影像追尋篇人間的視角

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1989 / 2月

文‧張照堂 圖‧黃淮泗施安全陳古井



「影像的追尋」自民國七十五年元月起在本刊連載三年,現在暫時將告一段落。這個攝影專欄在三年期間先後介紹了三十位六○年代活躍的台灣攝影家,經過訪談整理,我們得以重睹老攝影家們當年的潛力創作。這些塵封許久,且幾乎消逝的影像記錄,不但呈現創作者稟性互異的技藝心靈,結合台灣攝影發展的承續,而且提供給我們難以忘懷的成長回憶與時代見證。「重現寫實的精神,廣拓人間的視角」正是撰寫此專欄時的孜孜心情。

攝影,在某一種創作本質上,確實是比文學、繪畫或者音樂要自由、單純、直接,而隨興得多,它的容易操作與完成,以及無遠弗屆、鉅細無遺的紀錄功能,使擁有相機的人能隨時隨地拍下他所感動的事物,而當攝影者掌握了個人視覺理念或意識直覺的「快門剎那」,他同時也為大家留下一張可供長久閱讀的瞬間記錄。「影像的追尋」就是追蹤這樣一個記錄,透過知名的、未知名的、或甚至軼名的攝影作品,我們或能重溫往昔生命的愉悅或感傷。世界如此廣大又這般渺小,希望經由這些不同時空而具共同經驗的圖像,能引發我們更包容性的情懷。

家族的留影

追尋老攝影家們的作品,首先會看到許多人像照,家族友朋的形跡容顏,是每一位攝影者時時會顧念的題材,其出發點通常是做為記載的紀念留影,不過我們也偶爾在一些頗為嚴謹或特殊的人物與場景中看到一些凸出動人之作。

現年七十,出生於新竹的攝影家黃淮泗,長年在銀行界服務,他早期一些以家族親友為焦點的照片,就流露出一股溫情的韻味樣貌。「歡樂的歌聲」(一九五七年)中描繪子女相聚高歌的家居情趣,單純、明確的構成,自然而平實的氣氛掌握,在孩童愉悅而專注的顏容中表達了家長的關愛心情。

「慈母手中線」(一九五四年)則謙和抑制地傳達出子女眼中的母親形象。窗外斜入的陽光強化了主體的層次與質感,簡潔、典雅的構成、凝思的動作與情感,黃淮泗誠摯地表達了母子親情中的敬愛與感懷。

孩童世界的無邪面貌,一向是攝影者喜歡尋找的主題,從家中的子女到街頭的孩童,都是焦點的寵兒。出生於瑞芳,今年五十五歲的陳古井,在台電公司八斗子發電廠服務了卅多年,唯一的生活消遣就是攝影。他在一九七○年所拍攝的「好夢正甜」,記錄了另一種孩童的情境:不知名的小女孩倚靠在兩大門神的腳下疲憊地睡著了,她懷中的包袱與痂痕的雙腳似乎告示著小小心靈中坎坷聚散的生活經歷,與「歡樂的歌聲」中的孩童相比,這截然不同的成長境遇,透過攝影家不同的視角,使我們有了深一層的思索與感觸。

民間的取樣

從個人的生活圈走入廣闊的民間,是每一位寫實攝影家必須歷練的過程,他對「人」的情感、事件的認知以及技藝上的掌握,指引出攝影的風格與方向。有人順從客觀的紀錄報導形式,有人以個人的視角做詮釋,透露他內心的思緒,也有人利用攝影的特質(柔焦、硬調、粗粒子、鏡頭功能等)將現實引伸加以變貌,呈現另一種表達狀態。每位攝影家雖然「寫」的技巧不同,但是他的內容與精神可以由生活的「實」出發,帶著人文關照,從民間取樣,來抒發個人視覺上的創意與表白。

民間生活、社會百態是寫實攝影家永不匱乏的探訪素材,尤其隨著年代的變遷,愈早從事紀錄工作的攝影家顯得更加難能可貴,雖然他們經常為後人所忽略。

施安全今年六十二歲,新竹市人,月前才由新竹客運會計課退休,拍照已有四十多年歷史了,他在民國四十六年左右所記載的鄉情舊事與街角人物,取景自然而平實,照片中所流露的古拙,敦厚之民間情感,是寫實作品歷久彌醇的基本源由。

