精雕細琢示衷誠

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1979 / 2月

文‧符福洋 圖‧子敏


蔣總統經國先生於去年蔣公九二誕辰前夕發表了一篇「思親、勵志、報國」的紀念文章,在第一段中寫道:「有一位青年藝術家林聰惠先生,以半年的時間,在花蓮山中發掘了一塊純白光潤的大理石,雕刻了一座父親三尺高的立姿像,長袍策杖,肅立中隱現寧靜,莊嚴中透出慈祥。我敬謹接受他的誠意,恭置在室中桌前案上。」


見像如見人

一位藝術家最大的安慰,應該就是他的作品所發出的光芒,能夠震撼觀賞者的心坎。經國總統在紀念文中說:「每當我在室中工作繁忙,心神難得一靜之際,抬起頭來,和父親雕像雙目相接,頓然覺得父親正以慈祥的口吻,溫諭我要凝神靜氣,舒展襟懷。我又立刻精神振作,生意盎然;或者當我為一個問題深思苦索,思緒紛紜之時,看到父親雕像眼中睿智的光芒,透入心中,我立即思路頓開,迎刃而解。」

大凡藝術品之受人讚賞,完全是因為藝術品本身讓人感覺到有生命的內涵,有至情的流露,有栩栩如生的精神。為了達到這個境界,林聰惠在雕刻的過程中,兢兢業業,可謂艱辛備至。

表現蔣公的睿智與慈祥

林聰惠說:「先總統蔣公一生事親以孝,報國以忠,待人以誠,處事以正,無一時、無一地、無一事,不是以愛國家、愛同胞、愛世界人類為職志。在他老人家的領導下,我們全國同胞一天比一天生活得好,社會也一天比一天進步。雖然蔣公逝世已經三年,但是我們對他的追思和懷念卻與日俱增。而現在的經國總統更是受到全國上下衷心的敬愛。在我的印象中,他永遠都是和我們百姓站在一起。無論是在工廠中或是在田野裡,他從不介意工人手上的油汙,更不嫌棄農民手掌的粗糙,他總是那麼有力、那麼親切的與大家握手,流露出手連手、心連心的情感。人們經常也會在菜場、商店中碰見他,小吃攤的老闆們如果赫然發現經國總統坐在他的攤上吃小吃,除了欣喜,並不會感到太驚訝。」

「經國總統憂民之憂、樂民之樂,平實、踏實的作風,讓我們覺得他是那麼的親切,親切得就好比生活在我們四周的親友一般。儘管近年來國家的處境是那麼艱難,世局的變化又是如此的詭譎,但是在經國總統慎謀果決的帶領下,不僅使國家建設大步前進,且為大家帶來了更大的信心與更好的希望。這當然也改變了國際間對我們的觀感與評價,使得我們的國家更尊嚴更堅定的屹立於世界上。」

只為表現至情

林聰惠並且說明:「我不懂政治,更沒有興趣作官,所以我不必、也不願對任何人或事去歌功頌德。我所以要想到雕刻蔣公的石像,是因為內心蓬勃洶湧的感戴之忱不允許我沉默。我深信所有的國人都與我有類似的感受,只是每個人表達的方式不同而已。」

為了表達對蔣公的崇敬和懷念,為了祝賀經國總統的就職,林聰惠決定用純白的大理石親手雕刻一座蔣公雕像呈送給經國總統。

「大理石」一詞原指雲南大理縣所產的石材,有灰白色或其中夾黑灰色、紅色及棕色等。台灣花蓮所產的質地雖不盡相同,但色澤和樣式類同。用白色大理石雕像最忌有絲毫的雜色,否則雕成的像會有汙漬,極不雅觀。通常要找一尺左右的白色大理石雕像石材尚不困難,二尺多的白色石材就很少了,三尺以上的純白大理石雕像石材則更是可遇而不可求的事。

