飛躍羚羊.猶自奔馳!

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1979 / 2月

文‧王宗蓉 圖‧孟慶常


無可置疑的,紀政是當今中華民國最傑出的女性之一。她曾克服了困厄的環境,經過不斷的苦練,終能在國際體壇揚名,為國爭光。如今,她已為人妻、為人母,也已經從田徑場上退休,但她又擔當起了中華民國田徑協會的總幹事一職。繁雜的行政工作難不倒她,因為她主張「人生是不斷的學習」。她要在這份工作上貢獻所學、所長,她要盡其所能地推展我國的田徑運動,使其更蓬勃興旺,也使全民更健康。


用事實去推翻它

「四肢發達,頭腦簡單」常被一些人喻為運動員的特徵,田徑女傑紀政最不喜歡聽到這種話。她常常激勵選手以「事實」去推翻這個說法。事實上,紀政本人就是最能糾正這種錯誤觀念的有力證明。

在我國運動史上,紀政毫無疑問是最傑出的女選手。即使是在世界體壇,紀政也佔有一席重要地位。一九六九年期間,紀政曾獲得歐美各國的交相讚譽——「東方飛躍的羚羊」、「亞洲的流星」、「黃色的閃電」、「世界飛人」、「全球最快的女人」、「女鐵人」、「中國美麗的女娃」、「世界最佳田徑女選手」……等美好的稱號齊集一身。迄今,這些美麗的讚譽雖已時隔十年,而各項運動的世界紀錄雖也迭有創新,但是,紀政在世界田徑史上現在依然擁有室內五十碼低欄以及二百廿碼低欄光榮紀錄。

現年卅五歲的紀政,從十五歲開始就一直是國內運動界矚目的焦點,那時,她剛出道參加全省運動會,就「一鳴驚人」地擊敗跳高名將黃文蓉得到冠軍,而接連地又勇奪八十公尺低欄與五項運動冠軍,一時之間成為體壇的衝_。當時已故體育家關頌聲曾給予指導與栽培,稍後又經輿論推崇與建議,民國五十二年,教育部決定給予獎學金,送她赴美深造。

屢屢為國爭光

隻身赴美深造、苦練的紀政,果然未負眾望,除一九六六、一九七○年代表我國參加曼谷亞運會分奪跳高及一百公尺金牌之外,一九六九年期間的連創六項世界紀錄,震驚全球。一九六九年墨西哥奧運會中,她又為我國贏得八十公尺低欄銅牌,都是紀政不負國人期望的光榮戰史。

在紀政為創紀錄、奪金牌的運動奮鬥歷程中,肌肉受傷曾經是她最大的困擾與障礙。一九七○年曼谷亞運會,本應是她最風光的一年,以她當時擁有的世界紀錄,應可在亞運五項競賽中分別奪得金牌。但是,她在參與第二項四百公尺決賽時,受傷倒地,當時她曾痛哭流涕,傷心感嘆未能為國家爭得更多榮譽。而那次受傷,也就提前結束了她的運動生涯。儘管,她一直以「婚後的女子仍能創造運動佳績」為努力目標(紀政於廿六歲與瑞爾教練結婚),但是,接連的受傷使她在廿八歲那年,就無法再代表我國參加一九七二年的慕尼黑奧運會了。

學科、術科齊頭並進

在紀政的練跑生涯中,雖然不時地遭受肌肉拉傷、腳踝扭傷、膝關節骨碎……等傷害,但對於運動學理的探討,卻一直未曾中斷。因為,她說,她當年接受了教育部以及國內國際扶輪社、獅子會的經費支援,又得到國內體壇人士的精神鼓勵,她即曾下定決心,除要以全力跑出好成績外,並願以所學貢獻國內。因此,一九七二年的慕尼黑奧運她雖已無法代表國家出賽,但在賽前,她與夫婿瑞爾教練一同返國,擔任田徑代表隊的教練。

一九七三年首屆亞洲田徑錦標賽在馬尼拉舉行期間,主辦單位特別推崇紀政、楊傳廣為亞洲最傑出的田徑選手,她並曾受邀前往授獎。斯時,她不僅再度擔任中華田徑隊教練,並且還自願擔任參加田徑會議的代表。由於那一年開始,中共企圖進入國際體壇的野心加大,亞洲不少附庸國家懾於中共的壓力,因此在首屆亞洲田徑賽、亞洲田徑協會會員大會中,即開始肆意地為中共入會作鋪路工作。我國田徑協會與紀政早已洞悉其陰謀,除聯絡友好會員國積極反對之外,紀政更以她在國際體壇的聲望,忠告當時的國際田徑協會會長霍德,請他代為仗義執言……終使當時中共企圖提出的「排我」陰謀未能得逞。

