校長加油! ──籌款興學時代來臨

:::

2002 / 11月

文‧滕淑芬 圖‧林格立


國立大學經費自民國八十五年開始以校務基金的方式運作,除了教育部的補助外,大學必須自籌百分之二十的經費。大學對外籌款短短六年來,成效如何?誰又是募款個中高手?


擔任過美國柏克萊大學校長的田長霖曾說:「我當校長只要管好三件事──募款、球隊及停車問題。」

幾年前,美國名校杜克大學校長柯南茹來台演說時也表示,「有寬裕的預算不一定能成為第一流學校,但是沒有健全的財務支援,永遠無法變成第一流學校。」她同時指出,杜克大學的募款收入佔總收入的百分之十四,高於學費收入的百分之九。

從撥款到籌款

隨著政府財政短絀,大學仰賴政府全力挹注經費的好日子不再。為了解決大學經費短缺的問題,教育部參考歐美大學已實施多年的募款制度,自八十五年開始實施校務基金,在預算中編列「自籌經費」,鼓勵大學對外募款。

「校務基金是為了解決公務預算僵化、不夠自主、不夠彈性的改革作法,最大特色就是經費可以跨年度使用,讓基金越滾越多,對校務發展很有幫助,」教育部高教司督學張國保表示,以往公立大學預算有執行率的問題,如果未達執行率,校長就可能會被懲處,因此每逢會計年度結算之前,各學校就趕著採買設備、發包工程,常被批評為消耗預算、太過浪費;此外,大學從事學術研究非短時間可見成效,如果下一年度的研究經費被刪,研究計畫就有中止之虞,這種編列公務預算的方法並不利於大學的運作。

更重要的是,有了校務基金的運作機制後,大學的收入如學雜費、建教合作、推廣教育、技術研發的智慧產權等,都可以自由彈性運用,不像以往必須繳回國庫。

瞄準高科技校友

校務基金的好處是,各大學努力開源節流的結果都可以納入自己荷包,那麼實施六年來,成效如何?

今年六月,輔仁大學主辦《二十一世紀全國學校募款研討會》,清華大學主任秘書葉銘泉在會中報告清大的募款情形,包括旺宏電子捐助三億元興建學習資源中心「旺宏館」、台積電文教基金會捐助一億五千萬元興建科管院大樓「台積館」、台達電子董事長鄭崇華捐助股票一百萬股(市價約上億元),加上數筆小額捐款,總計近三年清大共募得六億五千萬元。

「除了辦學理念得到認同外,校長個人魅力也是主因,」葉銘泉說,前任校長劉炯朗曾在美國大學任教四十多年,非常清楚美國大學的募款歷史,擔任校長四年期間,很用心佈線、建立關係。

「但大筆捐款仍是可遇不可求,能募到三億元是很難得的機緣,雖然劉校長說他拜訪旺宏電子董事長胡定華三次就達成共識,但我們知道其實是水到渠成,他以誠懇的態度說明清華的願景、目前的瓶頸,請求幫忙,」葉銘泉指出,扣掉電子業挹注的三筆大捐款,其實小額捐款佔一半以上,募款還是要細水長流。

估計清大一年預算約三十一億,政府補助一半金額,只能支付人事成本,若有大型校務計劃,就得另外想辦法。葉銘泉指出,清大的募款收入主要就用於硬體建設,因為教育部這方面預算緊縮,學校不可能得到所有補助。以興建台積館而言,一億五千萬元只是三分之一的自籌款,其餘三分之二可以向教育部申請,至於什麼時候能獲得補助,就得排隊接受審查,如果自籌款比例提高,教育部就會排入優先審查行列。

細水長流,聚沙成塔

原則上,教育部對國立大學的補助只能因應現有局面,亟思開創新局的大學必須另闢蹊徑。因此交通大學為了擴展新校區,就定下籌募一億五千萬元的目標。

校地不足一直是交大發展的瓶頸,交大是少數校地面積沒有超過一百公頃的國立大學之一(僅有七十七公頃,台大約有二百公頃)。八十九年交大與新竹縣政府簽訂合作計劃,將在高鐵新竹站鄰近地區規劃生活園區、產業園區與大學城,以帶動地方經濟發展,新竹縣政府負責土地徵收,無償提供一百公頃給交大使用。