由於這座雕像代表著不尋常的意義,所以必須要找一塊最好的石材。懷著朝聖般的心情,在民國六十六年的七月他開始入山去尋找。

翻山越嶺找美石

通常他都是清早七點帶著便當從家裡騎機車出發,九點左右到達蘇花公路的和平站後,再轉搭載運石材的大卡車上山。這段上山之路是泥土路,常年被滿載石塊的大卡車輾來輾去,路況非常差,上山的卡車都是空車,顛簸尤其厲害,若要坐在後車廂,不用五分鐘就能把你的早飯全顛出來。所以上山時必須站在後車廂上,雙手得攀緊卡車上的架子,否則隨時有被拋出車外的危險。在車上還得要眼觀八方,注意閃躲隨時迎面拂來的樹枝,倘偶不小心被掃到臉上,雖不至嚴重到需要上整容外科醫院,起碼也會紅腫好幾天。

那段山路曲折狹窄,有很多地方窄到無法會車,只能單向行走,天旱時灰砂蔽日,陰雨則泥濘滿地。十一點左右到達礦區後則全靠步行了。山上天黑得早,林聰惠必須在下午四點鐘前攔住下山的卡車趕回和平站再騎機車回家,在短短的幾小時中,都是為了趕路翻山涉水,有些地方榛狉未啟,根本還沒有人去過。

林聰惠說:「記得有一回為了抄近路,鼓勇通過一條僅容側身而過的羊腸小徑——左邊是峭壁、右邊是數百公尺的深谷,前後幾秒鐘之差,險些被一塊巨大的落石擊中。」

多少艱險

他又說:「還有一次為了多跑一個礦區,到天黑了才攔到一部下山的卡車,又冷、又累、又餓的坐在車上的石頭上,沒想到司機竟像開賽車似的以時速六十公里的速度,在險曲的山路上亡命飛馳,原來需一小時的路程,只花了二十分鐘就跑完了。嚇得我緊閉雙眼,全身發抖,下得車來四肢都軟得不聽指揮了。」

找尋石材的過程並不順利,從六十六年七月到十二月,平均每個月上山最少三次,從入山九公里處最近的礦區,一直往裡找到上山六十三公里處最深最遠的礦區。一次次滿懷著希望上山,卻又一次次失望的下山。去的次數多了,山裡的人都認識他了。大家被他的赤誠所感動,常主動的幫他注意,並提供他消息。

有一次一位熱心的工人告訴他有一塊白色大理石材可能合他的意,他興致勃勃的趕上山去,看了後的確滿意。但是當第二天他準備運下山時適逢落雨,在石材被雨一淋,顯出了一道乾燥時無法發現的裂紋。滿懷高興的心,立如洩了氣的皮球,沉落下來,他真是欲哭無淚,手撫著那道裂紋,沮喪地呆立在雨中。

皇天未負苦心人

林聰惠雖然一直經營著一家大理石加工廠,但家境並不富裕,民國六十四年的一次大颱風,將他的家和工廠全部吹垮了。為了遮風避雨,只好以塑膠布覆在屋頂上,不料膠布承受不了雨水的重量全部掉落下來,林聰惠和他的家人被淋得像落湯雞。

儘管當時家中生活的壓力是那麼沉重,尋找石材時遭到的挫折又這樣多,但是憑著他對創作的執著以及對先總統蔣公的忠誠敬意,在六十六年十二月份,終於讓他找到了一塊六尺見方、四噸重、純白無瑕的大理石材。

林聰惠說:「大理石雕刻不像木雕那樣容易處理,除了先要仔細研究石材的紋路,以免在雕鑿時斷裂外,尚須具備充沛的體力。一隻打粗胚的電鎚就有七公斤重,加上操作加壓時的震動力,握在手中就不止七公斤重了。而且一工作就得好幾小時。塑鑄作品或有增補更改的餘地,然而石雕則不容有絲毫的差錯,它之成為藝術品或廢品,往往僅決定於一刀一鑿的得失。」因此在經過了千辛萬苦找到滿意的石材之後,林聰惠並不敢冒然就動手雕刻。