協助培育新秀

在首屆亞洲田徑錦標賽期間,我國中長跑選手李秋霞所表現出的潛力,使得中華民國田徑協會理事長王惕吾決定大力培植她。並於賽後保送她赴美深造,而有關李秋霞在美國的升學、訓練與生活照料細節,都由紀政義不容辭地擔負起提攜後進的責任。

按照當時王惕吾理事長的構想,送廿三歲的李秋霞赴美深造,是希望她能在一九七五年第二屆亞洲田徑賽、以及一九七六年的蒙特婁奧運會中,為我國爭取榮譽,而果真,李秋霞赴美後的兩年,在紀政、瑞爾教練有計畫地調教下,一九七五年的二屆亞洲田徑賽,被許多人稱作是「李秋霞的賽會」,她在八百公尺、一千五百公尺及三千公尺賽跑中,一連為我國獲得三面金牌。這不只是李秋霞個人的光榮,也是紀政這位做教練的光榮。

捨逸就勞

一九七六年,紀政在洛杉磯瑞龍學院的學業告一段落,她的母校因她在運動場上的卓越成就,以及在校期間各科成績都能拿到「A」,因此留她任該校的助教與女子田徑隊教練。而根據中國人「嫁雞隨雞」的傳統,成為瑞爾太太、又剛做母親未久的紀政,本可在美國定居,安安穩穩地在美國求發展的。但是,當田徑協會理事長王惕吾邀約她返國出任田徑協會總幹事一職時,她僅略作考慮,就立刻答應了。

民國六十六年元月十九日,紀政抱著「活到老、學到老」的心情回到台北,她的行囊裡盡是最新的體育書刊與運動器材;剛會走路的小女兒精敏,雖然也跟著返國,但是,她卻把精敏安排住在朋友陳太太家裡。

回國的第一週,她就因忙於奔波,頻頻接受外縣市中學及縣運會的邀請,而致天天都無法與女兒謀面。也可以想像小精敏是剛滿一歲的小孩,在初抵一個生疏的環境之後,就一星期看不到母親,自然是整天哭得眼淚汪汪。紀政回憶說:當時看到小女兒鼓著核桃般紅腫的眼睛,真是心疼極了,更覺自己有虧為人母的職守。可是,國內各縣市,甚至許多中小學校的運動會,都以能請她前往講評或指導為榮,她也只好狠下心來,減少與女兒親熱的時間了。

對自己的挑戰

擔任田徑協會總幹事的工作,比紀政想像中的還要繁瑣,舉一個例子來說:要想舉辦一項運動會,除了基本要素——裁判的聘請、經費的籌募、時間的安排等之外,場地的借用問題最為頭疼,往往得親自前往有關單位,接洽數次,才得解決。紀政因此恨不得自己有個三頭六臂才好。

在返國近兩年以來,紀政差不多已經跑遍了全國各縣市,她很仔細地去瞭解各地的田徑運動推展概況,並且很有耐心地去傾聽教練們或運動行政工作人員的甘苦。匯集這許多的資料與意見,她和專家們逐步擬訂改進並擴大推展田徑運動的計畫。

多項創舉

在這快滿兩年的時間裡,最令國內同胞矚目的幾樁田徑改革事項與辦理的重大活動是:1.成立田徑俱樂部——一面讓選手有專門的教練督訓,一面也牽引工商企業界參與田徑運動的推動工作。此外,經由註冊登記的田徑俱樂部,也便於田徑協會和運動員之間的連繫與督導。2.啟開「取之於運動,用之於運動」的風氣——國內各單項運動之中,除棒球、籃球、排球等少數球類運動,出售門票,可有盈餘之外,其他賽會的經費幾乎都是靠運動協會負責人籌措或由有關單位撥款補助,一直沒有門票收入作為繼續舉辦類似活動的補貼。田徑協會過去所舉辦的比賽,也是站在提倡與提高觀眾興趣的立場,主辦單位都是自掏腰包,慷慨「捐輸」。紀政認為,這種長期「賠本」的方式並不值得提倡。為了改變一般人的觀念,以及推動「取之於運動,用之於運動」的風氣,她在舉辦兩項國際田徑邀請賽期間,就改採出售門票的方式。雖然門票收入並不足以負擔全部賽會所需的費用,但到底改變了國人的觀念,並且觀眾更多。3.兩度邀約世界超級田徑明星選手來華比賽,造成國內田徑界空前盛況——這兩次國際性邀請賽一次是在去年的四月底舉辦的,當時有六位美國名將前來;第二次是在去年九月初分別在台北、高雄兩地舉行的。計有十三國,五十三位世界一流金牌級選手應邀前來,這二次賽會的觀眾都空前踴躍,並且也成為亞洲田徑界所矚目的大事。4.兩度率領國內優秀田徑選手赴美比賽——刺激國內選手成績進步,並提高一般選手對田徑運動的興趣。5.訂定田徑制度,設立田徑季節——過去田徑活動多集中於三月到十月之間。為使選手訓練銜接,紀政提倡十一月至次年二月間,定為冬季訓練期,增添七次冬季越野賽跑。同時,舉辦越野賽期間,分七個不同地點進行,使全國各地喜愛長跑運動的人都有機會參加。自從民國六十七年開始,為使田徑運動更趨普及,田徑協會在每年既定的田徑競賽之外,再增辦四十二個小型比賽,讓選手們有更多比賽觀摩的機會。