除了竹北新校區外,交大也同步在兵家必爭的台南科學園區、嘉義高鐵站規劃新校區。三個新校區的工程願景稱為「璞玉計劃」,初期的規劃經費將全數對外募款籌措。

去年四月交大成立璞玉計劃推動小組,由執行長林健正帶著四位工作人員負責募款,並且舉辦一系列活動,以事件行銷帶動募款。首先邀請知名校友宏硍偎庛釣う欓I振榮、資策會董事長黃河明等人,乘坐熱氣球遠眺竹北校區,募得二千五百萬元;十月在新竹關西老爺高爾夫球場舉辦校長盃高爾夫球賽,募得四百多萬元;年終聚餐募得四百多萬元;校慶募得五百多萬元等等。

去年十一月,交大成立國內第一個整合性行銷募款的網站,網站中設立「企業診療室」,網羅知名校友如施振榮、黃河明、殷琪等人,不時在診療室中協助校友解決企業經營上的困難。今年九月又推出校友定期定額捐款的「聚沙工程」,只要捐款一年者,就可成為「交大家族俱樂部」的成員,也就是說,交大學生一年捐助一千二百元、校友一年一萬二千元,便可以優惠價格,選購俱樂部推出的優惠商品。其中包括華碩、遠見及偉詮電子的產品,如手機、PDA、筆記型電腦等,都成為當月的熱門商品。二個月來,這項小兵立大功的募款作業,已募集一百五十萬元。一年來,透過這些大大小小的活動,已順利向校友募集五千多萬元。

形勢比人強

「我們平均一天拜訪二位董事長,」璞玉計畫推動小組工作人員鄭月婷說,交大校友遍佈高科技產業,估計在業界位居董總級的校友約有五百位;交大雖是小學校,但有八成校友在國內,很有凝聚力。

雖然募款小有成績,但璞玉計畫執行長林健正表示,「校友是最大資產,但也要開發其他管道,尤其在台灣募款很困難,方法重複使用,也有窮盡之時,必須慢慢扎根,擴大參與性。」

仔細探究,大學募款,除了校長的功力外,有時是形勢比人強。近幾年國內企業捐款給大學時有所聞,如中興大學獲得華裔高科技企業家校友徐建國捐款七億餘元;成大、台大分別獲得台南幫大老吳修齊、吳尊賢文教基金會各捐助上億元蓋大樓;交大校友李立及台揚科技合捐五百萬美元支持研究計畫;清大前校長沈君山曾與聯電集團總裁曹興誠對奕,一口氣替學校贏得數千萬元捐款。

台灣大學每年底以校友為主的募款餐會,就有千萬元的進帳,加上前總統李登輝、副總統連戰都是台大人,都曾捐款台大;各行各業菁英都有台大校友,行有餘力都會捐助母校,譬如電機學院要蓋新大樓,台大電機系畢業的廣達電腦林百里、華碩電腦施崇棠、矽統科技杜俊元、聯電曹興誠等科技新貴,都允諾捐助母校。以上例子在在凸顯出歷史悠久、理工為重的國立大學是企業捐款的主要對象。

企業化經營

不少人都同意,社會人士或企業對大學捐款絕對是「錦上添花」,也就是說,大學聲望越高、辦學理念越得到社會認同,越可能得到捐款。

知名國立大學和理工大學有其募款優勢,然而經費幾乎完全自籌的私立大學,也有獨到的募款策略。

「私校的方式是穩紮穩打,他們對學生和校友輔導用心的程度超過公立大學,」高教司督學張國保舉例說,逢甲大學的年度校友聯誼會在北中南三地舉行,往往都有三千名以上校友參加,「他們把校友抓得很緊,校友就會有『一日母校、終身回饋』的感情」。

