與台灣經濟齊航——高雄港

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1989 / 2月

文‧宋菊琴 圖‧王煒昶


時序入冬,南台灣的氣候仍佳。高雄港在曙光中清醒過來,貨櫃、拆船、造船三兄弟各自開始忙碌的一天。

貨櫃碼頭的起重機叉開大腳,開動引擎,一字排開的忙著裝卸。巨型貨櫃船熙來攘往,使高雄港成為世界第三大貨櫃港。

偏於一隅的大仁宮拆船區,美國航空母艦香格里拉號在工人的銲槍下片片解體。兩個月後,此航艦將消失無蹤;大仁宮拆船碼頭也將停止作業,成為歷史名詞。

在中國造船公司船塢,則正熱熱鬧鬧的舉行新船裕亨、裕利輪交船、命名典禮,和平鴿、五彩汽球滿天飛揚,造船業彷彿已恢復生機。

貨櫃、拆船、造船的際遇各有千秋,他們的前景若何?


民國七十五年,高雄港貨櫃吞吐量躍居世界第三,僅次於香港和荷蘭鹿特丹。去年的吞吐量約達三百零八萬個TEU(折合廿呎貨櫃),成長率高達百分之十一,有希望超越鹿特丹,進階為世界第二。

高雄港務局副局長馬順義認為,貨櫃運輸量激增主因在於,台灣地區的高成長經濟及轉口貨櫃業務的開發。目前,高雄港每年貨櫃吞吐量中,進、出口與轉口三類貨櫃,各佔三分之一,形成三足鼎立的局面。

高雄港規劃課長林明石表示,隨著新台幣的升值、產業結構的轉變,出口貨物多以體積小、附加價值高的電子產品、汽車零件為主。整體而言,出口貨品的價值有增加,但是貨櫃數量成長率卻有減緩的趨勢。

反倒是因為美商海陸及美國總統海運公司相繼在高雄港設立轉運基地,使轉口貨櫃成長迅速,彌補了進出口貨櫃成長的不足,仍維持貨櫃吞吐量的高度成長。

轉口貨櫃異軍突起

事實上,轉口貨櫃成長的速度也出乎了高雄港務局的意料。林明石指出,台灣是海島經濟型態,無廣大的腹地需求的配合,所以在民國七十五年的預估,轉口貨櫃是以每年成長百分之五計算,要到民國八十五年,才可達到一百萬個TEU。

不料,轉口貨櫃至去年十一月底止,就已突破百萬,全年約達一百一十一萬個TEU。這項轉變,主要是各大航商紛紛在此設立基地,以轉運香港、新加坡、印尼、美國等地的貨櫃。目前尚有日本的三井、郵船兩個船泊株式會社、韓國的韓進航運及國內的香島、南泰等海運公司都有意租用貨櫃碼頭,而丹麥的快桅輪船公司也已決定在高雄港設立轉運中心。

可是,就經濟效益而言,轉口貨櫃的成長,對高雄港的營運並無實質的幫助,林明石表示,真正受惠的是租用基地的航商,但是,就另一方面來說,此可鞏固高雄港的航運地位,及增加我國的國際地位。

魅力何在?

高雄港的魅力何在?何以能成為世界各地航商爭相爭取的據點?

「效率高、服務好、收費低」,是高雄港標榜的三大特點,也是努力的目標。這三點環環相扣,形成良性循環,馬順義副局長自豪地說:「高雄港的裝卸效率之高,可彌補商船在航行途中或其它港口耽誤的時間。」

高雄港務局棧埠處處長劉容玉更具體的細述了高雄港的過人之處。

他說,高雄港氣候佳,除了梅雨季節外,很少下雨,這是高雄港最大的本錢。因為風雨都會影響商船卸貨,如果因天候而影響卸貨時間,增長貨櫃船滯港時間,則會增加成本。選擇少受氣候影響的港口卸貨,自然是航商渴求的。

