開放寶山.責無旁貸

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1989 / 3月

文‧李光真 圖‧鄭元慶


早在民國六十三年,中央研究院院士會議中,屈萬里、嚴耕望、沈剛伯三位院士,就倡議要使台灣成為全世界的「漢學研究中心」。十五年中,國內曾舉辦過兩次大型的「國際漢學會議」,以及多場研討會;而中央圖書館頂樓的「漢學資料及服務中心」堙A也不乏外籍學者穿梭其間。

只是,這份成績距離國人預期的目標還相當遙遠。


——建立台灣為漢學重鎮

台灣擁有哪些條件,可以自期成為「漢學中心」?

「目前台灣所藏的漢學資料,可以說是自由世界中最豐富、最珍貴的」,東吳大學中文系教授劉兆祐指出。

這一些資料,分別典藏在中央研究院、故宮博物院、中央圖書館、歷史博物館、國史館、國民黨黨史會,及台大、師大圖書館等學術研究機構。

這些資料又可分為幾大類別:甲骨刻辭、古代器物、善本圖書、明清檔案,地方文獻以及近代史料等。

漢學資料的寶庫

以甲骨來說,中研院歷史語言研究所的二萬五千片甲骨,是該所於民國十七年到廿六年間,在河南安陽小屯村的殷墟之中挖掘出來的,其中約有六百片相當完整的龜甲或獸骨,極具史料價值。

故宮博物院毫無疑問是中國古代工藝品的大寶庫,舉凡銅、瓷、玉、漆、書畫、雕刻以及琺瑯,無所不包。研究中國藝術史的學者,花三、五年在故宮似乎是必經的歷程。

而在國內所藏的近卅萬冊善本圖書中,數量最豐、也最有價值的,則是宋明版本。有關宋明兩代的典章制度、奏摺詔令、雜史文集、筆記小說……等,其中不少是舉世罕見的珍本甚或孤本。中央圖書館編有「中文善本書聯合目錄」,是非常有用的工具書。

近代史檔案舉世矚目

當然,政府播遷來台時因為各種限制,選運的文物以宋明等早期文物為主,因此清代及近代著作的匱乏,是國內最感缺憾的。但是故宮擁有的清朝檔案則相當豐富:宮中檔案、軍機處檔案、滿蒙文檔案等。目前所有資料均已匯整完畢、對外公開,「故宮清代文獻檔案總目」是一本總索引。

此外,中研院史語所珍藏的清代內閣大庫檔案卅餘萬件也正在進行整理、摘要及微卷印行工作,對於國內外研究明史、清史的學者是一大助力。

近代史料則多數典藏在國民黨黨史會中,各種開國文獻、函件、報章雜誌……,每年也都吸引許多國際學者前來尋寶。

從民國七十年起,黨史會陸續出版「中華民國重要史料初編:對日抗戰時期」,目前共計廿六冊,其中引用的史料,絕大多數是以前從未發表過的。當然,基於政策考量,目前還有些黨內高階層會議紀錄尚未開放,但對學術界而言,黨史會仍不失為重要的參考機構。

建立完備的資料索引和人才檔

豐富的文獻,是台灣成為漢學重鎮的條件之一,尤其現代資訊交流便捷,歐美的珍藏在此也不難取得:英國大英博物館有斯坦因盜自敦煌的卅箱寫經;法國巴黎博物館則有伯希和獲取的敦煌寫經三千卷;日本、美國都有不少善本書;荷蘭也有鄭成功的書信。這些資料多數已編列在各圖書館的目錄索引中,台灣財力雄厚,要購得微卷、影本,相當容易。中央圖書館就蒐有日本等地所藏的明清方志、各種經書等,以及美國各大學有關中國研究的博士論文;政大圖書館也正向法國國家圖書館購置敦煌微卷。

除此之外,若能建立完備的、全世界的漢學資料索引及人才檔,為各國漢學家提供服務,這樣才能「吸引」更多的重視和友誼。

「台灣目前已經是漢學重鎮」,中研院近史所朱浤源說,「這從歐美一流漢學家樂於應邀來台可以證明」,但是要想從「重鎮」躍為「中心」,顯然還有一段路要走。

「培養傑出學者、整理文獻目錄、為歐美漢學家提供服務、主辦國際研討會……,這些都是可行的辦法」,朱浤源表示,如果能更使「台灣」本身成為研究重點,則更具意義。

關懷本土,放眼天下

從先民來台;荷蘭、日本殖民時代;乃進一步至於台灣現代化、民主化歷程;海峽兩岸關係的演變等,在目前「本土化」意識高漲之際,在在吸引了許多國內學者研究。

根據漢學研究中心的統計,在民國七十一年到七十七年間,國內漢學家以「台灣」為研究主題的高佔百分之廿三,幾個大型研究計畫,如中研院主持的「台灣史田野研究計畫」、「台灣土著語言資料自動化」;國科會補助的「澎湖群島古代人類移殖史的考古學研究」、「台灣農業發展的歷史社會分析」等,都極有價值。