輔仁大學校長李寧遠說,輔大在台創校四十一年,平均一年累積的現金節餘約有四億元,財務狀況良好,而且勇於投資。他強調,把錢放在銀行生利息,日子也很好過,但輔仁每隔幾年就有個校務發展計劃。目前的中程計畫是,將在醫學院成立十一年、醫學系成立三年後,興建醫學研究大樓,估計需經費八億四千萬元;以後還要擴建成醫療園區、生技園區。

李寧遠認為,台灣的私立大學因資金來源不同,辦學理念也各有特色。以天主教教會創辦的輔仁大學來說,對於醫學院、藝術學院和傳播系所也不惜砸錢設立,走的是「全人」教育路線。

雖然並未感受到財務壓力,但為了校務發展,輔仁大學仍積極對外募款,去年並在美國成立輔仁大學基金會,立案於美國聯邦政府之下,以便名正言順的在美國對校友和教友募款,去年募得美金六萬七千元及一筆鉅額遺產捐款;加上國內募款,全年募款金額近億元,「可以說是私校的模範生,」李寧遠說。

由於政府對公、私立大學的補助,差距頗大,百分之七十的高等教育經費都用來補助公立大學。李寧遠認為,政府對辦學良好的私立大學應該更積極補助,因為許多有心辦學的私校並不是為了生存而募款,而是為了提高教育品質。

不少私校認為,國內稅法對個人或營利事業捐款給公、私立大學的賦稅優惠,差異太大。譬如,不管是個人或營利事業捐款給公立學校可以百分之百抵稅;但個人捐款給私立學校卻只能扣抵百分之五十、營利事業更只能扣抵百分之二十五。

高教司督學張國保解釋,財政部認為捐給國立大學等同於捐給政府;而私立大學的性質都屬於財團法人,如果全數扣抵,其他同屬財團法人的團體可能也會要求比照辦理。但這種賦稅優惠的差異性,已在私校法修正案中修正,並送交立法院審查中。

「私校最大問題出在財務結構上,也就是說,學雜費收入佔總支出的百分之六十以上,跟國外大學相比,太過倚賴學雜費收入,」張國保認為,私校應在建教合作、研究經費、推廣教育等方面加把勁,挹注財務。

改變社會認知

六年來,不少大學試圖從募款上籌得財源,嚴格說來,成果並不明顯,主要原因是台灣民眾對捐贈興學並不熱中。

清大主任秘書葉銘泉指出,外界認為理工為重的大學,募款很容易,其實不然。八十五年清大配合校務基金發展,開始對外募款,第一年僅募得幾百萬元,而那一年他聽說一所佛教團體創辦的大學,募得一億七千多萬元,「對我們來說,簡直是天文數字,這也說明台灣社會『藏富於民』的現象。」

交大璞玉計畫執行長林健正則慨嘆,不久前他看到一則報導,高雄旗津一間廟要重建,幾個月內就籌得四十億元。

一般而言,台灣社會對宗教奉獻及政治獻金比較熱中,一些頗具規模的寺廟,信徒每年奉獻的款項數額驚人,廟產豐厚。

今年六月受邀前來參加《二十一世紀全國學校募款研討會》的美國專家提醒,美國與台灣必然存在著文化差異,因為募款與慈善捐款深植美國文化中。他們建議台灣各大學除了參考美國大學的策略外,更重要的是了解當地民情,發展出自己的方法,加以測試、改進,找出其中最適合的募款方式。

以美國哈佛大學為例,在三百五十週年校慶時,成功募得既定目標的三億五千萬美元,當時哈佛組織一個委員會鎖定五百大企業進行遊說,讓企業家校友們瞭解哈佛需要他們,而哈佛也能提供企業發展上的協助。

林健正指出,哈佛大學一年預算四百億台幣,相當於台灣十所國立大學預算的總額。台灣很難想像,哈佛人力最龐大的部門正是募款部門,編制有三百四十人。

交大校長張俊彥同意,募款方式不能完全仿效美國,要適合台灣的文化思考,譬如兩年前他和聯華電子公司總經理宣明智,商議出成立創投基金的作法,相繼由交大校友在美國和台灣成立四個創投基金,規模約在三十億元,每年都有上千萬元的回饋。