「踩水車」(一九五九年)使我們清楚見到昔日農村的勞動工具,在踩水車的農民配合下,如何運作的情形。俯攝的取景,含納了人與物的細節,老農夫屈曲的背影,和他似乎永無休止的踩步動作,表達了台灣農民性格中辛苦、勤勞與堅韌的一面。

「後街」(一九五七年)塈e現著卅年前關西的民宅老街景觀,以今天的變容來看,這些磚房的樣式、起伏的路面與來往行走的婦孺樣貌,的確令人遙想與思懷。施安全的視角極為平實,好像這只不過是一個過路人的眼神,沒有攝影家刻意的「意識」,只是臨場一瞥罷了。

在「同伴」(一九五七年)中出現的盲者伙伴、「合奏」(一九五九年)裡的年輕樂手、「叫賣」(一九五七年)中的布偶小販等人物中,讓我們見到了真確而動人的生活速寫。施安全對渺小人物的同情與感知,以及「庶民化」的視角,使得我們在照片裡領會到卑微人性中的堅毅與自若。戴著墨鏡持柺杖的年輕盲者的笑容、布偶小販的吆喝眼神、以及廟會裡年輕樂師若有所思的面容,表達了五○年代的人物個性與質素,一種質樸有力的民間精神,這些才是影像令人感動的地方。

施安全早年曾經是台灣省及新竹縣攝影學會發起人之一,他也是「自由影展」的長期會員,對鄧南光的寫實造詣推崇倍加,也受過他很大的影響。施先生的早年底片多已遺失,作品參展或送人之後不易尋得,只剩極少部分,這是許多台灣老攝影家回憶起來深以為憾的共有感慨。

土地的眷戀

親友的憶往,民間的關切與土地的眷戀,這種自然延展的情感,是優秀的寫實攝影家創作時最珍貴的潛在動力。

在「母愛」(一九六八年)一圖中,陳古井透過春耕秧作的背景,溫暖地表白農家親情的一瞥。圍著頭巾、捲起褲管的母親坐在田埂上哄著懷中哭鬧的幼兒,母子相依的形象和人與土地互屬的情感,渾然結為一體,生活、成長與工作在田野間一併進行著。

「茅屋人家」(一九六九年)一圖中,陳古井以高角攝取萬里鄉間的茅宅村落,縱橫交錯的茅屋造型與材質,映現出古老居家的建構景觀。空地上三三兩兩的兒童戲耍,等候著大人們工作歸來,豐富的層次,嚴謹的構圖,自然地呈現了人、居所,和土地三者的親密關係。

陳古井並沒有高深的學經歷,在工作上他終年固守著一個基層職位,無怨無尤。雖然他的攝影是受了鄭桑溪的指引和影響,起步較晚,但是性格單純、內向而勤奮的人,一旦迷上攝影,便執迷、專情地往前走去。

在全省各個小角落中,也許就零散地存在著這樣的攝影愛好者,默默地工作了無數個寒暑,他們平常很少開口,作品也多數深埋在個人的回憶往事中。

或許只有經由不斷地多方接觸與挖掘,我們方能有緣再見到更多台灣影像的足跡。「影像的追尋」只是做了一次拋磚的嘗試,它並沒有結束,期待陸續有更多的人關心和思索,來重現歷史的「人間視角」,將走失隱沒的影像記錄由攝影家個人,再歸還予更廣大的民眾。

〔圖片說明〕

P.98

歡樂的歌聲新竹1957黃淮泗攝

P.99

好夢正甜瑞芳1970陳古井攝

P.100

慈母手中線新竹1954黃淮泗攝

P.101

合奏新竹新埔1959施安全攝

P.101

叫賣新竹1957施安全攝

P.102

踩水車新竹1959施安全攝

P.103

同伴新竹車站1957施安全攝

P.103

後街新竹關西1957施安全攝

P.104

母愛瑞芳1968陳古井攝

P.105

茅屋人家萬里鄉1969陳古井攝

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Visions of the Human World

Chang Chao-t'ang /photos courtesy of Huang Huai-szu, Shih An-ch'uan and Ch'en Ku-ching /tr. by Peter Eberly


"In Search of Photos Past," which has appeared in Sinorama since January 1986, is temporarily coming to a halt. Over the past three years the series has introduced the works of thirty outstanding photographers active on Taiwan during the 1960's, testifying to their talent and skill and providing us with unforgettable memories from a vanished era. Redisplaying the spirit of reality and broadening our vision of the human world--such was the determination in which this series was written.

