「反恐」與經濟 ──走向多元化議題的亞太經合會

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2002 / 11月

文‧張靜茹


十月二十六日,二○○二年亞太經合會(APEC)非正式領袖高峰會在墨西哥洛卡伯斯登場,中央研究院院長李遠哲代表陳總統出席,李遠哲除代表我國首度在APEC發表演說,並當面邀請大陸國家主席江澤民到台灣訪問,會場上,李遠哲也與隔鄰而坐的美國總統布希開心晤談。之前APEC部長會議上,經濟部長林義夫也完成與多國的雙邊會談。相較於去年大陸在各項程序上對台灣代表的干擾,致政府召回代表團以示抗議,今年APEC雖也出現兩岸官員政治意味濃厚的談話過招,但代表團可以說順利完成任務。


代表陳總統參加APEC非正式領袖高峰會的中研院院長李遠哲,在會議揭幕前夕,應邀在企業領袖高峰會發表演講。他在演講中強調,目前仍有許多低度開發國家,在世界經濟體系中處於邊緣地位,而台灣作為新興工業經濟體,在發展過程累積相當豐富的經驗,可以提供低度開發國家做參考,台灣願意分享發展經驗,也承諾願意幫助這些國家。

李遠哲在這項國際企業領袖會議場合公開推銷「台灣經驗」,是我國「領袖代表」十年來首度獲邀安排發表演講,雖然只是引言式的演說,形式意義大於實質意義,仍是我國積極參與國際組織的新進展。

特別每年一度的APEC會議上,大陸總是伺機矮化台灣,去年在上海舉行會議,大陸身為地主國,更是動作頻頻,引來國人抗議。今年會場雖遠離亞洲,我方事前即謹慎應對,以防擦槍走火。比如外交部為避免中共阻撓,對安排與我場外領袖級雙邊會談國家的相關作業,均秘而不宣。

今年,李遠哲挾著諾貝爾獎得主的高知名度、與對大陸學術研究屢有建言,代表陳總統參加APEC會議,過程沒有出現雜音,也頗受禮遇。兩天的會議,李遠哲完成了陳水扁總統所交付的外交任務,包括對布希總統表達支持反恐的立場、對江澤民發出訪問台灣的邀請,以及對其他領袖表達加強經貿交流合作的積極態度。

雖說李遠哲表現稱職,兩岸在APEC會議上仍難避免過招,會後就傳出,在大陸積極介入下,籌備單位只好協調更改李遠哲的演說場次與主題;此外,行前我方曾表示將在會場上尋找適當機會談論三通,與安排包括中共在內的十個國家舉行雙邊諮商會談,中共外交部發言人章啟月在APEC會議中則回應「台灣是自己的國家問題」,不適合在APEC這種國際場合和台灣進行雙邊會談與談論三通。

針對此說,經濟部次長尹啟銘表示,兩岸其實已經進行過部分的雙邊會談,包括他到墨西哥參加能源部長會議時,就與大陸代表進行過雙邊會談。他強調,台灣並未放棄與大陸進行雙邊會談的機會,在APEC的架構下,兩岸還是可以不拘形式進行互動,如果雙方時間安排太過緊湊,也不排除在休息時間交換意見。

除了積極尋求與大陸互動,在二十三日APEC部長會議正式展開前,經濟部長林義夫也陸續與美國、墨西哥、越南、智利、印尼、紐西蘭等多個國家完成雙邊會談。台灣並同意提供美國一份有關我國對於智慧財產權保護所做努力的報告回應,以減緩來自美國企業界的壓力。在與美國貿易副代表進行的會談中,對於美國在APEC架構下提出「APEC區域貿易安全倡議」等構想,台灣也表達支持的立場。

APEC原來只是亞太經濟領袖年度例行聚會的經貿論壇,向來極少碰觸敏感的政治與軍事議題。在「九一一事件」後,APEC已成美國遊說國際社會反恐的外交陣地,此回APEC領袖就共同發表了反恐聲明,並譴責近來在亞太地區,特別是發生在印尼、菲律賓以及俄羅斯等地的恐怖暴行。早先的部長級會議上,也討論了如何在不影響經濟發展下進行反恐活動。

除了政治與外交意味濃厚,在經濟議題上,部長會議中,各國也檢討執行去年的上海約章,各會員體均同意在大阪行動綱領當中增列「強化經濟法制基礎建設」專章,並併同「批准及執行修改後的京都公約」、「旅客資訊優先通報系統」、「電子化檢疫檢驗證明」、「電子化原產地證明」、「電子及電機產品電磁相容性互相承認協定」、「企業治理」等「開路者倡議」,提報部長會議認可。二十二日閉幕的資深官員會議上,各國也一致決議APEC會員體將遵照WTO杜哈發展議程所制定的談判時程,促成新回合談判如期於二○○五年元旦順利完成。

誠如李遠哲所說,APEC不是政治角力的舞台,也不是解決實質問題的地方,而是看各國能夠對國際社會有何貢獻和回饋的場所。若能朝此目標前進,與會各國或許真能因此力挽經濟狂瀾,共度這一波景氣寒冬。 

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APEC會議主辦國墨西哥於當地時間二十六日晚間宴請各會員領袖,中央研究院院長李遠哲夫婦 (左一)與美國總統布希夫婦比鄰而坐。(新聞局提供)

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EN

2002 APEC Meeting Goes Smoothly for ROC Delegation

Chang Chin-ju /tr. by Phil Newell

On October 26, Lee Yuan-tseh, president of the Academia Sinica, attended the APEC informal summit of leaders held on October 26 in Los Cabos, Mexico as the representative of ROC president Chen Shui-bian. Lee made the first-ever address by a Taiwan representative at APEC, directly invited former PRC Premier Jiang Zemin to visit Taiwan, and spoke directly with US president George W. Bush, who was seated next to him at the conference. In addition, at the APEC ministerial conference held earlier, ROC minister of economic affairs Lin Yi-fu held bilateral discussions with numerous countries. Last year, it will be recalled, the PRC raised many procedural obstacles to Taiwan's representatives, causing the ROC to withdraw its delegation in protest. But this year, despite some persisting differences of outlook between Taiwan and the mainland, Taiwan's APEC representative team accomplished its mission without friction.


