台灣社會變遷、衝擊及因應

:::

1989 / 8月

文‧李長貴



台灣地區經四十多年來辛苦經營,使整個社會產生急劇的變化。這個變化即從農業社會的特質,轉變到工業社會、都市社會與現代社會的特質。這些變化又可概括地說,台灣社會的演變,即從:

單純的社會演變到複雜的社會;

一元的社會演變到多元的社會;

封閉的社會演變到開放的社會;

人情的社會演變到制度的社會;

經驗的社會演變到科學的社會;

道德的社會演變到功利的社會;

勤儉的社會演變到享樂的社會;

貧苦的社會演變到富裕的社會;

穩定的社會演變到變化的社會;

台灣社會的演變充滿挑戰和刺激。舊的制度不易容納新的觀念;舊的做法不能滿足新社會的需求;舊的觀念不足維持新發展趨勢的社會所需規範,使整個社會在新舊的交替下,發生不斷的衝突和調適。這些衝突和調適直接表現在社會過程中的人際關係、群際關係、思想觀念、價值行為、生活方式、工作方式等等,使台灣社會進入一個不同於往昔的型態和關係。台灣社會的變遷所帶來最大的衝擊,是政府的行政機關、政黨、企業機構和教育機構。任何團體在此變遷巨流的衝擊,都需要調整它的組織和功能,來適應新社會情勢下的壓力,始能扮演各種團體時代性的功能,否則,這些團體的存在意義、存在價值和貢獻,便會遭遇到質疑和萎縮。本文將探討台灣地區社會的變遷與現代化的衝擊与因應,發展的新型態以及如何建設這個社會的體質,使它更鞏固、更充實、更具實力去發展政治、經濟、教育、國防等等。

一、經濟活動與經濟成就衝擊社會變遷

任何社會的變遷都緊接在政治、經濟、意識型態、觀念、成就動機和大眾傳播的錯綜複雜的交互因素上。

在政治方面,政府在民國七十六年七月宣佈取消戒嚴後,朝向民主化和國際化的政策邁進。以往限制性規範的取消,使整個社會產生不同於往昔的氣氛;社會各方的活躍和活動,突破了以往穩定的社會型態。以往社會穩定所仰賴的傳統、規範、制度、法律、經驗和方法,在自由化的衝擊下,出現社會解體的現象,包括不協調、不和諧、不共識及不合作的政治現象。

台灣地區最能引世人注目者,乃是我們的經濟活動和成就。自民國四十二年起,政府訂定每五年為期的經濟發展計畫,大力推動經濟發展,平均每期都以八.五個百分比的速度成長。台灣經濟的發展,先以改良農業培養工業,先後努力於土地改革,改變了經濟結構和社會結構,使社會穩定的關係產生變化。繼之,改善企業投資環境,大力推動出口;這時期培養了台灣社會的國際觀點,並與國際社會的接觸,大力引進各種科技及現代化的觀念。第三階段即加速現代化,提昇企業經營品質,雖在這一段時間遭遇國際各種衝擊;包括退出聯合國、中日斷交、能源危機、中美斷交等的打擊,加強了更深一層的社會意識及追求社會安全的構想。第四階段乃積極改善企業體質,分散產品市場,推行自由化貿易。這個階段給予社會的刺激乃是主動適應變遷的能力。台灣地區經濟發展的每一階段,都在輸入更多的生產財和新科技。這些均促進了產品的數量和品質,而且陸續推出的新產品漸次地改變了生活的形式、工作方式、組織方式和管理方式,提昇經營能力,使台灣擠入世界十二大貿易國,外匯存底居世界第二位。

當然,經濟的活動和成就,提昇都市社會和工業社會的品質。相對地,農業經濟社會的低成長,產業結構的改變和自動化生產方式的推進,使貧富的差距更懸殊,使社會走入更富裕化、現實化和功利化的社會。貨幣量的增加趨勢,已經帶來通貨膨脹的壓力;固定資產的漲價遠超薪資所得。這會很容易地滋生社會的不滿和不安。

二、文化因素促進變遷速度

由於政府在七十六年七月間宣佈解嚴,同時又提出民主化和國際化的政策,激發台灣社會進入另一個型態的社會。這個社會已經展現更高一層的心理動力,亦即成就動機、活動能力、求勢心理和求變心態。成就動機和活動能力,可以從政治、經濟、學術等方面的活動顯出它們的朝氣,並突破了傳統的法制和制度。成就動機的高漲,充分表現在追求物質化和權力的趨勢;求利的心態改變了社會關係和結構;求勢的心態改變了從屬關係和意識。目前,基層社會六合彩賭風,中層社會投入股票市場的熱潮,嚴重地影響工作意願和勤勞美德,養成不勞而獲的投機心理。這種投機性和侷限性的投資行為,其結果將如何影響社會正常的發展,都是值得深思的問題。

求變的心理是今日社會普遍的現象,這一現象一方面導自於對現實的不滿,而生改變的渴求;另一方面導自於對現實的改進,而求更具績效的結果。人民對政府政策措施的求變願望,以各種突破性的集體行動,干預在正常的社會過程中,使台灣社會變得更活躍、更現實。這種心理相當影響當前的經濟結構、政治結構和社會結構。今日求變的動力已經突破傳統的習俗、制度和規範。所以要重新整頓散發的動力,朝著共同的民主目標,集結整體性的努力和發展,是時代中的重要課題。