除了交大外,成大、中山、台大等校都設有創業投資基金,以紅利長期回饋母校。

募款尚未成功,同志仍須努力

歸結各校從募款得到的經驗是,募款策略除了要有創意之外,還要強化各大學對募款興學的認知。

「各大學尚未感受到非募款不可的壓力,」張國保說,很多學校都沒有專人負責募款,學校不主動、又沒有窗口,想捐款的人也不知捐到哪。而募款雖是一門專業知識,但各大學人才濟濟,只要努力宣傳,應該有更好的成績。

「美國大學校長的主要任務之一就是募款,而以往台灣對大學校長的期待是德高望重、是否具有崇高的學術研究能力,」林健正說,進入校務基金時代的台灣各大學也要對校長的期望和角色有所轉變,體認到校長的任務是規劃學校長遠發展、找到好老師、有足夠經費、打造一個一流的研究環境,一言以蔽之,就是「找錢」。

林健正表示,美國大學現在的狀況可以說是二十年後的台灣,也就是說,二十年後國內大學的大部分經費要靠自籌,而低學費政策也會被打破。因為公私立大學了解到,只要接受政府輔助,就要接受管制,包括學生人數、學費、系所增設等,只有高等教育自由化,大學才有前途、競爭力。

大學募款的革命事業,雖然尚未成功,但募款畢竟是一場細水長流的長跑競賽,只有得到學生、校友和社會的認同,才能納百川為大海。  

p.031

知名的美國史丹福大學培養出許多傑出校友,開創了高科技矽谷的榮景,

校友們也慷慨捐助母校發展,使得史丹福成為美國企業大方捐款最多的私立名校之一。(右)國內交通大學為擴展新校區「璞玉計畫」而募款,由執行長林健正教授(左)帶領,希望能募集一億五千萬元。

p.032

高獲利的高科技業一向是國內大學募款的首要目標。而高科技業也慨然贊助興學,圖為台積電贊助清華大學興建「台積館」的捐助儀式。(台積電文教基金會提供)

p.033

國內大學極思開闢財源,學分費高達上萬元的高階經營管理碩士班成為大學熱門的生財之道。

p.034

台灣社會藏富於民,對於急難救助與社會、宗教團體的捐募一向熱心,唯捐助興學風氣還有待「開發」。

p.036

大學為企業培育人才,企業賺錢贊助興學,堪稱互惠互利。圖為向來人潮踴躍、為高科技產業創造利潤的電腦展。

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Taiwan's Universities Enter the Age of Fundraising

Teng Sue-feng /photos courtesy of Jimmy Lin /tr. by Phil Newell

Since 1996 an endowment fund sys-tem has been in place in Taiwan to help provide funding for national universities. This means that while they are still mostly subsidized by the Ministry of Education (MOE), these universities must come up with 20% of their own funding. How have universities done in the six short years that they have been seeking donations? Who has been most successful?


Tien Chang-lin, formerly the chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, has said: "When I was chancellor I only had to worry about three things-sports teams, parking problems, and raising money."

A few years ago when Dr. Nannerl Keohane, president of Duke University, another of America's most respected schools, came to Taiwan to give a speech, she pointed out: "Having a big budget does not necessarily make a first-rate university. But without sound financial backing, it will forever be impossible to become a first-rate university." She reported that only 9% of Duke's annual revenues come from tuition, while donations account for 14%.

Starting from scratch

As the ROC government has faced growing financial problems, the glory days of the past when universities could rely entirely on government subsidies are ending. In order to deal with the shortage of money for universities, the MOE, referring to long-standing funding systems for European and American universities, began implementation in 1996 of an endowment fund system, and at the same time began writing "self funding" next to university budget items in order to encourage them to seek outside support.

"The endowment fund is a reform method which can solve problems of rigidity of civil service budgeting rules, lack of autonomy for schools, and lack of flexibility. One important difference is that allocated funds can be rolled over to future years, so that the endowment fund can increase over time, which will be helpful to the long-term development of schools," says Chang Kuo-pao of the Department of Higher Education at the MOE.

