走馬看印尼三大名勝——佛羅浮屠、三保廟、縮影公園

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1983 / 10月

文‧盧惠芬 圖‧鄭元慶


印尼是個充滿特殊民族風情的國家,擁有典型的熱帶景觀與四時宜人的氣候,每年都吸引大批觀光客前往。

 

本刊此次派員赴印尼採訪、報導我國駐印農技團與榮工處時,足跡亦遍至當地各主要城市,雖屬走馬看花,亦深為沿途景緻吸引。其中最值得介紹的名勝古蹟,除上期報導過的峇里島外,還有:佛羅浮屠、三保廟與縮影公園。


佛羅浮屠位於爪哇中部,古城日惹附近。此名出自梵文,「佛羅」意為佛教寺院,「浮屠」指在某物上方,佛羅浮屠即為建在高處的寺廟。實際上佛羅浮屠並不具殿、堂等一般廟宇的建築形式,而是依山闢建、層層疊疊、數以千計的石雕佛像,非常壯觀。

印尼佛羅浮屠約建於西元八世紀,與中國萬里長城、埃及金字塔及印度泰姬馬哈陵並稱世界四大古蹟。

為什麼在以回教為國教,絕大多數國民為回教徒的印尼,有這麼浩大的佛教遺址?而且這個遺蹟為什麼埋在土下數百年,直到十九世紀才為人發現?

佛羅浮屠有一段悲壯的傳說故事

據印尼官方資料記載:爪哇島中部為印尼文化發源地,曾繁榮一時,佛羅浮屠即過去的宗教中心。後來發展重心漸移至東爪哇,佛羅浮屠隨之沒落;又在一次火山爆發中,被岩漿淹沒,經百餘年後,岩漿風化,上面長起野草與雜樹,佛羅浮屠就完全被遺忘了。直到十九世紀初,附近居民開墾山林時,才發現這巨大的佛教遺址。

上述資料雖說明佛羅浮屠被遺忘、掩埋的原因,但並未解釋印尼為什麼有這麼大的佛教遺蹟。因此,當地居民更相信、也更樂意道來另一段悲壯的故事:

據說,印尼原始土著都是佛教及印度教徒,擅於雕刻。八世紀時,為表示對宗教的虔敬,他們搬運石塊,沿山堆砌;集合族內雕刻家,在此一刀一錘地雕造,耗時數十年完成滿山石雕佛像,視作「國寶」,此即佛羅浮屠。

十一世紀時,阿拉伯人入侵,土著不敵,預備全族大逃亡。為恐「國寶」遭致破壞,離去前以土覆蓋其上,希望有朝一日能重回故土,再來膜拜。

但是,後來阿拉伯人、馬來人的移民日漸增多,勢力愈來愈大,印尼成了回教國,土著再也沒有機會回去尋訪、朝拜佛羅浮屠。據說他們逃到了峇里島,保留了印度教的信仰及擅雕刻的才能。而佛羅浮屠則埋在土下,渡過了黑暗的八百年。

滿山盡是石雕佛像

佛羅浮屠的構造為金字塔型,規模十分浩大。它高四十二公尺,共分十層,底層為四方形建築,每邊長達一百一十公尺。

一至六層為正方形建築,每層皆有圍牆,牆上鑿有拱形洞穴,每洞置一坐姿石佛。洞與洞間刻滿華嚴經中記述的釋迦事蹟,及神話中的仙女、怪獸圖像等,雕工十分精細。

七至九層為圖形構造,每層規律地排著數十個圓壇,壇中有尊高約一公尺半的大佛。佛像手勢變化多端,有的在胸前合十;有的手指交叉平放腿上;有的一手置於腿上,另一手指向東方,還有的指向西方、南方、北方……。

為保護上述三層的大型石雕佛像,近年印尼政府在每個圓壇上覆蓋一鏤空的鐘形塔,遊客僅能由鏤空處窺望神像。傳說如能摸到塔內佛像腹部,可保大富大貴,因此幾乎每個遊客都企圖把手伸入塔內觸摸。但塔壁與佛像距離頗遠,不太可能摸到。