除了天然因素之外,良好的運輸設施、熟練的操作技術,都使貨櫃裝卸效率達到最高點。劉容玉處長表示,依貨櫃起重機標準,一個小時裝卸量是廿五個TEU,而高雄港出租給航商的基地貨櫃裝卸量,每小時可達卅個TEU。

他欣慰的說:「歐美很多商港的業務要靠爭取獲得;高雄港多是自動上門的。」

高雄港目前正在興建第四貨櫃中心,現已完成四座碼頭。

緊接著,第五貨櫃中心的計畫也將開始陸續進行,以因應香港主權於一九九七年轉移後,國外航商轉至高雄港投資的需求。高雄港決定投資一百億元,以八年的時間興建七座深水碼頭及五處貨櫃場,以適應新式巨型貨櫃船發展的需求,屆時每年可增加貨櫃作業量約一百萬個TEU。

拆船業後退

這項計畫興建的地點即是目前拆船業的據點大仁宮碼頭,它將隨著美國航空母艦香格里拉號於三月份解體完成後,畫上休止符。

新興的競爭者和造船業的景氣,注定了拆船業衰敗的命運。

台灣區舊船解體工程工業同業公會理事長許浩然表示,過去拆船的國家少,我國獨佔市場;近幾年來,大陸、印度和巴斯基坦等國加入競爭。這些國家的勞工低廉,舊船解體後,除了鋼板之外,船上的傢具等都可以再銷售,經濟效益自然提高。而國內環保意識日濃,為了防止二次公害,廢棄物的處理也加重了拆船成本。

以大陸做比較,其拆船一噸成本僅約六百元,而國內則需一千三百元至一千六百元。拆船業在國際市場上標購廢船的競爭力喪失,已由過去拆解油輪、貨輪淪落到今日只有拆些價格低的拖船、挖泥船的份。

所以,即使國內拆船技術已由過去三千噸的船要拆卸三、四個月,進展到一週內可完成,仍難敵成本的增加。

致命的打擊

經濟自由化、台幣的升值都是造成拆船業沒落的致命傷,早年外匯不夠,鋼鐵需要量的八、九成,是來自拆船鋼板的再製造。目前台灣的鋼鐵業都是拆船幫的天下,也就是這個原因。

但是,在經濟自由化之後,鋼錠、鋼胚進口稅率降至百分之五,由拆船鋼板製造出來的高成本、低售價次級鋼,難敵物美價廉的進口貨。加上屋漏偏逢連夜雨,新台幣的大幅升值,更斷絕了次級鋼外銷之路。

目前,已有百分之七十的業者離開了,但是,眾多賴以維生拆船務工何去何從?

這些勞工雖然長年在拆船區工作,但都是臨時雇工,雇主與勞工的關係在一艘船解體完成後就結束。

許浩然表示,目前政府已同意在大仁宮拆船結束後,每人提供轉業補助五萬元,總預算為三億八千萬元。

國內的拆船業是否就此消聲匿跡,許浩然不以為然,他認為,拆船業雖無法回復往日的盛況,但是國內仍有舊船解體的需要,有必要小規模的存在。

中船熬出頭

與拆船業相對的造船業,則有歷盡滄桑,苦盡甘來的感覺。

中船去年造船數量居世界第四位,僅次於南韓、日本、南斯拉夫,交船總噸數為六十四萬七千九百噸,較前年成長三成六,有八艘船簽約,造價共計六十五億七千餘萬新台幣。今年預計還要交八艘船。

面對著紛至沓來的訂單,中船忙得不亦樂乎,回想從民國六十四年建廠完成,就一直流年不利,那番景象,令人餘悸猶存。

當時因能源危機,航運業不景氣,嚇退了投資的民營企業,中船不得不由政府接管。民營改為國營,錢卻全數來自銀行借貸,沉重的利息負擔,在長達十二年不景氣的煎熬下,虧損累累,迫使走上裁員一途,總計裁撤一千四百名員工。