In the past, there was always the problem of the "implementation rate" at state-run universities. If a school did not use its budget up, the school president could actually be punished. As a result, every year at the end of the fiscal year, schools rushed to buy new equipment and contract out new projects, and were often accused of wasting money. Another problem was that research programs had to show short-term results. If the annual research budget was cut, the research plan would have to be terminated in mid-course. Such civil-service type budgeting methods hardly suit the operations of a university.

Even more important is that since the implementation of the endowment fund system, school income such as tuition fees, joint projects between academia and industry, continuing education, and intellectual property rights from R&D can all be freely used by the school, rather than being turned over to the national treasury as in the past.

Targeting high-tech alumni

The advantage of an endowment fund system is that the results of efforts to cut back waste and increase revenues will all end up in the school's own pocket. So how have things gone over the past six years?

In June of 2002, Fu Jen University sponsored a Symposium on Educational Advancement in the 21st Century, which focused on the issue of fundraising. At the conference, Yip Ming-chuen, secretary-general at Tsing Hua University, told the conference that his school had raised more than NT$650 million in the past three years, including a NT$300 million donation from Macronix International Co. Ltd. (to build a learning resources center to be known as "Macronix Hall"), NT$150 million from the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Education and Culture Foundation (to build a College of Technology Management building to be called "TSMC Hall") and one million shares of stock, worth over NT$100 million on the market, from Bruce Cheng, chairman of Delta Electronics Inc.

"One reason that donors give money is that they identify with and support the academic focus of the school, but the school president also plays an important role," explains Yip Ming-chuen. Former Tsing Hua president Liu Chung-laung had taught in the US for more than 40 years, and he was very well informed about the history of fundraising at American universities. During his four years as president of the school, he was very active in sending out feelers and building up relationships.

Yip says that these contacts are essential because fundraising is largely a matter of discovering willing donors by maximizing the number of people contacted, rather than persuading reluctant donors to part with their cash. "It was only by fortuitous circumstance that he was able to get a donation of NT$300 million. President Liu will tell you that he visited Macronix chairman Hu Ding-hua three times in order to reach agreement, but this was more a case of 'channeling water which was already coming in the right direction.' Liu simply explained the future prospects and current bottlenecks of Tsing Hua in a direct and sincere manner," says Yip. If you deduct the three gigantic contributions, in fact more than half of the remaining amount comes from small donations, so fundraising is still largely a matter of "a river resulting from many small streams."

The annual budget at Tsing Hua is an estimated NT$3.1 billion. The government provides half of this amount, but that is only enough to cover personnel costs. If there are major projects in the works, the school has to come up with funding somewhere else. Yip Ming-chuen points out that income from donations is mainly used in purchasing hardware and in construction, because the MOE budget in this regard is very tight, and the school knows it cannot get full subsidization.

Taking construction of TSMC Hall for example, the NT$150 million donated by the company covers one-third of the costs. An application can be made to the MOE to cover the other two-thirds, but as for when such assistance can be received, the school will just have to get in line and wait for the plan to be reviewed. If the school can come up with a higher percentage of the funds themselves, then the MOE will give them higher priority in the review process.

A steady trickle

In principle, subsidies to national universities from the MOE only provide for with current commitments. Universities which want to do something new must do so on their own. This is why National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) has set a target of raising NT$150 million for development of new campuses.

NCTU has always been plagued by a shortage of campus space. It is one of the few national universities in Taiwan with less than 100 hectares (only 77 in fact, compared to about 200 at National Taiwan University). In 2000 NCTU reached agreement with the Hsinchu County government to build a combination university town/industrial park/residential zone near the Hsinchu station of the high-speed railway, in a plan to promote local economic development. The Hsinchu County government is responsible for acquiring the land, and will provide 100 hectares to NCTU free of charge.