考慮參政

紀政除了盡心盡力埋首田徑會務之外,前些時候,由於她故鄉新竹父老們的熱烈敦促與期望,她曾一度考慮參加本屆增額民意代表的競選,但在辦理立法委員競選登記之前,紀政還是基於三點理由,婉謝了地方父老的厚望,但是紀政表示,三年以後,她很有可能出馬一試。紀政說,這一次她是因為:1.田徑協會會務剛上軌道,應該繼續以全力推展,暫時還是不分心得好。2.此次新竹、桃園、苗栗地區民意代表的競選登記,國民黨已有提名人選,站在本身也是國民黨員的立場,不願使地方黨部為難。3.有關地方父老敦促競選,事出倉促,沒有一段時間從容思考與佈署。

放棄了競選登記後的紀政,今後是否真的有心問政?是否會從現在起即為未來的立法委員競選作些鋪路工作?她很爽朗地回答說:我一直對政治很感興趣,我也很希望有機會對現時的政情有更多的瞭解,特別是對我國的教育現況,能深入地去發掘問題,並尋求解決之道。

關心並瞭解國家社會的各種現象

一個運動健將,也會對政治發生興趣?紀政說,其實對國家有分執著愛心的人,都應該會「喜歡」政治。如果年輕人在學校裡得到老師的誘導,對政治發生興趣更是不足為奇。紀政舉她自己為例:她在美國加州念書期間,曾經受到一位社會學教授亞歷山大的影響,對國際現勢與政治發生很大的興趣。她說,由於這位教授口才好,又能精闢地分析問題,同時,還能為學生們指引出一條分辨事理之路,又常為學生們推介一些有益的書籍,使得她在學期間,除了在運動場上馳騁之外,空餘的時間幾乎都花在圖書館裡。

紀政說,天天仔細地閱讀書報雜誌,更增加了對政治的瞭解與關心。她說:對一個問題,特別是對一個政黨,必須深入地去瞭解,除了去發掘她的優點外,也要設法去探討她的缺點發生的原因。而在全盤瞭解實情之後,才能做比較客觀的研判。

對於競選活動,她也有一番看法,她說,在選民的立場而言,在投票之前,應該客觀、冷靜地去瞭解每一位候選人的背景、政見與品德;而候選人在參加競選活動時,更應在提出政見之前,先瞭解客觀環境與國情,提出有益國家社會的適切政見,而不宜作「遙不可期」的空談。

同樣是愛國

不論紀政將來是否真的要參加中央民意代表競選(甚或當選),她多年來在國際體壇的傑出表現,與近年來為國內田徑運動所花下的時間與心力,已足以證明她是一位優秀的運動家,也是一位身體力行的愛國分子。她已經,並且繼續要在自己的崗位上,盡其所能地貢獻給她所摯愛的國家。

〔圖片說明〕

P.2、P.3

左邊這組圖片,是紀政在運動場上指導選手短跑時的正確動作和起跑的正確姿勢。下圖是紀政在運動休息時間愉快地跟選手們聊天。

P.4、P.5

左:休閒時候,紀政就帶著女兒散步、聊天、說故事。右上:去年九月,中華民國舉辦國際田徑邀請賽時,紀政在會場和四百公尺中欄世界紀錄保持人摩斯(右)及其教練傑克森(左)合影。右下:紀政向來華參加國際田徑邀請賽的各國選手握手歡迎。

