不只是治條「水溝」……

:::

1987 / 6月

文‧張靜茹 圖‧鄭元慶



「我要跳淡水河!」

這話在過去是威脅,現在則是笑話——河水太髒了,讓人「寧可」活著。

不過,如果任由河水再髒下去,無論跳不跳河,人們想好好活著的意願,都將備受威脅。

救救淡水河!

英國泰晤土河鮭魚洄遊了,韓國為奧運治漢江,高雄市也花了大筆錢整治愛河。大台北市民看在眼堙A拯救淡水河的呼聲不免日益高張,許多民間團體和學者專家也紛紛起而呼籲。

今年四月,行政院衛生署環保局醞釀已久的「淡水河系汙染防治計畫」,終於報請行政院核定執行。計畫預定在民國八十年讓河川達到夏季無缺氧、無臭,八十四年達到水質分類標準(見圖)。行政院俞國華院長對此事表示了積極的關切,立刻指示所有有關單位協調進行,而由衛生署統籌辦理。於是,從政府到民間,整治淡水河成了人人關注的事。

一城山色半城「河」

如果有機會在驟雨方歇、天光亮麗的傍晚,乘車由高速公路北上;車過泰山收費站,放眼台北盆地,一般人很難不被眼前的景緻感動。

台北盆地被包圍在觀音山、大屯山下,像葉脈般伏貼在這塊土地上的河流,在清洗過的空氣中,泛著金光。

由雪山山脈三千多公尺流來,大漢溪累了,和來自北橫的新店溪緩緩交會在華江橋下;北方青桐山下蛇行而來的基隆河,也在關渡加入這個溫潤的河系,終成跨越桃園、台北縣、市,和基隆市,面積二千七百多平方公里的淡水河流域。

河脈蜿蜒,使這一城山色更加豐腴;同時也滋養了兩岸的四百六十萬人口。這樣的河,是怎麼被我們弄髒的?

誰弄髒的?

你有沒有想過,我們每天刷牙、洗臉、上廁所、洗澡,廚房洗菜、洗米……的汙水,都到那堨h了?

你用的洗衣粉是那一種牌子?洗淨力強卻充滿化學藥劑,或是無汙染的肥皂絲?

用過的保特瓶、保麗龍免洗餐具……,吃剩的食物、果皮,在隨手扔進圾垃袋後,又去了那堙H

「死貓掛樹頭、死狗放水流」,它們最後「流」向何處?

車過中興橋,橋下成千上百的鴨子,鴨糞那堨h了?併裝車載著廢土,又倒在那堙H

北勢溪、淡水河口的養豬場排泄物呢?還有河岸上菜園噴灑過的農藥,隨雨水流向何方?

所有的答案都一樣——他們絕大部分直接、間接(比如雨水排水溝,圾垃場滲漏水)流進了河堙C根據衛生署環保局的統計,淡水河流域大大小小的汙染源有廿幾種之多。

如今河流中、下游的溶氧量(水中含有供生物生存的氧氣),已近於OPPM(乾淨水是9PPM ,魚類生存需2到4PPM)、難怪大部分的河域都成了臭、髒、黑,人人避之唯恐不及的「惡水」。

淡水河是個大水盆嗎?只為接住這許多四面八方來的髒東西而存在?

河的反擊

原本當然不是。

一條河,對於它周圍密密麻麻的「都市森林」,就好比大樓堛漱丰“N氣系統,除了能調節溫度,河面冷空氣的對流,會把大都市每天製造的髒空氣送到外海;河口、沿岸的沼澤,則是富有最佳教育題材的自然生態區;它還有防洪、灌溉、供養水產等功能。

然而一條吃飽了髒東西的河,不但沒法為人們提供這些禮物,還會狠狠反擊——

你有沒有注意到,為什麼每逢雨季,三重、五股總是淹水?

淡水河沿岸一千九百公頃的綠地,比台北市現有公園和公園預定地的總和面積還大;但為什麼大家都往市區的人造公園擠,而無法親近大片的自然公園?

為什麼我們的水源區節節後退;從四十年前,整條淡水河系是隨手可汲回家煮用的水,退至廈門街的水源地、再退到碧潭,如今更捨棄了新店溪,轉而依賴北勢溪的翡翠水庫?

如此下去,誰也不敢保證我們的子孫還會有乾淨的水可喝,或者,得爬到三千公尺的淡水河源頭汲水。

更現實的是,擁有一條讓人掩鼻而過的河,再有錢的城市,也顏面無光;河水直接打擊了它成為現代化國際都市的期望。

治本之「道」——衛生下水道

面對這樣的反擊,我們如何還它河清?