可惜的是,在國際漢學界中,「台灣」這個主題受到的重視仍遠遜於大陸、甚至新加坡、香港等華人社會,而關係到整個中華民族前途的「台灣經驗」更應由國內學者率先整理、分析,彰顯其重要性。

「應該做,而可以做的事情實在很多」,中研院近史所張朋園說。台灣要培養自知、共識及歷史觀、世界觀,從「本身」做起,實在是刻不容緩。

〔圖片說明〕

P.16

中央圖書館的善本書,已用現代方法重新裱裝、典藏。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Exploiting the Riches--Making Taiwan a World Center for Sinology

Laura Li /photos courtesy of Vincent Chang /tr. by Peter Eberly

Back in 1974, scholars Ch'u Wan-li, Yen Keng-wang, and Shen Kang-po of Academia Sinica advocated making Taiwan into "the world's center for sinological research." Over the past fifteen years, two large-scale international conferences and numerous sinological seminars have been held on the island, and the Materials and Service Center for Chinese Studies in the National Central Library is frequented by many foreign scholars. Calmly considered, however, these achievements still leave us somewhat short of our goal.


What qualifications does Taiwan possess to become a center of sinology?

"The sinological materials kept on Taiwan can well be called the richest and most precious in the Free World," says Liu Chao-yu, a professor of Chinese literature at Soochow University. The chief repositories are Academia Sinica, the National Palace Museum, the National Central Library, and the libraries of National Taiwan University and National Taiwan Normal University.

The materials can be divided into several major categories: chia-ku wen remains (oracular bone inscriptions), ancient artifacts, original editions, government documents from the Ming and Ching dynasties, local records, and modern historical documents.

As for chia-ku wen, the Institute of History and Philology in Academia Sinica holds around 25,000 oracle bone fragments excavated between 1928 and 1937 from the site of the ancient capital of the Shang dynasty in Anyang, Honan Province. Some 600 pieces are fairly complete and possess immense historical value.

The National Palace Museum is a vast treasure house of ancient Chinese paintings, calligraphic scrolls, and artistic works in bronze, ceramic, jade, lacquer, enamel, and other mediums. For serious scholars of Chinese art history, a three- to five-year stint at the museum is practically considered a must.

Among the nearly 300,000 rare and original editions of ancient Chinese books preserved on Taiwan, the greatest quantity and the most valuable date from the Sung and Ming dynasties. An extremely useful reference tool is the United Catalog of Chinese Original Editions, compiled by the National Central Library.

First priority during the government's move to Taiwan was naturally given to the oldest items, so the comparative lack of works from the Ching dynasty and the modern era is a regrettable fact of life. However, the National Palace Museum holds a fairly substantial collection of government documents from the Ching dynasty, which have been cataloged and opened to the public.

In addition, the more than 300,000 Ching government documents held by the Institute of History and Philology are being collated, abstracted, and microfilmed, a task that will prove to be of immense assistance to researchers of Ming and Ching history.

Documents related to modern history, including official papers, correspondence, and news reports, are stored in the Kuomintang Historical Commission, which each year attracts many international scholars in search of prize finds.

Abundant documents are one of the prime qualifications for Taiwan becoming a strong-hold of sinology. And with modern information exchange becoming ever more rapid and convenient, Western and Japanese collections are also within easy access. Most overseas holdings have been compiled in library catalogs, and, given the country's strong financial position, microfilm and photocopies have been fairly easy to obtain. The establishment of a comprehensive catalog of worldwide sinological materials with service to scholars of all countries would earn us even more friendship and attention.

"Taiwan is already a stronghold of sinology," says Chu Hung-yuan, a scholar at Academia Sinica's Institute of Modern History. "The fact that first-rate Western sinologists are delighted to be invited here proves it." But it still has a way to go from being a stronghold of sinology to the world's center.

"Cultivating outstanding scholars, compiling catalogs, providing services to Western sinologists, and holding international seminars are all practicable steps," Chu says, but making Taiwan itself become an important focus of research, he adds, would be even more meaningful.

"There are really quite a number of things we should do and can do," says a professor of foreign languages at National Taiwan University. If we in Taiwan want to cultivate self-knowledge, historical perspective, and a broader world view, then starting right at home is imperative.

[Picture Caption]

Rare and original editions at the National Central Library have, by mean s ot modern methods, been rebound and carefully stored.

 

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