頂層為一大型、密封的鐘型塔。拾級而上,至此下望,不僅滿山佛像令人嘆為觀止,而且山下是一望無際的熱帶椰林,但見綠樹掩映中,散佈著尖頂、紅磚屋舍聚集的小村落,在幽靜中透出一片祥和,令人心靈澄靜,暫將塵世間的恩怨情仇、名利紛擾……拋在腦後。

屢經破壞,極待修護

以今人眼光來看,佛羅浮屠的規模之大、雕工之細,仍是一個偉大的藝術寶庫;何況它建於一千多年前,尤具歷史價值。

可惜的是,這個在佛教及藝術史上佔重要地位的遺址,並未受到良好的維護及保存。埋藏數百年,有些部分難免遭受侵蝕、毀損;出土之後,還有不肖者盜取石像出售。此外,一來因印尼人多是回教徒,並不把佛羅浮屠當宗教聖地;二來過去保護古蹟的觀念淡薄,因此十九世紀末有位泰國國王來訪,參觀佛羅浮屠後,表示十分喜歡那些石雕佛像,當時的印尼政府便慨然砍了許多石像送他,為佛羅浮屠帶來另一場浩劫。

幾經破壞,佛羅浮屠的數千佛像中,現已少有完整者。遠觀尚可見其規模,懷想舊日諸神安坐、信徒朝拜的盛況;近看則佛像缺頭、斷手者所在多有,斷垣殘壁,不忍卒睹。罩在鐘形塔內的佛像,在未受保護前,亦已遭破壞。

近年來,印尼政府已注意到古蹟保護,並將佛羅浮屠闢為名勝區,現正計畫進一步修護。希望在印尼政府的努力下,這個具宗教、藝術與歷史價值的文化寶藏,能早日恢復舊觀。

三保廟香火鼎盛

三保廟供奉我國明朝時下南洋的三保太監鄭和,廟內香火鼎盛,信徒以華僑居多。

鄭和小名三保,人稱三保太監。明成祖時,他奉命七下南洋宣揚國威,於西元一四○六及一四一六年,兩度到印尼,於爪哇島北岸的西蒙安登陸,為中印兩國接觸之始。此後,漸有國人移民至印。為紀念鄭和,他們將西蒙安稱為三保瓏,隨著華僑日多,三保瓏之名也就流傳開來,現已成為正式地名。

一九六○年,三保瓏華僑集資建三保廟,廟堂建築與內部陳設,均採純中國式。門上有中文對聯,右聯「滇人明史風來世」,左聯「井水洞山留去思」,橫聯「德綏威服」。大殿建築屋脊高聳,木柱上也盡是聯句。

大殿前部上方懸有紅幔,繡著「三保大人」四個大字,大紅供桌上,燃著大紅蠟燭,善男信女不斷前來上香、祈願,殿內煙霧繚繞。

異國見中華文物,別有一番滋味

三保廟正殿供奉鄭和,偏殿則供奉孔子、土地公及一個古錨。古錨已鐵鏽斑斑,大部分以紅布包紮。據說此即鄭和停泊印尼所用之錨,已有五百多年歷史。

在異國見著我們先人的遺物,尤其引人發思古幽情,忍不住輕輕觸摸船錨滿是鏽痕的粗糙表面,卻遭廟中服務人員(皆為男性,並非和尚,穿著印尼傳統花布長裙)制止。然後他雙手合十向古錨一拜,嘴堜孺嬰傢耤A再拿起一副筊杯,拋在地上;結果茭杯一正一反,按國人習俗,那表示神明首肯,他果真上前解開紅布,讓我們看個仔細。一切動作都很地道——純中國式的。

環顧廟中服務人民與香客,多是黃皮膚、黑頭髮的炎黃子孫,陳設也極具中國風味,供奉的更是我國先人。可是服務人員、信徒幾乎都不會講華語,聽著他們用印尼語交談,不免覺得有點彆扭,似乎與廟中氣氛不大協調。