「治本之道當然是先截斷汙染源」,行政院衛生署環保局長莊進源表示,尤其是汙染淡水河最嚴重的家庭廢水、垃圾滲漏水、工廠廢水三項,更是這次整治計畫中的重點。

河不是現在才髒的,事實上,整治工作十幾年前就陸續進行了。民國六十四年,經建會就打算在大台北地區的每個家庭中裝汙水接管,使汙水不再和雨水同樣流入排水溝,再經由大幹管引至汙水處理廠處理,降低汙染後再排放。如此不僅減輕河流的負擔,也避免都市雨水溝藏汙納垢,成為病菌滋生的源頭。

計畫的立意雖佳,卻因經費不足,只能縮小範圍,在台北市內推動。但到目前為止也只有士林、民生社區等少數地方接了家庭汙水管。

成績不佳的主要原因是,要在既有的建築堸竣膠@設施十分麻煩,家庭汙水接管又不像瓦斯、水管,直接影響住家生活,因此大部分家庭的態度是「可有可無」,不願接受接管。

「截流」救急

都市衛生下水道的建立需要時間、經費和共識,而淡水河的沉痾顯然等不了這位醫術雖高的慢郎中。

因此,在這一次的整治當中,衛生下水道工程處只好先窮則變,準備花新台幣二百八十億元,在淡水河流域兩岸埋設大幹管,截住由雨水溝排入河川的汙水,送至即將動工興建的八里汙水廠,處理後再送至外海放流。

預計在民國八十四年完成的這套截流系統,雖能暫時救急,缺點則在雨水、汙水仍然「同流合汙」。一到下雨天,汙水處理廠承受不了這麼多水量,還是得開閘排放。因此,雖然截流系統可截住百分之八十的家庭汙水,「但截流系統完成後,家庭汙水排放管還是要做的」,台北市衛生下水道工程處長宋大同說。

垃圾集中營

經建會則撥出中國石油公司盈餘中的新台幣四十億元,準備解決淡水河的第二個嚴重汙染源——垃圾。

台北市環保局將在今年六月發包,花一億元預算,為基隆河畔內湖垃圾山做防止滲漏、邊坡穩定的工作。

但屬於台北縣、桃園縣的淡水河彼岸,就沒有那麼幸運了。這堛u河都是就地取材的「天然垃圾場」,由三峽、鶯歌、樹林到板橋、新莊,一站站加起來,每天有一千三百噸的垃圾傾向河岸。

衛生署環保局雖然商請各管轄縣市政府,陸續封閉河岸,卻因找不到適當的垃圾場,無法進行。

「誰也不願垃圾場設在自己家門口」,衛生署環保局垃圾處理專案小組袁紹英表示,為解決河畔垃圾,前年就找好四個預定地點做衛生掩埋場。但每個地點,都有附近居民陳情,再加上縣市政府預算少、技術人員不足,以及本位主義——不願別的轄區垃圾送進自己的轄區處理,如此下來,一年多了,還沒有辦法開工。

解決之道當然是「有錢出錢,有地出地」,袁紹英說,現在中央能夠撥款補助,以後要加強的工作是各轄區間的協調。

不怕沒事做

為瞭解決這個問題,法令也已在修訂。新訂條文將垃圾場和住家距離由原來的五十公尺增為二百公尺;環保局也已找好地方開始建造焚化爐。此後,垃圾將先送進焚化爐燒,再送至掩埋廠掩埋,燒過的垃圾量少了,不僅可延長掩埋場壽命,也無惡臭之虞。

至於工業廢水的問題,由於前兩年環保單位對它的排放標準已大致底定。民國七十三年中央、省、市又組成聯合稽查小組,對淡水河畔的九百多家汙染工業工廠進行取締,按日連續處罰。

但河畔仍散置非常多的汙染地下工廠,如大漢溪畔三重、新莊的地下電鍍廠,「有的連門牌號碼都沒有」,環保局三組組長陳榮川說,除非民眾檢舉,否則有關單位很難主動出擊。

「要做的事情實在很多」,陳榮川指出,環保局曾經做過研究發現,淡水河底泥含有毒廢棄物質。但有毒廢棄物如何處理的法令仍在研擬中,一般工廠限於技術、空間,也還無法處理由汙水沉澱出來的毒性汙泥。