Academia Sinica president Lee Yuan-tseh, representing President Chen Shui-bian at this year's APEC informal conference of leaders, was invited to address the corporate leaders' meeting. In his address he emphasized that there are still many countries with a low level of development which are marginalized in the world economy. As a newly industrialized country, Taiwan has learned a great deal in its process of development. Its experience can be helpful for countries at a low level of development, and Taiwan is very willing to share this experience and to help these countries.

Lee's marketing of the "Taiwan experience" marked the first time in a decade that the "lead representative" from Taiwan was invited to make an address at an APEC meeting. Although these were simply introductory marks, and more symbolically than substantially important, they marked a new step forward in Taiwan's efforts to participate in international organizations.

This is particularly the case given that mainland China generally takes the opportunity afforded by the annual APEC meetings to diminish Taiwan's status. Last year at the APEC conference held in Shanghai, the mainland, as the host country, took a variety of obstructive measures, inciting protests from the Taiwan side. Although this year's meeting site was far removed from Asia, the ROC side remained very cautious in order to avoid misfires. For example, in order to avoid obstruction from the PRC, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs divulged no information about leader-level bilateral meetings arranged for outside the conference site.

This year, Lee Yuan-tseh, buttressed by his fame as a Nobel Prize winner and his frequent advice to the mainland Chinese academic community, was able to represent President Chen at the APEC meeting without any friction, and was treated with due courtesy. During the two-day conference, Lee was able to complete the diplomatic missions which President Chen entrusted to him. These included expressing Taiwan's support for the US anti-terrorism campaign to President Bush, inviting Jiang Zemin to Taiwan, and expressing to other countries Taiwan's earnest desire to strengthen economic exchange and cooperation.

However, while Lee was a success, inevitably there was still backstage maneuvering for position. It came out after the conference that, as a result of intensive PRC lobbying, both the timing and subject of Lee's address were altered.

Moreover, before the departure of the ROC team for Mexico, the Taiwan side indicated that it would seek an opportunity to discuss direct links with mainland China, and moreover that the PRC would be one of the countries with which the ROC delegation would arrange bilateral talks. However, at the conference PRC foreign ministry spokesman Zhang Qiyue said that APEC, as an international conference, was not the place to discuss the question of whether Taiwan is its own country or to undertake bilateral discussions or talks about direct cross-strait links.

Responding to this, ROC vice minister of economic affairs Yin Chi-ming stated at the conference that the two sides had in fact already undertaken partial bilateral talks, such as bilateral discussions between himself and the PRC representative at the energy ministers' conference in Mexico, and that it was precisely under the APEC structure that the two sides could engage in interaction without restriction.

Besides these efforts to engage mainland China, before the formal opening of the APEC ministerial conference, ROC minister of economic affairs Lin Yi-fu held bilateral talks successively with the US, Mexico, Vietnam, Chile, Indonesia, New Zealand, and other countries. Taiwan agreed to provide the US with a report on measures it is taking to protect intellectual property rights, in order to reduce pressure from the American business community. During discussions with the assistant US trade representative, Taiwan agreed to support new US proposals under the APEC structure including the idea for "APEC regional trade security."

APEC had previously been limited to discussion of economic and trade issues, and very rarely touched upon sensitive political or military topics. But in the wake of 911, this year APEC became a forum for the US to lobby the international community on its anti-terror campaign. The leaders' meeting issued a collective anti-terrorism communiqu? and criticized recent terror attacks in the Asia-Pacific region, especially those in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Russia. Earlier, at the ministerial level meeting, one of the tasks was to discuss how to undertake anti-terrorism activities without affecting economic development.

In addition, at the ministerial level meeting, countries discussed implementation of last year's Shanghai accord. Participants also agreed to add a special article on "strengthening the rule of law infrastructure" to the Osaka action program. They also combined a number of preliminary ideas covering a variety of subjects-including the approval and implementation of an amended Kyoto Protocol; creation of a travelers' information priority reporting system; electronic verification of quarantine inspection; electronic verification of product country of origin; corporate governance; and so on-in a report that was approved by the ministerial conference. At the senior officials' conference which ended on the 22nd, the various countries unanimously agreed that APEC members will support a new round of WTO trade talks to be completed by New Year's Day 2005 on the basis of the timetable set under the Doha Development Agenda.

As Lee Yuan-tseh stated, APEC is not a place for political battles nor a place to resolve substantive problems. It is a place to see whether various countries are able to make a contribution to international society. If they take this as their goal, perhaps the participating countries can regain their economic vitality and collectively get through the current economic winter.

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At the APEC banquet hosted by Mexican President Fox on the 26th, Dr. and Mrs. Lee Yuan-tseh were neighbors with US President Bush and his wife. (courtesy of GIO)

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