豐功偉業,仰之彌高

為求能充分表達蔣公慈愛偉大的神韻,林聰惠早先除了蒐集蔣公各種公私生活照片之外,更潛心於蔣公人格修養與學術精要之探討,等一切都瞭然於胸之後,才敢著手雕像。

林聰惠回憶起那段日子說:「每天除了雕石像之外,家中任何事情我都不管。工作一專心,真是連飯吃到口中是什麼味道都不知道了。經常睡到半夜醒來,只要靈感一來,就將外套一披,爬起就工作。雖然太太打趣說我的臉被石粉撲得看起來像做麵包的師傅,孩子們說爸爸的衣服好髒喲,好像做水泥的工人。但是他們深深瞭解這座雕像對我的重要性,也能體諒我的心情,所以我太太毅然的擔起全家的生計,使我沒有後顧之憂,孩子們也特別的乖巧,不打擾我工作。」

手是雕刻家的生命,由於時值冬天,長期連續不斷的從事雕刻,使得林聰惠的十指關節腫漲疼痛,連工具幾乎都無法抓住,林聰惠太太每天早上起來都用熱水幫他浸敷按摩,林聰惠笑嘻嘻的說:「沒想到很有用喔。」

廢寢忘食,終告完工

在全家人的鼓勵和支持下,民國六十七年五月初,這座全高三尺,長袍持杖潔白如玉的蔣公雕像終於完成了。在經國總統就職前,林聰惠親自抱著這座重達二百斤的雕像呈送到總統府。

蔣經國總統在六月十六日給林聰惠的親筆謝函中說:「承以恭刻先君大理石像一座,選材之精,雕工之美,具見足下藉藝術表達對領袖之尊敬之悃誠,深為敬佩。」蔣總統同時又回贈:「永懷領袖」全書一套。

林聰惠出生在金瓜石,自幼就酷愛美術,於花蓮師專畢業後,任教花崗國中。興趣加上不懈的努力,自民國六十一年以來即在藝壇嶄露頭角,當年參加全國教師美展以一個老羊頭襯托「苦」,榮獲第一名。六十六年的抽象作品——「思」,也以免審資格的榮譽,參加第八屆全國美展。六十五年當時的省府主席謝東閔也委請雕刻地藏王菩薩和土地公,奉置在彰化二水示範公墓內。目前在台北國立藝術館正門口的蔣公立像也是林聰惠的傑作。

林聰惠表示,台灣東海岸花蓮台東之間盛產大理石,其範圍綿延約二百公里,礦貯量據專家估計當在三千億公噸,價值至少有數十萬億元。在品質方面,與雲南大理縣所產的幾乎類同,尤其所產的綠色蛇紋石,質地最好,而且兼具自然的色調。除此外尚有黑、白色等之大理石。有這些優厚的條件,今後石雕藝品的發展一定大有前途。但是大理石的開採歷史還短,從事石雕的藝術家也很少,因此在大理石雕刻的領域中,他仍在一個人摸索,不免有些許孤寂之感。儘管如此,儘管林聰惠的先總統蔣公雕像這樣受到囑目,這樣受到好評,他卻仍然待在偏遠的花蓮,也仍然默默地繼續鑽研石雕藝術。

〔圖片說明〕

P.14、P.15

左:林聰惠先生為表達對先總統蔣公之懷念和敬意而精雕之純白大理石雕像。上:蔣經國總統接見林聰惠先生慰勉並面謝其工作之辛勞。

P.16

上右:林聰惠先生在礦場挑選大理石雕材。上中:林聰惠先生為大理石雕像打粗胚情形。上左:林聰惠先生為雕像臉部做細部修飾工作。下:花蓮大理石礦區——蘊藏量高達三千億公噸,極富經濟價值。