發揮團隊精神

除了對症下藥、主動出擊,要有效阻擋汙染源,還得加強團隊工作。例如目前水源區查驗出含有廿七種農藥汙染,而這些農藥卻都是主管機關核准使用的,雖未發現它們對水質有何影響,但水源特定管理區仍希望農業委員會對農藥使用的法令規定能更嚴格。

負責淡水河下游的整治單位則希望林務局能加強上游森林的水土保持,以免發生類似前年青潭堰取水口在颱風天被大量沙石堵住,造成下游住家水源斷絕的事件。

而觀光局擔心整治計畫中,禁止遊客前往水源區,如何為台北市民另闢休閒去處……;衛工處埋設衛生下水道,又需要建設局出面拆除違章建築……。

在整個整治計畫中,每個單位縱的工作已很明確,「但有關單位不能只在自己分內做修補工作,還需橫的聯繫,大家透過協調做全盤檢討」,台灣大學環境工程研究所教授於幼華強調。

支持團隊工作,要有錢才好辦事。去年淡水河水源區養豬戶的遷移,就因補償費用高達台幣一億元而延誤了進度。後來雖遷走了大半,但水源持定區還天天接到催著要補償費的電話。

目前錢的問題由中央出面暫時解決,有人卻擔心,像中油雖撥出四十億盈餘建造垃圾焚化爐,但做好之後,這些公共設施未來的監督、維護費也是問題。立法委員趙少康擔心:「衛生下水道的二百八十億預算用完後呢?」

它不是水溝!

中央大學土木工程系教授歐陽嶠暉則指出:更重要的是,事先避免治河時犯錯,往往能省下大筆冤枉的開支。

舉例來說,目前我們埋設的截流系統主幹管,號稱是世界數一、數二的地下水道工程,但也要考量,埋設時會不會對當地生態、地質造成影響?以後所有家庭汙水都要排到台灣海峽,會不會對近海造成汙染?

截流汙染源後要不要除去河川的底泥?這樣做會不會對生態、水質造成影響?底泥撈起後如何處理?……

為此,國科會在前年成立了大型的淡水河研究計畫,針對這許多問題進行研究,希望提供更多資訊供當局決策時參考,使事情更順利,也減少將來可能付出的社會成本。

「何況我們治理的不只足一條排水溝,不能說疏通它就沒事了」,台灣大學環工所教授游以德提醒大家。大部分學者也都有同樣的看法:大家急著要治河,但淡水河現在像個體重過重,又有心臟病、糖尿病……的患者,不能要求它三個月就能上運動場。

「它需要有計畫、長時間的復健」,在最近一次環境文教品質基金會舉辦的淡水河整治座談會中,學者議論紛紛。

這話顯然有感而發,在一片拯救淡水河的呼聲中,媒體往往籠統強調「X年後,請來淡水河釣魚」,「X年後淡水河可以游泳」,但治河只為這些嗎?淡水河系既廣且長,那一段能游泳、釣魚才算數呢?

怎麼與河相處?

這條河扮演的不只是浪漫、泛舟或休閒、娛樂的角色,在衛生署環保局的整治計畫中,就定出了未來河段分類目標(見圖表),那堸筋馬悀禲B灌溉之用,那堿O生態保護區、遊憩區……,而最實際的近期目標是:四年後,淡水河在夏天不再發臭。

為做到這一點,政府必須投下大量金錢、人力;至於釣魚、游泳,得見清澈的原貌、恢復生態,並且能長遠與我們和平共處,永續利用,「還需要大家都讓點步」,環境生態學者馬以工說。

怎麼讓步?又怎麼與河和平相處?

台大動物系教授林曜松認為,最重要的是減低河岸的開發,建築業者不要虎視眈眈,覬覦有兩個生態保護區的仙渡平原。

將基隆河截彎取直,以獲得較多可利用地的計畫,也值得再考量。前中興大學環工系主任羅光楣解釋,它可能減低河川的自淨能力,而所有汙染物若快速直達河口,也可能沖掉下游花新台幣廿億元整理、規劃的關渡自然公園。

還有我們每一個人——

以後要使用焚化爐處理垃圾,你願意花些時間,先將垃圾分可燃、不可燃二類嗎?能保持垃圾乾燥,將廚餘中的水儘量減到最低,以免傷及焚化爐爐心、減短焚化爐的壽命嗎?

你能少用漂白水或有強力去汙劑的洗衣粉,代之以汙染較輕的肥皂,多花點力氣用手揉搓嗎?