這段時期中船有如過街老鼠,人人喊打的輿論攻擊更是不斷;先天不足後天失調人謀不臧的評語也一一出籠。

航運業自七十六年底總算由谷底翻升,船隻的造價也大幅提高。但是,因為船隻皆以美金計價,在台幣勁升之下,造成售價降低,成本增加;此外利息的負擔,裁員分期攤還的費用,都延後了中船轉虧為盈的時機,預計要到民國八十年才可達到收支平衡。

貨櫃、拆船、造船三者隨著世界航運業的景氣,此起彼落也鮮明的表現出,能高瞻遠矚的適時掌握時代發展的軌跡,才是成敗的主要關鍵。

〔圖片說明〕

P.42

中船喜氣洋洋的為新船裕亨輪,舉行交船命名典禮。

P.42

工作人員在新船誕生後展露笑顏。

P.43

各大航商紛在高雄港設貨櫃轉運基地。

P.44

高雄港的貨櫃裝卸條件及效率享譽全球。

P.45

就算鉅大如航空母艦,也不得不在銲槍下,結束輝煌的海上生涯。

P.45

往事只待成追憶,老拆船工人黯然神傷。

P.46

大仁宮拆船碼頭即將成為歷史名詞。

P.46

解體的鋼板將運往煉鋼廠重生。

P.46

換旗儀式後,裕亨輪即可試航。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Kaohsiung Harbor: Shaping Up and Shipping Out

Sung Chu-ch'in /photos courtesy of Wei C. Wang /tr. by Phil Newell

Winter's rolling around, but it's as nice as ever in the south of Taiwan. As dawn breaks over Kaohsiung harbor, the container, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding operations start another busy day.

At the container docks, the cranes crank up their engines and get to work loading and unloading. The hum of activity of super container ships makes Kaohsiung the world's third largest container port, and it's still growing.

Tucked away in a corner is the Tajenkung shipbreaking area, where the U.S. aircraft carrier Shangri-La is being devoured plate by plate. In two months it will have disappeared without a trace, and the Tajenkung operations become a piece of history at the same time.

At the China Shipbuilding docks, a christening ceremony is being held for the ships Cemtex Hunter and Yuli. Doves and balloons fill the sky, symbols of an industry in full flight.

Containers, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding all have their ups and downs. What does the future hold in store?


In 1986 the container volume at Kaohsiung was third in the world, trailing only Hong Kong and Rotterdam. Last year volume reached 3.08 million TEU (equivalent to twenty feet of container), a growth rate of 11%. There is hope of passing Rotterdam to become number two.

Ma Shun-yi, assistant director of the Kaohsiung Bureau of Port Affairs, believes that the rapid increase in volume is due to Taiwan's economic growth and the development of container transfer. Currently imports, exports, and transfers each take up about one-third of container volume at Kaohsiung.

Lin Ming-shih, director of the Office of Planning at the harbor, notes that with the appreciation of the NT dollar and the trans-formation of the industrial structure, export products are more and more often small-sized, high-value-added products. While export value is up, the rate of increase in container volume has slowed. However, because two major U.S. shippers opened transfer bases at Kaohsiung, the increase in transfer volume has compensated, maintaining a high growth rate for total volume.

In fact, the growth in transfer volume has exceeded all expectations. Lin Ming-shih points out that since Taiwan is an island, with no large interior, estimates in 1986 foresaw an annual growth of 5% in transfer volume, reaching one million TEU in 1996. Incredibly, transfer volume had already broken that mark by the end of last November, and will reach about 1.11 million TEU for the year.

This turnabout is mainly due to the establishment of transfer bases in Kaohsiung by major shippers for transshipment to Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia, and the U.S. Currently, companies from Japan, South Korea, and local companies as well all plan to rent container piers, and a Denmark company has already decided to establish a transshipment center in the habor. And while transfers are not directly helpful to Kaohsiung's operations, they enhance its--and the ROC's--status.