殿外庭院種有幾株榕樹,其中一株不知怎的藤蔓竟結成鍊條狀。信徒以為,這象徵綁住船錨的鐵鍊,亦為「三保大人」有靈的明證,三保廟因此更是聲名遠播,信徒廣佈。

縮影公園展現各省建築特色

縮影公園位於雅加達近郊,距市區約四十分鐘車程,為觀光客必至的旅遊勝地。

縮影公園並非將各種建築物按比例縮小,而是將印尼全國廿七省的特殊建築,在此處照樣興建一番。園內分成許多單元,每單元表現一省的建築風格,各單元之間有草地、道路或圍牆相隔。

縮影公園中,峇里島兩門對稱、滿布雕刻的寺廟;圓形尖頂的清真寺;底層為柱、二樓才供人居住的屋子;以茅草、瓦或岩板為頂的房舍……,比鄰而立,極為可觀。可惜園內沒有說明書,遊客無法進一步瞭解各省建築特色形成的背景。

園中還有一個鳥園,飼養百餘種各國鳥類。遊客可入內參觀,享受那種鳥兒從頭上掠過、腳邊走過的山野情趣。

以小見大,好比遍遊印尼一遭

公園中心是一個人工湖,湖中有眾多人造小島,係按印尼國土的形狀及方位排列。湖邊有汽艇出租,遊客可乘艇快速地由爪哇至蘇門答臘、再至婆羅州……,還可搭乘纜車,由空中鳥瞰「印尼全境」。

印尼國土廣大,島嶼繁多,遊客不易遊遍。到縮影公園看看各省建築,搭汽艇穿梭各島,或坐纜車俯瞰,再至園內出售各省特產的商店中買些紀念品,只要一天功夫,也算小遊印尼一遭了。

〔圖片說明〕

P.60、P.61

世界四大古蹟之一的印尼佛羅浮屠。圖1:佛羅浮屠共分十層,可沿階而上。圖2:山上有許多石雕的鐘型塔。圖3:整山皆是石雕佛像。圖4:由山下仰望佛羅浮屠,非常壯觀。圖5:牆上雕滿華嚴經上的佛教故事,雕工精細。

P.62、P.63

印尼縮影公園。圖1.2:公園中有個鳥園,飼養百餘種各國鳥類,遊客可入內參觀。圖3:公園中心的人工湖,湖中有許多小島,係按印尼國土形狀及方位排列,圖中遊客正乘汽艇遊覽。圖4:縮影公園中,有印尼各省建築的「樣品屋」,可看出各地的建築特色。

P.64

印尼當地有名的華人廟宇——三保廟,圖1:三保廟中紅幔高懸,燃著大紅蠟燭,陳設、氣氛均與國內廟宇相若。圖2:廟中偏殿供奉一古錨,據傳此錨為鄭和停泊印尼所用之錨,已有五百年歷史。圖3:廟外有株榕樹,藤蔓結成鍊狀,信徒認為這是三保大人顯靈的證明。

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EN

Not-to-be-Missed Places in Java

Chrissie Lu /photos courtesy of Cheng Yuan-ching


Exotic, unique local customs fill Indonesia, and its location on the equator makes for a year-round good climate. Thus many tourists travel there. The cultural, economic and political center of Indonesia is the island of Java. Besides the world-famous island of Bali, it draws most of Indonesia's tourist visitors.

Sinorama, while visiting Java to report on the activities of the Republic of China agricultural technical mission and of the Retired Servicemen's Engineering Agency in Java, had an ideal chance to stop in on three tourist attractions on the island: the temple complex at Borobudur, the city of Semarang, and the park Mini Indonesia.

The name Borobudur comes from Sanskrit. Boro means "temple," and budur means "above, upper," referring to the way the temple buildings ascend the hillside on which they are set. In fact, Borobudur is not a single temple, but a group of buildings covering the whole hill, with thousands of stone Buddhist images--a magnificent site.

Borobudur has been grouped with the Great Wall of China, the pyramids of Giza, and the Taj Mahal as one of the world's four great ancient edifices.

Borobudur was built in the eighth century of the Christian era, when central Java was a flourishing cultural center. According to Indonesian government spokesmen, the center of Javanese culture later moved to east Java, and Borobudur was comparatively neglected. A volcanic eruption covered the monument with lava and it lay unknown for 800 years. Only in the nineteenth century, when local residents dug there to find carvings to sell, did the (colonial) government take note of the site.