如果衛工處家庭接管線到了你家附近,請你去填申請表,配合時間接管,你會嫌麻煩嗎?

反躬自省

「衛生接管在公寓房子中若有一家不做,就整個不能接」,宋大同指出,我們是政府花錢幫民眾做都乏人問津;要是像國外由家庭自行負責接管及維修費用,就更無從著手了。

你是他口中那個人家出錢幫你做,你都不願接受的人嗎?

如果你們家開工廠,你會花成本做汙染防治嗎?還是仍舊不做,準備好一筆費用等環保局開罰單?如果你接到罰單,你會去向議員陳情,幫你關說、免受處罰嗎……?

要一條乾淨的河,得要我們由提高自己的生活品質開始。

〔圖表〕

P.15

河流殺手有那些?

●家庭汙水

●工、礦業廢水:電鍍、化工、金屬表面處理、陶窯、船解體(油汙)。

●畜牧、水產業廢水:水產養殖、養豬、鴨場。

●服務業:醫事檢驗、照相業(沖洗化學藥水)、洗染……。

●垃圾傾倒、流失與滲漏水。

●農藥、肥料。

●山坡地濫墾、濫建(水土流失)。

●水壩(使河流速減緩、泥沙淤積)。

●落塵、酸雨。

P.20

淡水河系汙染現況

P.20

民國八十四年淡水河系使用分類計畫圖

〔圖片說明〕

P.15

國內環境工程人才有待培養。

P.16

家庭汙水送至汙水處理廠處理後再排放,可減輕淡水河的汙染。圖為迪化汙水處理廠。

P.17

家庭用水是淡水河最主要的汙染源。

P.17

截流系統完成後,我們製造的汙水將由這個涵管送至外海排放。

P.18

畜牧事業廢水是水源區主要汙染源。

P.19

羅列淡水河系兩岸的地下工廠,有待取締和管理。

P.19

福德坑垃圾場,底層鋪有防滲漏水布,和設置滲漏水接管。

P.21

人潮相湧而至,也給河帶來壓力。

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"I'm going to jump in the Tamsui!"

That used to be a threat, but now it's a joke--the river is so dirty even suicides avoid it.

And if it's allowed to keep on getting dirtier, all of us, whether we jump in or not, will be threatened.

This April, the Environmental Protection Bureau in the Department of Health presented its "Recovery Project of the Tamsui River Watershed Area" to the Executive Yuan for approval. The plan calls for the river to become reoxygenated and to lose its odor by 1991 and for its water constituent levels to reach acceptable standards by 1995 (see chart). Premier Yu Kuo-hwa, president of the Executive Yuan, expressed his strong concern for the matter, directed the relevant agencies to take concerted action, and designated the Department of Health as the lead agency for overall planning and implementation.

The Tamsui River basin covers a 2,700-sq.-km. area in Taipei City and Taipei and Taoyuan counties, an area with a population of 4.6 million. . . . How could we let such an important river become so dirty?

Have you ever thought where the dirty water goes every day from our sinks, toilets, and bathtubs? From our washing machines? How about the bags of garbage and trash? Dead cats and dogs? There's more.

The answers are pretty much the same: Most of it, either directly or indirectly (via rain sewers, for example, or runoff from rubbish dumps) winds up in the river. The Environmental Protection Bureau has identified over twenty types of pollutants in the Tamsui river system, and the oxygen content of the water in the river's middle and lower reaches approaches zero.

Is the Tamsui River one big sink?

Originally, of course not.

A river should function as a kind of central cooling system for the surrounding urban areas, regulating the temperature, carrying the dirty air out to sea, and providing flood control, irrigation, and aquatic resource benefits. But a river that has been overstuffed with trash not only fails to offer these gifts, but may fiercely counterattack: Have you noticed how the rainy season floods in Sanchung and Wuku have been growing more and more serious? How our water supply catchments have been steadily receding? Nor is a river that one must hold one's nose to cross any object of pride for a modern, international city.

Faced with this counterattack, how are we planning to clean up the river?

"The road to recovery naturally begins with intercepting the flow of pollutants," says Chuang Chin-yuan, director of the Environmental Protection Bureau, adding that the clean-up project focuses on the three most serious sources of pollution: household sewage, refuse runoff water, and industrial waste water.

In fact, work on a sanitary sewerage system has been going on in the city for a dozen or so years, but because of inadequate resources and unwillingness on the part of homeowners to foot the installation costs, households have been connected up in just a few areas.