Why is Kaohsiung so attractive? Well, efficiency is high, service is good, and fees are low. Facilities and their operators are superior. Liu Jung-yu notes that the standard for container handling is 25 TEU per hour; at Kaohsiung the rate can reach 30. Also, except for a brief summer rainy season, the climate is superb. Winds and rain slow handling, keep ships in port, and raise costs in both time and money.

Kaohsiung is currently building its fourth container center; four docks have been completed. A fifth one is planned to meet business expected to come over from post-1997 Hong Kong. The harbor authorities have decided to invest NT$10 billion and eight years, to build seven deepwater docks and five container areas to handle new supersized container ships. It could spell an increase of one million TEU a year.

The new areas will go where the Tajenkung dock currently is sited, that will cease operations after dismantling the Shangri-La. Its fate was decided by rising competition and a boom in shipping.

Hsu Hao-jan, chairman of the board of the Taiwan area Shipbreaking Industry Association, says that few countries did ship breaking in the past. Now India, Pakistan, and the mainland all do. Besides low labor costs, they are also ready customers for everything down to the furniture of the dismantled ship. Rising environmental protectionism on Taiwan raises the cost of handling waste. Despite gains in efficiency (it formerly took three or four months to take apart a 3,000-ton ship--now it takes a week), costs are too high: NT$1300-1600 per ton, compared with, for example, NT$600 a ton in the mainland.

Further, with shipping experiencing a boom, says shipbreaking engineer Chuang T'ing-sung, ships are getting extended lives, and fewer are being scrapped. Finally, with economic liberalization, imported steel can undercut scrap steel, which in the early days met 80-90% of domestic demand. And the rising NT kills hopes of exports.

Already 70% of shipbreakers are out of the industry. An NT$380 million fund has been set up to help workers find new jobs. Hsu Hao-jan says that shipbreaking will not totally disappear--there will still be the need to dismantle old ships at home.

Shipbuilding, on the other hand, is a phoenix from the ashes. Last year the China Shipbuilding Corporation made the ROC the world's fourth largest shipbuilder, behind only South Korea, Japan, and Yugoslavia, with 647,000 tons (an increase of 36% over the previous year). The eight orders turned NT$6.57 billion. It is expected that eight new ships will be built again this year.

And that doesn't count military ships. Work will start next January on a 4,000-ton missile cruiser for the navy. China Shipbuilding plans to build two new docks--one of 75,000 and one of 30,000 tons--for the construction and repair of mid- and small scale ships. Hsu Jung-hsiang of China Shipbuilding is confident that the company can construct other military vessels, as long as the buyer provides the basic data.

The spate of orders contrasts markedly with years of continual losses since the completion of facilities in 1975. With the energy crisis, shipping was in dire straits; private investors were scared away. The government took responsibility--and lots of criticism. Though a state-operated enterprise, capital was raised by bank loans, leaving large debts. Layoffs reached 1,400, and severance pay added to the burden.

Starting at the end of 1987, shipping has pulled out of its nadir. Nevertheless, with ship sales calculated in US dollars, the rising NT has lowered sales prices and raised costs, which, together with the debts, has slowed the recovery of the industry. It is estimated that only in 1991 will costs and income balance.

The old Navy expression goes "shape up or ship out." Though shipbreaking fades, the global revival in shipping has allowed Kaohsiung to thrive by doing both.

[Picture Caption]

One of China Shipbuilding Corporation's new efforts, the Cemtex Hunter, at its christening ceremony.

Workmen smile at the birth of another ship.

Numerous major shipping companies have been flocking to set up container transhipment bases at Kaohsiung harbor.

Kaohsiung harbor's facilities and efficiency at loading and unloading containers are world renowned.

Even the super ships, like this aircraft carrier, must someday see their sea lives come to a close.

All things must pass--but that doesn't keep shipbreaking workers from feeling heavy-hearted.

The Tajenkung shipbreaking dock will soon be a piece of history.

Dismantled steel plates are off to the mill for rebirth.

After the ceremony to exchange flags, the Cemtex Hunter can take its tri al voyage.

 

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