The temple complex is built on many levels; each level has a surrounding wall, and on each wall are carved arch-shaped nooks for Buddhist images. On the walls are depictions of monsters and mythical fairies, exquisitely carved.

On the seventh to ninth levels of the complex are many round altars, each one with an image of the Buddha; each of the scores of images has a different posture. In order to protect the images, the Indonesian government has built bell-shaped covers over the statues, with holes to admit light and allow visitors to view the images. Some visitors try to reach through the holes in the covers to touch the images' bellies in the belief that that brings blessings. But the shells of the covers are far enough from the images to make that difficult. These covers were emplaced just in time. Already most of the images are missing heads, arms or other parts.

The Sam Poo temple in Semarang is dedicated to Cheng Ho and is commonly filled with worshippers, most of them Indonesians of Chinese ancestry.

The Yong-le emperor of the Ming dynasty commanded Cheng Ho to make seven voyages to the Western Sea (meaning South-East Asia) to proclaim the majesty of the empire. Cheng Ho landed on Java in both 1406 and 1416. Later, Chinese settlers arrived on the island. To commemorate Cheng Ho, they named the place where he landed San-pao Lung ("dragon of the Triratna"). In Indonesian pronunciation, this is Semarang.

In 1960, the Chinese-Indonesians of the area opened a temple. The Confucian-Taoist-Buddhist temple is thoroughly Chinese in construction. Inside are Chinese characters, embroidered decorations, and people worshipping amid clouds of incense. Objects of worship in the temple include an image of Confucius, the earth god, and an old anchor. The anchor is rough and coated with rust, and said to be an anchor used by Cheng Ho more than 500 years ago. People worship before the anchor (they used to touch it before temple authorities prohibited that) and then cast small wooden blocks on the ground for divination. All the activities in the temple are genuinely Chinese.

The worshippers too are just as Chinese as the people on Taiwan, but do not speak any Chinese; they talk to each other in Indonesian--an astonishing sight for our Sinorama reporter.

Mini Indonesia Park is about forty minutes from Jakarta, and is a popular spot for residents of the city to visit during their free time. The park gathers together the architecture and other special features of Indonesia's twenty-seven provinces. Each section of the park features one province, complete with replica buildings. The park also has an aviary, which even has a pair of mandarin ducks brought by Premier Sun Yun-suan during his visit to Indonesia in 1981. In the middle of the park is a man-made lake, with islands inside to represent the shape of Indonesia. One can hire a boat and sail, as it were, among the islands of the Indonesian archipelago without leaving Java.

Indonesia is vast, and it is not easy to get from one island to another for the casual tourist. But in Mini Indonesia Park, one can see the buildings of every province, and can buy special products from every island as souvenirs; it's almost like really making a trip all around Indonesia.

[Picture Caption]

Borobudur--one of the world's four great ancient edifices. 1. Borobudur has ten levels ascending the hill like steps. 2. Atop the hill there are many bell-shaped stone carvings. 3. Borobudur is covered with stone Buddhist images, but unfortunately, many have been damaged. 4. Looking at Borobudur from the foot of the hill makes for an imposing view. 5. Every wall at Borobudur is filled with meticulous carvings of Buddhist stories.

Indonesia's famous Mini Indonesia Park. 1.2. The park includes an aviary, sheltering over a hundred varieties of birds from various countries; visitors can enter the aviary to see the birds. 3. In the middle of the park is a man-made lake, in which are many small islands representing the shape of Indonesia; in the picture tourists are voyaging among Indonesia's islands in a motorboat. 4. In the park, architecture from every part of Indonesia is on display, so visitors can appreciate the special features of each region.

1. The Sam Poo Temple is decorated with red banners and candle lanterns; its atmosphere and furnishings are just like those of temples in Taiwan. 2. An old anchor is displayed for worship in the temple; it is said the anchor was used by Cheng Ho when he landed in Indonesia. It is perhaps 500 years old. 3. Outside the temple is a banyan tree with branches twisted like chains; the worshippers say this is a sign of Cheng Ho's divinity.

 

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