As part of the current project, the Health Department plans to build an interception system first, at a cost of NT$28 billion (around US$875 million) to be completed by 1995. Although the interception system will be able to carry 80 percent of the city's domestic sewage, "household sewage lines will still need to be put in, even after the interception system is completed," says T. T. Sung, director of the Taipei Sewerage Engineering Department.

Meanwhile, the Council for Economic Planning and Development has allocated NT$40 billion in profits from the state-run China Petroleum Corporation to solve the problem of the river's second most serious source of pollution--refuse. The Taipei Sewerage Engineering Department will open bidding on an NT$100 million project to prevent runoff from the Neihu refuse dump and to stabilize its slopes. In addition, construction of incineration facilities has begun, and four locations in Taipei and Taoyuan counties have been selected as sites for sanitary refuse burial lots, although work on the lots has not yet commenced.

As to the problem of industrial waste water, industrial waste discharge standards have been established by environmental authorities over the past two years, and a joint investigative squad has been formed by the national, provincial, and municipal governments to take enforcement action against the seven hundred or more factories that pollute the Tamsui.

Simultaneously with the abovementioned steps, coordination of action among agencies must be strengthened. The vertical duties of each agency in the overall plan are quite clear, "but the agencies also have to keep in contact horizontally so that they can all work together as a whole," stresses Wu You-hwa, a professor at National Taiwan University's Institute of Environmental Engineering.

Finances are an important factor in facilitating coordination. The money put up by the national government has solved the problem at present, but some people worry that managing and maintaining the facilities will present a problem in the future. Asks Legislative Yuan Member Chao Shao-k'ang: "What happens after the NT$28 billion budget for the sanitary sewer is used up?"

Ouyang Ch'iao-huei, a professor of civil engineering at National Central University, says that the primary thing is to avoid errors in construction and planning, which can entail needless expenses. For example, he says, the effect of the sanitary sewerage system on the local ecology and particularly on the offshore waters of the Taiwan Strait, where the sewage is to be discharged, must be carefully considered. The National Science Council examined just these questions in a study it recently conducted which it hopes will assist in policy making and in reducing possible future social costs.

"We're not just cleaning up a sewer, where can you can say 'dredge it' and that's that," Professor Ouyang explains. "This river needs planned, long-term rehabilitation."

Health in this case means many things. The Environmental Protection Bureau has established future utilization goals for various sections of the river (see map), such as irrigation, recreation, and public use. . . but the most practical short-term aim is--stopping the river from smelling during the summer within four years. To achieve even this much, the government will have to invest substantial amounts of manpower and capital; as to swimming, fishing, and returning the river to its original state, "those things will require a few concessions on everyone's part," says the ecologist Ma Yi-kung.

What kind of concessions?

The most important, says Lin Yao-sung, a zoology professor at National Taiwan University, is reducing development along the river's banks: builders must keep their hands off the two environmental protection areas in the Hsientu Plain.

And then there's each one of us--

Are you willing to separate out combustible from noncombustible refuse for the incinerator? To scrub a little harder with biodegradable detergent? And when the sanitary sewer comes to your neighborhood, will you fill out the application form to be hooked up? If your family runs a factory, will you pay the costs of pollution control equipment? Or will you set aside money for the fines?

If we want a clean river, we must start by raising our own quality of life.

[Picture]

What Are the Major Pollutants?

●Domestic sewage

●Mining and industrial waste water: electroplating, chemical, and metal surface treatment, ceramic kilns, and shipbreaking.

●Waste water from the livestock and fishing industries: aquaculture, pig farms, and duck farms.

●Service industries: medical examinations, the photography industry (developing chemicals), laundries.

●Refuse dumping, slippage, and runoff.

●Pesticides and fertilizers.

●Over-development and over-construction on hillsides (erosion)

●Dams (retard the flow of the river, producing silt and sediment)

●Particulates and acid rain.

Pollution Conditions in the Tamsui River Watershed (1987)

Categories of Use of the Tamsui River Watershed (1995)

[Picture Caption]

The nation has a need for environmental engineers.

Treating waste water before it is released into the river can reduce the Tamsui's pollution. Pictured is the Tihua water treatment plant.

The major pollutant of the Tamsui is household waste water.

Waste water will flow through this trunkline once the interception system is completed.

Waste water from the livestock industry is also a major pollutant.

Underground factories along the banks of the Tamsui need to be cracked down on.

The refuse dump at Futehkeng is covered with impermeable cloth.

The river also faces pressure from the crowds that visit its banks.

 

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