Besides the new Hsinchu campus, NCTU is also moving ahead with new facilities at the Tainan Science-Based Industrial Park and near the Chiayi high-speed railway station. The development of these three campuses is called the "Hsinchu Jade Development Plan," and funding for the first phase of the plan is expected to come entirely from outside donations.

Last April, NCTU established a special Hsinchu Jade Development Plan team, led by Lin Chien-cheng, with four full-time staffers for fundraising, and launched a series of fundraising activities. First they invited famous alumni Stan Shih (chairman of the Acer Group) and Huang Ho-ming (chairman of the Institute for Information Industry) to inspect the new Hsinchu site from a hot air balloon, getting NT$25 million in donations. In October, they held the "President's Cup" golf tournament at a course in Hsinchu, raising another NT$4 million-plus. At the end of the year they picked up another NT$4 million at a fundraising dinner, NT$5 million on homecoming day, and so on.

In November of 2001, NCTU established the first integrated fundraising and sales website in Taiwan. The site includes an "enterprise diagnostic center," in which well known alumni such as Stan Shih, Huang Ho-ming, and Nita Ing from time to time provide management advice to alumni.

This September, they came up with the Grains of Sand Project for alumni who commit themselves to fixed donations as fixed intervals. Anyone joining for even one year can become a member of the "Chiao Tung Family Club." That is to say, if an NCTU student donates NT$1200 in a year, or an alumnus donates NT$12,000 in a year, they will be able to purchase products offered through the club at discount prices. Among the recent hot items have been electronics provided by ASUSTeK Computer, Global View, and Weltrend Semiconductor, such as mobile phones, PDAs, and notebook computers, as well as bicycles.

In two months, NCTU has raised NT$15 million with this site. Over the past year, these various events and activities have brought in NT$50 million in donations from school alumni.

Force of circumstance

"On average we visit two company chairmen per day," says Tracy Cheng, a staff member on the Hsinchu Jade Development Plan team. NCTU has graduates spread throughout high-tech industry, and it is estimated that there are about 500 school alumni with positions at the level of chairman or general manager. Although NCTU is a small school, 80% of its alumni are still in Taiwan, and they keep in close touch with each other and with the school.

However, while they have had some success in fundraising, team leader Lin Chien-cheng states that, "Although alumni are the most important resource, you have to develop other sources of funding as well. It is especially difficult to do fundraising in Taiwan, and everybody uses the same old tactics. But it is even more important to set down roots and broaden participation to create regular and long-lasting sources of funds."

If you look very carefully you will see that when universities raise money, sometimes circumstance is more important than people. One often hears about corporations in Taiwan donating money to universities. For example, Chung Hsing University received NT$700 million from alumnus Gerald Hsu, an overseas Chinese entrepreneur in the high-tech industry. National Cheng Kung University and National Taiwan University (NTU) received donations of NT$200 million each to construct new buildings from two of the Wu brothers of the "Tainan gang" of business and political leaders. NCTU alumnus David Lee and Microelectronics Technology Inc. together donated US$5 million to support research. Former Tsing Hua president Shen Chun-shan picked up a donation of several tens of millions in only a single meeting with Robert Tsao, chairman of United Microelectronics.

Moreover, NTU puts another NT$10 million or so on its books at the alumni fundraising dinner every year, not to mention the fact that former ROC president Lee Teng-hui and former vice president Lien Chan, both NTU alumni, have made donations to the school. In fact, there are NTU alumni scattered throughout the top ranks of every profession, and they donate money to their alma mater whenever they can. For example, when the College of Electrical Engineering wanted to put up a new edifice, graduates who are now leading members of the "technobility" in Taiwan provided considerable amounts.

The point of all the above examples is this: National universities that have a long history and tradition, or that emphasize engineering and sciences, are the main beneficiaries of corporate donations.

Commercialization?

Many people agree that donations to universities by social and business leaders are often a case of "gilding the lily." That is to say, the better a school's reputation and the more people recognize and support its academic orientation, the more likely it is to get donations.

But if national universities, especially those that are strong in engineering and the sciences, have the upper hand in fundraising, private universities, which must come up with all of their own revenues, nonetheless have their own independent strategies.

