、內容如何,不得而知,但依其歷來按部就班的執行績效來看,的確夠令政府備感壓力了。而且這股壓力之強,恐不下於韓國目睹經國號戰機順利升空的心情吧!

〔圖片說明〕

P.108

韓國政府以「對沖貿易」為手段,達成為民間飛機工業帶來市場、技術的目的。(沈正中提供)

P.108

目前,台灣在整機設計及系統方面比韓國強,韓國則在製造方面較佔優勢。(沈正中提供)

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近期文章

EN

Korean Flyby?

Liou Lih-jen /tr. by Phil Newell

The aerospace industry in the Republic of China--will it follow in the dust of the automobile and shipbuilding industries and become another case of "Korea can, why can't we?"


Because the degree of economic development and the foreign trade strategies of the ROC and Korea are similar, the two often play the role of "imaginary enemy" in the battle for markets. The aerospace industry is no exception.

"Currently, we are stronger than Korea in aircraft design, structural analysis, and aerodynamics, but Korea is better able to handle manufacturing," says George Shen, general manager of the Office of Industrial Cooperation (OIC). He notes that, because the ROC's international status is not affirmed, for self-defense it is necessary to develop military aircraft at home. The smooth test flight of the new Ching-kuo fighter shows the superiority of the ROC in design and systems. Korea, able to buy aircraft, has developed the industry from the view of industrial development, accumulating a lot of manufacturing experience based on "offset trade" over the years.

Korea has been able to use "offset trade" because "When the Korean government says do it, it gets done," says Jeffrey C.S. Hao, of the Aero Industry Development Center at the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology. Korea began developing the industry in 1976. Aside from designating it as a strategic industry directly under the premier, they also set "offset" rules in 1984 to acquire markets and technology. "Offset trade" simply means that when the government buys an aircraft abroad, it requests that part of the product include technology transfer or use parts produced domestically. Currently Korea's three main aerospace companies are manufacturing parts for civil aircraft and engines; many orders are from cooperation agreements.

The Korean government has also formally set a financial assistance plan for the industry, to be implemented at the end of this year. Obviously, with the government handling strategy, promotion, and finance, major industries handling foreign contracts and industrial development, and satellite factories in support, all closely linked legislatively and organizationally, a strong aerospace group is already taking shape.

As for the ROC, despite planning experience, strong engineering, and idle capital, a strategy is lacking. There is no institution to oversee implementation. Currently there is only the Committee for Aviation and Space Industry Development (CASID) under the Council for Economic Planning and Development. Also, as investment incentive regulations are about to be scrapped, no new incentive policies are in sight. And only at the beginning of last year, when China Airlines bought ten aircraft from the U.S., were offset conditions discussed for the first time. After negotiations, cooperation agreements have been signed with Boeing, MacDonnell-Douglas, and Pratt and Whitney totalling US$340 million. The OIC of the Ministry of Economic Affairs was responsible for planning and promotion.

The OIC mapped out cooperation plans and, through surveys and investigation, completed the "Aerospace Industry Long-Term Development Plan," which was sent to the Industrial Development Bureau and then to CASID in June. It is expected a report will be made to CEPD Director Frederick Chien in August, and preliminary conclusions can be reached.

Korea's version of the plan is expected to be completed this year. From their past effectiveness in implementation, this will certainly leave the ROC government feeling pressure. The strength of this pressure will not be any less than that felt by the Korean government when the Ching-kuo fighter took flight.

[Picture Caption]

The "offset trade" strategy of the Korean government helps achieve the goals of markets and technology for their private sector aircraft industry. (photo courtesy of Shen Cheng-chung)

Taiwan is ahead of Korea in overall design and systems, but Korea has the edge in manufacturing. (photo courtesy of Shen Cheng-chung)

 

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