三、整合變遷動力強化制度建設

今日台灣社會在民主化與國際化政策的引導下,自由化的衝力已經帶來了亂序現象。今日政府應對國際化和民主化,作通盤的規畫,各別從政治、經濟、外交及社會定出推動的原則和規範,使政府本身與民間能配合無間,以免陷入國際化活動的混亂和矛盾。民主化必須要設計出一套有架構、有規範、有方向、有制度的民主體制,始能縮短民主化認知的差距,且能建立民主社會的秩序。

民主化必然會擴大自由化的活動,自由化的活動必須要有規範可循,始不陷入紊亂。在自由化過程中人民的權益意識及平權化的觀念也會提昇。政府政策的品質及執行政策的品質也必須提昇,才能滿足人民的需求和期待。必須在多元社會訂定公共政策;符合多數民眾的利益;多方溝通政策的重點和執行的程序;增強政策和民意的結合度;減少誤會和無知所帶來的困擾;始能穩定民主社會的發展。

還要調整中介團體的組織和功能,使它們能取得民間的信任和支持。諸如,工會、農會、商會等等團體,在政府與人民之間,扮演符合於民主社會的需求,溝通雙方的情報和利益,調整其間的關係,使工會、農會、商會等團體,能協助人民經濟或社會活動的利益。

(作者現任國立台灣大學工商管理學系教授)

相關文章

近期文章

EN

Change, Conflict, and Response in Taiwan's Society

Chang-Kuei Lee /tr. by Phil Newell


Forty years of laborious undertakings have sparked a dramatic change in the whole society of the Taiwan area. It is moving from an agricultural to an industrial, urban, modernized society. The changes can be summarized as follows:

From a simple to a complex society.

From a unitary to a pluralistic society.

From a closed to an open society.

From an affective to a systematized society.

From an experiential to a scientific society.

From a moral to a meritocratic society.

From a society of hard work and frugality to one of entertainment.

From a poor to a rich society.

From a stable to a changing society.

The changes have caused constant conflict and adjustment between new and old in areas from interpersonal and intergroup relations to values and work habits. Social change has hit hardest on government, political party, enterprise, and educational institutions. Under this impact, all groups must adjust their organizations and functions, or their very raison d'etre will become suspect. This article will explore the causes of this change in society, its new shape, and how it can be made to better consolidate and develop politics, the economy, education, national defense, and so on.

(1) Economic activities and accomplishments have sparked social change.

Change in any society is closely connected to many complex factors of politics, economics, consciousness, outlook, mass media, and achievement motivation.

In politics, the government has moved toward democratization and internationalization since the lifting of martial law in July, 1987. Activism in all areas of society has broken through the past condition of a stable society. Under the impact of liberalization, society has manifested a lack of harmony and consensus as well as a lack of political cooperation.

What has most attracted the attention of the world to the Taiwan area has been economic accomplishments. Taiwan's economy first used agriculture to develop industry, changing the economic and social structure. Succeeding this was export promotion, cultivating an international outlook on Taiwan and bringing in new technology and modernized concepts. The third stage was speeding up of modernization. Despite setbacks, this period strengthened social consciousness and the concepts of social security. The fourth stage has been diversification and internationalization. This has given society stimulation and the ability to adapt to change. These stages have all raised the quantity and quality of products in Taiwan and changed styles of living, work, organization, and management.

Of course, economic activity has raised the quality of urban, industrial life. On the other hand, the low growth of agriculture has widened the gap between rich and poor, and made society more prosperous, realistic, and meritocratic. The increase in the money supply has already brought inflationary pressures; rises in the prices of real estate far exceed rises in salaries. These could easily cause dissatisfaction and unease in society.

(2) Cultural factors influence the pace of change.

The new society sparked by democratization and internationalization has manifested a higher-level psychological dynamic, including motivations for accomplishment, abilities for activities, and power-seeking and change-seeking consciousness. The raising of motivations is manifested in the pursuit of wealth and rights. The pursuit of benefits has changed social relations and structure. The pursuit of power has changed superior-subordinate relations and consciousness. There is a decline in the work ethic and a rise in "get-rich-quick" gambling and speculation.

Change-seeking consciousness is common in today's society. This arises from dissatisfaction with the status quo, or from expectations that improvements in the status quo will continue. People have used all kinds of collective action to seek change in government policies, interrupting normal social processes and making society even more active and calculating.

(3) The overall dynamic of change strengthens system construction.

Democratization and internationalization have already brought disorder. The government should undertake a comprehensive plan to coordinate the government and private sectors to avoid the chaos and contradictions of internationalization. Democratization must have a plan for a systematic, directed democratic structure; only then can differences in understanding of democratization be narrowed.

With democratization comes liberalization, which must have norms to be followed so as not to fall into chaos. In liberalization people's consciousness of rights and equality will be raised. Only by raising the quality of policy and implementation can government satisfy the demands of the people. Only with broad consultation, uniting policy and public opinion and eliminating the obstacles of ignorance and misunderstanding, can the development of a democratic society be stabilized.

The organization and function of intermediate groups must also be adjusted to make them win people's trust and support. Groups like unions, farmers' associations, and business groups stand between government and people and can help in harmonization and communication. These can assist in giving people the benefits of economic and social activity.

 

X 使用【台灣光華雜誌】APP!
更快速更方便!