"The approach of private schools is to proceed step by step. They show more consideration in dealing with students and alumni than state-funded schools do," says Chang Kuo-pao of the MOE. He points to the example of Feng Chia University, whose annual alumni meetings-one each for northern, central, and southern Taiwan-often draw more than 3000 participants. "They keep a close eye on their graduates, who in turn feel a sense of lifetime obligation to their alma mater."

John Ning-Yuean Lee, president of Fu Jen University, says that in the 41 years since the founding of the school they have put away a surplus of about NT$4 million per year on average, so their financial position is sound and they can take chances in investing. He says that by just putting the money in the bank and living off the interest, they would have an easy time of it. But every few years the school comes up with a new development plan. The current mid-range plan is to build a medical research building to complement the existing medical school and department of medicine. The estimated cost is more than NT$840 million, with plans to develop an even larger medical complex and residential area beyond that.

John Lee says that because the funding sources of the private universities in Taiwan differ, each should be free to pursue its own academic ideals. Fu Jen, which was founded by the Catholic Church, does not regret spending lots of money on setting up the colleges of medicine and the arts in order to move in the direction of educating "well rounded" individuals.

Although not currently under any financial pressure, Fu Jen is actively fundraising for future development. Last year, they established the Fu Jen University Fund in the US, legally registered with the federal government, to pave the way for fundraising in the States. Over the last year they raised US$67,000 (over NT$2 million) plus a single very large bequest. Added to donations from Taiwan, last year Fu Jen raised almost NT$100 million. John Lee concludes: "You could consider us the 'model student' among private schools."

There is a large gap between government funding of public as opposed to private universities. Seventy percent of the money that goes to higher education subsidizes state universities. John Lee believes that the government should do more to encourage well-run private schools. While these private schools do not need funds to survive, he explains, they do need money to improve the quality of education.

Many private schools feel that the tax incentives in domestic tax law governing private or corporate donations to public vs. private schools are unfair. Both private and corporate donations to state schools are 100% tax deductible, while private donations and corporate donations to private schools are only 50% and 25% tax deductible, respectively.

Chang Kuo-pao explains that the Ministry of Finance sees a donation to a public university as being the same as money given to the government. Private universities, on the other hand, are considered "legal persons," like foundations. If donations to private universities are fully tax deductible, then other legal persons and groups will seek comparable treatment. However, these differences in tax incentives are being altered in the amendments to the private school law that have recently been sent to the legislature for deliberation.

"The biggest problem at private schools is in financial structure. What I mean by that is that tuition and fees provide for more than 60% of outlays. In comparison with universities overseas, this is excessive reliance on tuition and fees," says Chang Kuo-pao. He feels that private universities should step up their efforts in academia-industry cooperation, funding for research, continuing education, and other areas in order to make up their financial shortfall.

Changing social attitudes

It has been six years now that universities have been trying to raise money from donations. Strictly speaking, results have not been impressive. The main reason is that citizens in Taiwan still are not very familiar or comfortable with the idea of donating money to schools.

Tsing Hua secretary-general Yip Ming-chuen says that whereas many people think that it is quite easy for schools that emphasize engineering and science to raise money, that is not necessarily the case. Tsing Hua began raising money for their endowment fund in 1996, but in the first year collected only a few million NT dollars. In that same year, on the other hand, he heard that a Buddhist organization that wanted to found a university was able to raise NT$170 million. "To us that was an astronomical figure, and really illuminates the phenomenon of 'buried treasure among the common people' in Taiwan."

Lin Chien-cheng notes in a similar vein that not long ago he saw a newspaper report in which a temple in Kao-hsiung raised NT$4 billion in just a few months for a renovation project. In fact, generally speaking, people in Taiwan are more familiar with the idea of donations to religious or political groups. At some of the larger temples, believers donate astonishing amounts every year, and the temples boast enormous assets.