P.6

右上:田徑場上叱吒風雲的紀政,受到國內女學生的熱愛,所到之處都被包圍者要求簽名留念。右下圖是紀政和她的美藉丈夫瑞爾在庭院閒話家常。

P.7

左:馳名世界的足球王比利來華訪問,跟紀政熱烈握手時,英雄相惜的神情。下:今年春節期間,紀政脫下運動衫,換上一襲古典的中國旗袍,向田徑協會理事長王惕吾(左)賀節。

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近期文章

EN

Chi Cheng: Runner Still on the Go


Perhaps the most prominent figure in the sports history of the Republic of China, Chi Cheng was once hailed as the fastest woman on earth, the yellow lightning, the Asian Meteor, the Iron Woman, and the Flying Antelope of the Orient and still holds the world record in the 50-yard and 220-yard low hurdles. Her outstanding career started at the age of 15, when she won gold medals in the high jump, 80-meter low hurdles, and pentathlon in the Taiwan Area Games. As a result, in 1963, she was awarded a scholarship by the Ministry of Education to receive training and competition experience in the United States. Living up to the expectations of her countrymen, Chi Cheng collected gold medals in the high jump and 100 meters events in the 1966 and 1970 Asian Games held in Bangkok. Her career reached a peak in 1968-69 when she broke six world records and won a bronze medal in the 80-meter low hurdle in the Mexico Olympics. In her efforts to break even more world records, she fractured her leg while competing in the 1970 Asian Games in Bangkok, and was forced to abandon her active running career. At the age of 26, she married her American coach, Vincent Reel, and the two settled in the U.S. On the eve of the 1972 Olympic Games held in Munich, however, the couple decided to return to the Republic of China and dedicate themselves to training promising young athletes. When she took part in the first Asian Track and Field Tournament in Manila in l973 as coach for the ROC team, she acted as spokesman for the Republic of China at the committee meeting of the Asian Sports Federation. With her achievements in international athletics and high standing in sporting circles, she was able almost single-handedly to block an attempt to admit the Communist Chinese into the federation at the expense of the Republic of China. 1976 was a year of disgrace for the International Olympics Committee because Canada, the host country, allowed politics to interfere with sports. Rather than submit to a Canadian demand that it change its name and not fly the national flag, the Republic of China team, led by Chi Cheng, decided to withdraw from the Montreal Olympics. In a press conference held afterwards to justify this action, Chi Cheng said: "I am proud of the Republic of China, just as everyone is proud of his own name. ROC athletes will compete only under their own flag!" In recognition of her important contribution to the development of sports, Chi Cheng was in January 1977 appointed Secretary General of the Republic of China's Track and Field Association, During her two year tenure of office, Chi Cheng significantly upgraded the status of track and field sports in Taiwan. She invited many Olympic athletes and officials of international sports associations to see for themselves that Communist Chinese charges were pure fabrications. In April and September last year she organized international sporting meets to enable local athletes to improve themselves by competing against world-class track and field stars. Because of the interest thus stimulated, it was possible to charge an admission fee--the first time this had been done for a track and field event in Taiwan. With thousands of local fans cheering them on, local athletes were encouraged to put in their best performances. It is hoped that more companies in Taiwan can be persuaded to donate funds for organizing track meets, purchasing equipment, employing competent coaches and establishing training centers. Chi Cheng has put in considerable efforts to change the status of athletics from being a pastime suitable for festivals and holidays, to being an organized affair complete with its own seasons. Under her plan, athletes will train continuously for the four months from March to early July, during which period there will be a succession of track and field competitions. In the past, athletes trained for one meet, and then might have to wait for several months for the next one. During the winter season from the end of November to mid-February, a cross-country season will allow athletes to build up their muscle and stamina. With this seasonal approach, better coaching, and strong support both from the public and the president of the ROC Track and Field Association, Wang Ti-wu, it is expected that Chi Cheng's ideals will be realized in a couple of years, to revolutionize the status of athletics in the Republic of China. With her devotion to her country, it is only natural that Chi Cheng should be interested in politics. "I may run for a seat in the Legislative Yuan in the future," she says. Although no longer an active sportswoman, Chi Cheng is still very much on the go.

[Picture Caption]

Chi Cheng demonstrates the correct position for starting the dash (left), and chats with athletes after the training session (below).

Chi Cheng enjoying time off with her daughter (left); posing with the 400 meter hurdles world record holder Edwin Moses and his coach Lloyd Jackson during an international sporting meet (above right), and shaking hands with the track and field stars to show her appreciation for their participation (below right).

As one of the most prominent athletes in the Republic of China's sports history, Chi Cheng is asked to sign her autograph by girl students who surround her. Pictures show below right, Chi Cheng with her husband, coach Vincent Reel.

Left: with world renowned football star, Pele, and below with Wang Ti-wu (to her left), President of the ROC Track and Field Association.

 

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