P.18

上:林聰惠休閒時全家歡聚快樂融融。

P.19

左:林聰惠得獎作品之一——「苦」。下:林聰惠先生全神貫注於工作。

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EN

Lin Tsung-Hui and His Marble Masterpiece


In commemoration of the 92nd birthday anniversary of his father, the late President Chiang Kai-shek, President Chiang Ching-kuo wrote an article entitled "To Think of My Father, to Persist in Pursuing My Goal, and to Dedicate Myself to My Country." Part of the text reads: "A young sculptor, Lin Tsung-hui, spent six months in the mountains around Hualien looking for a slab of pure white marble, and then carved it into a three-foot full-length standing figure of my father. With long gown and walking stick, father looks aweinspiring but serene, self-assured but benign. I accepted with gratitude and respect the sincere and precious gift from the sculptor and placed it at the front of the desk in my office. When I am busy attending to a complicated task, and perhaps feeling the pressure of responsibility, I raise my head and look at the statue of my father. Suddenly, I feel that he is talking to me in a gentle voice encouraging me to collect my thoughts and relax. I immediately feel refreshed and invigorated. When I am distressed and pondering over some intractable problem, the wisdom which seems to emanate from the eyes of father's statue penetrates into my being, and I suddenly see the solution." Lin Tsung-hui carved the statue of the late Generalissimo as a gift for President Chiang Ching-kuo on his inauguration as President, and as a token of Lin's respect for and enduring remembrance of the great leader. The best known marble in China comes from Tali County in Yunnan Province. Although the marble quarried in Hualien County in eastern Taiwan may not be of the same high quality, it has similar colors and patterns as "Tali stone." Since carving the marble statue of the late President Chiang Kai-shek had unique significance to Lin, he visited the marble quarries near Hualien at least three times a month to look for a piece of material which was worthy of being fashioned into his masterwork. Starting his search in July 1977 in a mood of pilgrimage and sanctity, it was not until December of the same year that he finally found a piece of pure white marble devoid of any surface irregularities, after overcoming discouraging setbacks and even personal danger. "Compared with wood carving, marble carving is very difficult to control. You must carefully consider the grain in the raw material to prevent it from splitting during the chiseling process. You must also have the physical strength to hold the electrical chisel, which weighs about seven kilograms, for several hours at a time. Precision is also very important. Other forms of carving allow some corrections, but in marble, there must not be a single miscalculation. A slip of the chisel or hammer may turn a work of art into a worthless article." His words are a reflection of Michelangelo's 15th century assessment: "The greatest artist has no conception which a single block of marble does not potentially contain within its mass, and only a hand obedient to the mind can penetrate into this image." In an attempt to capture the indomitable spirit of the late Generalissimo, Lin carefully examined the pictures of the great leader from different angles, and browsed through all the writings he could find about the nature of his ideals and the essence of his thoughts. He recalled: "While I was completing the work, the carving of the statue occupied every single moment of my life. My wife made jokes about my powdery appearance which make me look like a baker, and my children chuckled over my untidy clothing. But, understanding the importance of this work to me, my wife willingly undertook the whole responsibility of looking after the family. The children too cooperated to allow me to complete my work without interruption." After he had finished the marble statue in May 1978, Lin personally delivered it to the Presidential Office. President Chiang Ching-kuo remarked in his June 16 hand-written thank you note to Lin: "The refined quality and marvellous virtuosity displayed in the marble sculpture are the best proof of your sincere respect for and loyalty to my Father. I would like to reciprocate by expressing my heartiest appreciation and respects to you." Lin said: "It is the greatest honor possible for an artist to receive the compliments of the national leader of his country." He was greatly encouraged and vowed he would continue to pursue his efforts to perfect his art.

[Picture Caption]

Left: the marble statue of the late Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek Above: President Chiang Ching-kuo receives Lin to express his appreciation for the gift and respect for the sculptor's work.

Above from right: Lin looking for a suitable piece of marble, carving an outline for the statue and applying the finishing touches. Below: the vast resources of marble in the Hualien area.

Above: Lin seen during time set aside to be with his family

Left: Lin's masterpiece: "Bitterness"; below: concentrating on his work.

 

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