An American who participated in the Symposium on Educational Advancement held in June reminded everyone that there are necessarily cultural differences between the US and Taiwan, and that the concepts of donating money and charitable gifts are deeply implanted in American culture. He suggested that besides referring to the strategies of American universities, it is even more important for Taiwan universities to understand how local people feel, to try more things and to make adjustments in order to create the most appropriate approaches.

An example of the American model is Harvard University. At the school's 350th anniversary, they reached their fundraising goal of US$350 million. At that time Harvard established a special committee which targeted 500 big corporations, letting their alumni in these corporations understand that Harvard needs them and that Harvard can give them assistance in their corporate development.

Lin Chien-cheng points out that Harvard's annual budget is NT$40 billion, equivalent to ten state universities in Taiwan. It may be hard for people in Taiwan to believe, but the department at Harvard with the most personnel is the one in charge of fundraising, with 340.

C.Y. Chang, president of National Chiao Tung University, agrees that Taiwan cannot simply follow American methods in fundraising, but must take into account Taiwan's culture. For example, two years ago he worked out a plan with John Hsuan, chairman of United Microelectronics, to create venture capital funds to raise money. Subsequently alumni of NCTU in Taiwan and the US established four venture capital funds, totaling about NT$3 billion, which return more then NT$10 million to the school each year. Besides NCTU , other schools-including Cheng Kung, Sun Yat-sen, and National Taiwan-have all established venture capital funds as a long-term source of income.

Much to be done

Summarizing the experience of fundraising so far, besides the need for creativity in fundraising strategies, it is necessary to strengthen consciousness of the importance of fundraising at universities.

"Universities still have not realized that they will have no choice but to raise funds for the future," says Chang Kuo-pao. Many schools have no one specifically responsible for fundraising and are passive about it; they lack any shopwindow, so that even persons who want to donate money don't know where to send it. While fundraising is a specialized field in itself, universities, being packed with talent as they are, should show better results simply by putting more effort into getting the word out.

"One of the main functions of university presidents in the US is fundraising, whereas in Taiwan in the past, people looked most at the personal character or academic ability of school presidents," says Lin Chien-cheng. In the era of the endowment fund, Taiwan schools will have to recognize that there is a change in the role played by the president. His or her job will be to plan the long-term development of the school, find good faculty, ensure adequate financial resources, and create a first-rate research environment. . . in a word, to come up with the cash.

Lin says that the current situation in American universities is how Taiwan will look in 20 years. That is to say, 20 years from now universities in Taiwan will have to rely on themselves for most of their funding, and the era of low tuition will be over. This is because public and private schools understand that if they accept government subsidies, then they must accept control-over the number of students, tuition, which departments they can have, and so on. Only if there is liberalization of higher education can universities have a future and competitiveness.

The revolutionary task of university fundraising has not yet been a success. But fundraising after all is like a slow trickling stream. So long as a school can earn the respect and admiration of students, alumni, and society, then "one hundred streams will a great ocean make."

p.031

(opposite page) Stanford University has produced many outstanding alumni and helped make Silicon Valley what it is today. Alumni have in turn given generously to the school, making it one of the largest recipients of corporate donations in the US. (above) In order to proceed with its Hsinchu Jade Plan for a new campus, Taiwan's Chiao Tung University is trying to raise NT$150 million; the fundraising team leader is Professor Lin Chien-cheng, seated at left.

p.032

The high-profit high-tech industry has been the focus of appeals for donations from universities in Taiwan, and the industry has proven generous in supporting school development. The photo shows a ceremony at which Taiwan Semiconductor (TSMC) donated money to Tsing Hua University for a new building which will bear the company name. (photo courtesy of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Education and Culture Foundation)

p.033

Schools in Taiwan are exploring new sources of income. One of the hottest new approaches is to offer Executive MBA programs, with tuition fees of NT$10,000 or more per credit.

p.034

"There is buried treasure among the common people." The people of Taiwan have always willingly donated money in times of disaster or to religious or social groups, but they remain "untapped" as a source of funds for universities.

p.036

Universities are the talent pools for corporations, so corporate donations to schools are really beneficial to both parties. The photo shows a computer show; such shows have always been jam-packed sources of profits for the high-tech industry.

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!