In searching through the works of older photographers the first thing one comes across is many portraits of family and friends, most of them intended chiefly as personal keepsakes but some of them proving to be works of real charm and depth.

Now seventy years old, born in Hsinchu, and having worked for many years in banking, the photographer Huang Huai-szu achieved a touching warmth in some of his early photos of family and friends. "Happy Singing," with its clear and simple composition and its natural and unforced atmosphere, reveals a world of parental love and care through the children's intent and joyous expressions.

"Thread in a Loving Mother's Hands" communicates the image of a mother as seen through the eyes of her children with modesty and restraint. The picture's clean, classical structure and its concentrated movement and feelings express motherly love sincerely and honestly, while the sunlight slanting through the window adds to the photo's depth and quality feel.

The innocent face of the world of childhood has always been a favorite subject with photographers. Born in Juifang and now 55 years old, Ch'en Ku-ching has worked for more than thirty years in the Patoutzu generating plant of Taiwan Power Company, engaging in photography as his sole leisure pursuit. His "Sweet Dreams" records another childhood scene: a nameless little girl has fallen asleep in weariness at the feet of a pair of door gods. The bundle in her lap and the scars on her legs seem to tell us something of the hardships that her little spirit has passed through. Compared with the completely different circumstances of the children in "Happy Singing," her un happy lot, as captured in the vision of the photographer, must move us to reflection and sympathy.

Stepping from his private circle of life into the broader world around him is a process that every realistic photographer must pass through, and life among the people and the multiple facets of society provide an inexhaustible subject.

Shih An-ch'uan, from Hsinchu, now 62, and retired last month from the accounting department at the Hsinchu Bus Co., has been taking photographs for more than forty years. His pictures of life in the countryside from the late 1950's are plain and natural and full of rich and honest feeling.

"Working the Water Wheel" shows the operation of an ancient countryside irrigation tool. The old farmer's bent back and his seemingly interminable pace express the toughness, diligence, and endurance of farmers on Taiwan.

"Back Street" is a scene from Kuanhsi thirty years ago. Viewed from today's perspective, the brick buildings, the bumpy road, and the passing women and children provoke a certain amount of reflection and nostalgia. Shih's plain approach seems the view of just another passerby rather than the contrived work of a photographer.

The figures of the two blind friends in "Companions," the young musicians in "The Ensemble," and the puppet vendor in "Salesmanship" are moving and accurate sketches from life, revealing Shih's sympathy and feeling for the common people.

Fondness for family and friends, a concern for the common people, and a love of one's native place--this natural extension of feelings is the most precious force behind a realistic photographer's work.

In "Motherly Love" Ch'en Ku-ching uses the background of spring planting to capture a warm glimpse of maternal feelings in a farm family. The mother comforting her child and the figures working the land fuse together into a single image of life, growth, and work carried on in the fields.

"Thatched House Families" shows a view from above of obliquely angled roofs in the village of Wanli. The handful of children at play waiting for their parents to return from the fields, the rich layered effect, and the rigorous composition illustrate the intimate relationship among the people, their homes, and the land.

Ch'en never enjoyed an advanced education and has worked without complaints in a rather low position all his life. Although he started out in photography rather late, he fell in love with it and advanced forward with determination.

Scattered about the island, perhaps, are other photographers like him, quietly and diligently plodding away. Year after year they rarely open their mouths, and their works are mostly buried in oblivion.

Perhaps only by constant digging and exploring can we track down more of the footprints of photography on Taiwan. "In Search of Photos Past" has not concluded. Rather it has tried to serve as a challenge to induce others to come forward and bring even more vanished images of the past before the public.

[Picture Caption]

Happy Singing, by Huang Huai-szu, 1957.

Sweet Dreams, by Ch'en Ku-ching, 1970.

Thread in a Loving Mother's Hands, by Huang Huai-szu, 1954.

The Ensemble, by Shih An-ch'uan, 1959.

Salesmanship, by Shih An-ch'uan, 1957.

Working the Water Wheel, by Shih An-ch'uan, 1959.

Companions, by Shih An-ch'uan, 1957.

Back Street, by Shih An-ch'uan, 1957.

Motherly Love, by Ch'en Ku-ching, 1968.

Thatched House Families,by Ch'en Ku-ching, 1969.

 

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